Cross National Time Series
Banks' Cross-National Time-Series Data Archive
Variables and Variable Locations (* indicates computer-calculated items)
Not all of the country labels are invariant through time. Alternative labels are utilized, as follows, for the periods indicated:
Austrian Empire for Austria-Hungary, 1815-1866 Dahomey for Benin, 1960-1974 Central African Republic for Central African Empire, 1960-1975 Republic of China for China, 1912-1948 Congo (Brazzaville) for Congo Republic, 1960-1970 Santo Domingo for Dominican Republic, 1844-1921 United Arab Republic for Egypt, 1958-1960 Abyssinia for Ethiopia, 1898-1935 Persia for Iran, 1815-1913 Cambodia for Kampuchea, 1953-1970 Khmer Republic for Kampuchea, 1971-1974 Malagasy Republic for Madagascar, 1960-1970 Federation of Malaya for Malaysia, 1957-1962 Vietnam Republic for South Vietnam, 1954-1974 Ceylon for Sri Lanka, 1948-1970 Tanganyika for Tanzania, 1961-1962 Siam for Thailand, 1815-1913 Ottoman Empire for Turkey, 1815-1913 Russia for USSR, 1815-1913 Yemen for Yemen Arab Republic, 1921-1961 South Yemen for Yemen PDR, 1967-1969 Congo (Kinshasa) for Zaire, 1960-1970 Rhodesia for Zimbabwe Rhodesia, 1965-1978
Country codes are invariant through time.
S02F1 Area in Square Kilometers
Scaling: 1000 Area data were initially assembled in either square kilometers (Field S02F1) or square miles (Field S02F2) and converted from one to the other on the basis of the factors .3861 (from K2 to M2) and 2.590 (from M2 to K2). As in a limited number of other original data fields (identified below), where an unusually large number of individual sources were consulted, no bibliographic references are provided for most of the area data. A substantial portion of the latter for the earlier years were, however, derived from the Almanach de Gotha, the Journal of the Royal Statistical Society (London), and The Statesman's Yearbook. Entries with < tag in the bibliographic column are unscaled.
S02F2 Area in Square Miles
Scaling: 1000 Entries with < tag in the bibliographic column are unscaled.
Scaling: 0.1 Field S02F4 (population density) is calculated directly from Fields S02F2 (area in square miles) and S02F3 (population).
S02F5 Area of Empire in Square Miles
Scaling: 1000 Area and population of empire data are provided for only 13 countries: Austria-Hungary, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Portugal, Russia, Spain, Turkey (Ottoman Empire), United Kingdom, and United States, thus omitting a few marginal cases such as the dual monarchies of Denmark-Iceland (to 1944) and Sweden-Norway (to 1905). For the Austro-Hungarian, Ottoman, and Russian Empires, the core territories and imperial domains are contiguous, hence the data in Fields S02F5, S02F6, and S02F7 duplicate those in Fields S02F1, S02F2, and S02F3, respectively. The other ten countries are more conventionally identified as "colonial" powers, most of whose possessions are non-contiguous "overseas" territories.
S02F6 Population of Empire
S02F7*Population Density of Empire
Scaling: 0.1 Field S02F7 (population density of empire) is calculated directly from Fields S02F5 (area of empire in square miles) and S02F6 (population of empire).
S03F1 Population, Cities of 100,000 & Over
Scaling: 1000 Urbanization data. Fields S03F1, S03F3, S03F5, and S03F7 (plus Field S04F2 ) give aggregate population figures for cities of 100,000 and over, 50,000 and over, 25,000 and over, and 10,000 and over. Thus "cities of 50,000 and over" includes "cities of 100,000 and over", "cities of 25,000 and over" includes "cities of 50,000 and over" in addition to "cities of 100,000 and over", and so forth. Fields S03F2, S03F4, and S03F6 (plus Fields S04F1 and S04F3) give per capita data for the same classes of cities. The inclusion of data for cities of 20,000 and over as well as for cities of 25,000 and over was originally mandated by a lack of uniformity in reporting categories in the sources utilized. Since preparation of the original version of the file, however, a series of missing data estimates, proportionally calculated across urbanization categories, have been prepared. The procedure for calculating these entries (identified by an "F" in the tag column) is discussed in Banks and Carr, op. cit. In assembling the urbanization data, considerable difficulty was encountered with regard to the definition of "city" or "urban area". Insofar as possible, data for core cities or urban areas are employed, excluding greater metropolitan or suburban populations. In cases where the reference units are not adequately defined, every effort has been made to cross-check the relevant figures against those reported in other sources. It cannot be claimed, however, that the reliability problem is completely surmounted, particularly for recent years, when deliberate redefinition by reporting agencies has tended to yield longitudinal discontinuities.
S03F2*Population, Cities of 100,000 & Over Per Capita
S03F3 Population, Cities of 50,000 & Over
S03F4*Population, Cities of 50,000 & Over Per Capita
S03F5 Population, Cities of 25,000 & Over
S03F6*Population, Cities of 25,000 & Over Per Capita
S03F7 Population, Cities of 20,000 & Over
S04F1*Population, Cities of 20,000 & Over Per Capita
S04F2 Population, Cities of 10,000 & Over
S04F3*Population, Cities of 10,000 & Over Per Capita
S04F6*National Gov't Revenue & Expenditure
Scaling: 1000 Field deals with national government revenue and expenditure, calculated directly from fields S05F2 and S05F5. In U.S. dollars
S04F6*National Gov't Revenue & Expenditure
S04F7*National Gov't Revenue & Expenditure Per Capita
Scaling: 0.01 Field S04F7 (national government revenue and expenditure per capita) is also a dependent (calculated) field based on fields S04F5 and S04F6. In U.S. dollars
S05F1 National Gov't Revenue
Scaling: 1000 This segment deals with national government revenue and expenditure, exclusive of "extraordinary" expenditures financed by direct foreign aid or loans. Fields S05F2 and S05F5 contain national government revenue and expenditure data, respectively. Fields S05F3 and S05F5 contain the same items on a per capita basis. Field S05F7 contains the ratio of national defense expenditure to total national expenditure. The term "national government" should be construed as referring exclusively to central government. Thus, monies collected and dispersed locally by national government agencies (as in certain unitary systems) are, wherever possible, excluded. Revenue and expenditure data, particularly when expressed in U.S. dollar equivalents, are peculiarly susceptible to both random and systematic error. Such data contained in the Cross-National Times-Series Data Archive file are no exception, and should be used with appropriate caution. The possibility of error could, of course, have been substantially reduced had conversion to a common currency unit not been attempted, but the resultant lack of comparability would severely limit the utility of the data in question. In general, official rates of exchange are employed only when deviations therefrom are presumed to be minimal. Otherwise, free (occasionally black) market rates are employed, except in cases of such extreme fluctuation as to preclude the assembly of meaningful series. Needless to say, the overwhelming proportion of data omitted for this reason occurs in the 1919-1939 period. Since the British pound sterling was the principal basis of international exchange in the pre-World War I period, most data for the period were assembled accordingly and were converted into dollar equivalents at the rate of 4.87 dollars per pound. Some data for 1.919-1939 and most data for the post-World War II period were assembled by means of direct conversion to dollar equivalents. It should be noted that here, as elsewhere, there are no "base-year" figures; in other words, there is no adjustment for incremental inflation/ deflation in either the British pound (before 1919) or the U.S. dollar (after 1919). Since 1973, IMF average period market rates have been utilized wherever feasible.
S05F2 National Gov't Revenue
S05F3*National Gov't Revenue Per Capita
S05F5 National Gov't Expenditure
S05F6*National Gov't Expenditure Per Capita
Scaling: 0.01 In U.S. dollars
S05F7 National Defense Expenditure/National Gov't Expenditure
Scaling: 10000 This segment is composed entirely of trade data, exclusive of transshipments and bullion transfers. Field S06F2 containing imports. Field S06F5 containing exports. Field S06F6 contain the same items on a per capita basis. Field S06F7 contains a periodic update of the proportion of world trade (imports and exports) for each country for each year. Since the denominator employed is simply a summation of imports and exports for all independent nations included in the archives it falls somewhat short of being a total summation of world trade. It may be assumed, however, that the proportion contributed by non-independent territories for most years is relatively small. As in the case of the revenue and expenditure data, conversion to U.S. dollar equivalents involves a certain degree of risk as regards the introduction of both random and systematic error, but without such conversion the data would be largely worthless for comparative purposes.
S06F3*Imports Per Capita
Scaling: 0.01 In U.S. dollars
S06F6*Exports Per Capita
Scaling: 0.01 In U.S. dollars
S06F7*Proportion of World Trade
S07F1 Energy Production, Metric Tons Coal Equivalent
Scaling: 1000 This segment deals with energy (production and consumption) and national defense expenditure. Fields S07F1 and S07F3 contain data on overall energy production and consumption, respectively, as conventionally measured in metric tons of coal equivalent. Fields S07F2 and S07F4 contain the same items in kilograms per capita. United Nations definitions are employed throughout: Production data are based on the production of coal, lignite, crude petroleum, natural gas and hydro and nuclear energy; where peat used as fuel is important, it is included with coal and lignite. Consumption data are based on the apparent consumption of coal, lignite, petroleum products, natural gas and hydro and nuclear energy. Coke, manufactured gas and electricity internally traded are considered to have been consumed by the importing country. Bunkers supplied to foreign-going ships are excluded from consumption. (UN Statistical Yearbook: 1971, p. 44). Field S07F5 embraces national defense expenditure, as calculated from fields S05F4, S05F5 and S05F7. While deriving the data in this way unquestionably results in some loss of precision, the latter was not considered sufficiently consequential to offset the added labor required to assemble collateral data directly from external sources. Field S07F6 contains the Field S07F5 data converted to per capita form.
S07F2*Energy Production in Kilograms Per Capita
S07F3 Energy Consumption, Metric Tons Coal Equivalent
S07F4 Energy Consumption, in Kilograms Per Capita
S07F5*National Defense Expenditure
S07F6*National Defense Expenditure Per Capita
S08F1 Percent GDP Originating in Industrial Activity
Location 442-450 Coverage 1905-1981 This segment contains industrial, labor force, and size of military data. Field S08F1 contains percent GDP originating in industrial activity, while field S08F2 contain the same information on a per capita basis. "Industrial activity" is defined as embracing categories 2-4 of the revised (1968) International Standard Industrial Classification of all Economic Activities (ISIC), which include mining and quarrying; manufacturing; and electricity, gas, and water. Fields S08F3-S08F5 contain percent work force engaged in agriculture, industry, and other activity, respectively. "Industry" is here defined as embracing revised ISIC categories 2-3 and 5, which include mining and quarrying; manufacturing; and construction, while "agriculture" is defined in terms of revised ISIC category 1, which includes agriculture, forestry, and fishing. "Other activity" is simply the sum of the foregoing subtracted from 100%. It should be noted that certain sources report on "civilian labor force employed" while others report on "number of employees" (based on statistics of establishments). The latter normally embrace only a limited portion of the labor force and, for that reason, have not been utilized. Field S08F6 contains data on size of the military, while field S08F7 contains the same information on a per capita basis. The "military" is defined as embracing all active-duty members of a nation's armed forces (army, navy, air corps) and excludes all semi- or paramilitary forces, save in a limited number of cases (such as Japan and Panama) where de facto military establishments are not formally acknowledged. In the case of Switzerland, which does not maintain a continuously active military establishment, estimates of active-duty reserves are utilized.
S08F2*Per Capita GDP Originating in Industrial Activity
In U.S. dollars
S08F3 Percent Work Force in Agriculture
S08F4 Percent Work Force in Industry
S08F5 Percent Work Force in Other Activity
S08F6 Size of Military
S08F7*Size of Military/Population
S09F1 Railroad Mileage
This segment contains industrial, labor force, and size of military data. Field S09F1 contains percent GDP originating in industrial activity, while field S09F2 contain the same information on a per capita basis. "Industrial activity" is defined as embracing categories 2-4 of the revised (1968) International Standard Industrial Classification of all Economic Activities (ISIC), which include mining and quarrying; manufacturing; and electricity, gas, and water. Fields S09F3-S09F5 contain percent work force engaged in agriculture, industry, and other activity, respectively. "Industry" is here defined as embracing revised ISIC categories 2-3 and 5, which include mining and quarrying; manufacturing; and construction, while "agriculture" is defined in terms of revised ISIC category 1, which includes agriculture, forestry, and fishing. "Other activity" is simply the sum of the foregoing subtracted from 100%. It should be noted that certain sources report on "civilian labor force employed" while others report on "number of employees" (based on statistics of establishments). The latter normally embrace only a limited portion of the labor force and, for that reason, have not been utilized. Field S09F6 contains data on size of the military, while field S09F7 contains the same information on a per capita basis. The "military" is defined as embracing all active-duty members of a nation's armed forces (army, navy, air corps) and excludes all semi- or paramilitary forces, save in a limited number of cases (such as Japan and Panama) where de facto military establishments are not formally acknowledged. In the case of Switzerland, which does not maintain a continuously active military establishment, estimates of active-duty reserves are utilized.
S09F2*Railroad Mileage Per Square Mile
S09F4 Rail Passenger-Kilometers
S09F6 Rail Ton-Kilometers
S09F7*Rail Ton-Miles Per Capita
S10F1 Passenger Cars
Scaling: 1000 This segment deals with highway vehicles. Fields S10F1 and S10F3 are based on the total number of passenger and commercial vehicles, respectively, while fields S10F2 and S10F4 contain the same two items in per capita form. Field S10F5 (all highway vehicles) is the sum of fields S10F1 and S10F3, while field S10F6 is based on all highway vehicles per capita. Motorcycles and motorized construction equipment are excluded from all categories of this segment. Taxis (though technically "commercial vehicles") are counted as passenger cars. Buses, vans, lorries, etc., are all classified as commercial vehicles, even though some may be privately owned and not used for commercial purposes.
S10F2*Passenger Cars Per Capita
S10F3 Commercial Vehicles
S10F4*Commercial Vehicles Per Capita
S10F5*All Highway Vehicles
S10F6*All Highway Vehicles Per Capita
S11F1 Telegraph Mileage
Scaling: 100 Field S11F1 of this segment deals with telegraph mileage, the latter being defined as miles of line (both public and private), rather than as miles of wire. Telegraph mileage per square mile is given in field S11F2. It may be noted that virtually no data could be found for either variable for the post-World War II period, presumably reflecting the declining importance of the telegram as a means of communication during the contemporary era. Fields S11F4 and S11F5 deal with the number of telegrams and telegrams per capita, respectively. In both cases, every effort has been made to report purely domestic telegraphic activity, excluding foreign sent and received, as well as in-transit messages. However, in some cases (particularly in the pre-World War I period) the sources do not adequately distinguish between the several message categories, and occasional over-reporting may be expected. The latter is a serious reliability problem as regards certain Latin American countries during the latter years of the nineteenth century, when an unusually high proportion of telegrams fall into the foreign-sent and foreign-received categories. The number of telephones and telephones per capita are located in fields S11F6 and S11F7, and, generally speaking, exhibit a high degree of reliability because of their ultimate source: the reasonably accurate local telephone directory. It should be noted, however, that there is some likelihood of under-reporting in the early years of telephonic communication, when a disproportionate number of instruments were owned or operated by private businesses and government offices.
S11F2*Telegraph Mileage Per Square Mile
S11F5*Telegrams Per Capita
S11F7*Telephones Per Capita
S12F1 First Class Mail (with next field, 17 digits)
Scaling: 1000 Only the first four fields of this segment contain data, and all four involve mail flow information. Fields S12F1 and S12F3 deal with first class mail and all mail, respectively, while fields S12F2 and S12F4 deal with the same items on a per capita basis. As in the case of telegraphic communication, the coding criteria call for the exclusion of foreign sent/received and in-transit items, although in cases where official government figures are used, at least some foreign items appear to be included. Newspapers carried by mail are included as bona fide (non-first class) postal matter, but since figures for the latter are occasionally lacking, some discrepancies are to be expected in the "all mail" category. Post cards are, of course, construed as "first class" items and prior to World War I constituted a large part of the latter class of mail in many European countries (most notably Germany).
S12F2 First Class Mail
S12F3*First Class Mail Per Capita
S12F4 All Mail (with next field, 17 digits)
S12F5 All Mail
S12F6*All Mail Per Capita
Scaling: 1000 Fields S13F1 and S13F3 of this segment contain data on radio and television sets, respectively, while fields S13F2 and S13F4 deal with the same items on a per capita basis. Field S13F is devoted to newspaper circulation per capita, field S13F6 concerns book production by number of titles published, and field S13F7 deals with the latter on a per capita basis. All data in this segment are for comparatively recent years (the earliest, number of radio receivers, goes back only to 1938, while the most recent, television receivers, dates from 1960). There is a tendency for news circulation to be under-reported, since data for weekly and biweekly publications are not included. It should also be noted that book production figures generally include children's and school text books, and are not restricted to either first edition or hardbound titles. It should be emphasized, however, that the data reference only number of titles, not volumes in print.
S13F2*Radios Per Capita
S13F3 Television Sets
S13F4*Television Sets Per Capita
S13F5 Daily Newspaper Circulation Per Capita
S13F6 Book Production by Titles
S13F7*Book Production by Titles Per Capita
S14F1 Primary School Enrollment
Scaling: 1000 All of the fields in this segment, as well as the first four fields of Segment 15 deal with school enrollment. Fields S14F1 and S14F3 contain data on primary and secondary enrollment, respectively, while fields S14F2 and S14F4 deal with the same items on a per capita basis. Field S14F5 aggregates fields S14F1 and S14F3, yielding primary and secondary enrollment, while field S14F6 presents the same data in per capita form. Field S14F7 offers primary enrollment as a proportion of primary and secondary enrollment. Although significant improvement has been registered in recent years as regards the standardization of reporting categories in educational statistics, many difficulties remain in attempting to assemble truly comparable data, particularly of a longitudinal character. Insofar as possible, data on preprimary, vocational or technical, part-time, and adult education students have been omitted from the archive listings. With the foregoing exceptions, every efforts has been made to assemble data on the basis of relevant UNESCO criteria: First level: Education whose main function is to provide basic instruction in the tools of learning (e.g., at elementary school, primary school). Its length may vary from 4 to 9 years, depending on the organization of the school system in each country. Second level: Education based upon at least four years of previous instruction at the first level, and providing general or specialized instruction, or both (e.g., at middle school, secondary school, high school, . . . ). Third level: Education which requires, as a minimum condition of admission, the successful completion of education at the second level, or evidence of the attainment of an equivalent level of knowledge (UN Statistical Yearbook: 1971, p. 774). Regrettably, the UN criteria for categorizing second-level instruction changed during 1964-65. In general, 1964 "secondary level" figures are equated with 1965 and later "second level: general" education figures, but not uniformly so. Also, the omission of vocational education introduces an element of bias, since more and more contemporary students are being enrolled in this category, especially in the socialist countries.
S14F2*Primary School Enrollment Per Capita
S14F3 Secondary School Enrollment
S14F4*Secondary School Enrollment Per Capita
S14F5 Primary + Secondary School Enrollment
S14F6*Primary + Secondary School Enrollment Per Capita
S14F7*Primary/Primary + Secondary School Enrollment
S15F1 University Enrollment
Scaling: 1000 Fields S15F1 and S15F3 of this segment deal with university and total school enrollment, respectively, while fields S15F2 and S15F4 report the same items on a per capita basis. Field S15F5 contains literacy data, calculated, wherever possible, on the basis of non-literates, 15 years of age and over. Literacy is defined in the UN Demographic Yearbook (from which most of the post-World War II data are extracted) as "ability both to read and to write". While this is not an entirely adequate definition, it is unrealistic to assume that the caliber of most reporting agencies could sustain a more precise one. Indeed, for the limited amount of pre-World War I literacy data that is included in the file, overall reliability must be assessed with extreme caution. Field S15F6 deals with inhabitants per physician, while its reciprocal (physicians per capita) appears in field S15F7. The latter is deemed a somewhat more useful cross-national indicator than the former (which appears in the UN Statistical Yearbook), since the direction of the array, for most countries, accords with that of other "developmental" indicators (tending to yield positive rather than negative correlation coefficients).
S15F2*University Enrollment Per Capita
S15F3*All School Enrollment
S15F4*All School Enrollment Per Capita
S15F5 Percent Literate
S15F6 Inhabitants Per Physician
S15F7*Physicians Per Capita
S16F1 National Income Per Capita
This segment contains data on components of national income and currency. Field S16F1 is devoted-to national income per capita, field S16F2 to gross domestic product (at factor cost) per capita, and field S16F3 to gross national product (at market prices) per capita. These three basic components of aggregate product are defined as follows: Gross national product at market prices is the market value of the product, before deduction of provisions for the consumption of fixed capital, attributable to the factors of production supplied by normal residents of the given country. It is identically equal to the sum of consumption expenditure and gross domestic capital formation, private and public, and the net exports of goods and services plus the net factor incomes received from abroad. Gross domestic product at factor cost is the value at factor cost of the product, before deduction of provisions for the consumption of fixed capital, attributable to factor services rendered to resident producers of the given country. It differs from the gross domestic product at market prices by the exclusion of the excess of indirect taxes over subsidies. National income is the some of the incomes accruing to factors of production supplied by normal residents of the given country before deduction of direct taxes. (UN Yearbook of National Accounts Statistics: 1969, V. 1, P. xi). The interrelationships of the three aggregates are as follows: GNP at market prices less net factor income from abroad and indirect taxes net of subsidies equals GDP at factor cost. The latter, in turn, less depreciation, plus net factor income from abroad, equals national income (ibid, p. 819). All data for these three indices for the period 1970-1973 are estimated because of changes in the above definitions in 1970, which make current aggregate product figures inconsistent with earlier figures. Field S16F4 deals with per capita currency in circulation, expressed in U.S. dollars at the free market rate, save in a limited number of cases where the free rate tends very closely to approximate the official rate. Field S16F5 gives the age of a nation's currency in months. "Age" is defined in terms of the number of months that have elapsed since the introduction of a new monetary system or since an upward or downward revaluation of 5% or more. In cases of multiple revaluations totaling 5% or more during a given year, the count of months is from the last such revaluation. Field S16F6 gives a nation's official exchange rate, expressed in local currency per U.S. dollar. Field S16F7 gives the free or black market rate in local currency per U.S. dollar, primarily as reported (since 1946) in Pick's Currency Yearbook.
S16F2 Gross Domestic Product Per Capita (Factor Cost)
In U.S. dollars
S16F3 Gross National Product Per Capita (Market Prices)
In U.S. dollars
S16F4 Currency in Circulation Per Capita
Scaling: 0.01 In U.S. dollars
S16F5 Age of Currency in Months
S16F6 Official Exchange Rate, Local Currency Per $U.S.
S16F7 Free of Black Market Rate, Local Currency Per $U.S.
All seven fields of Segment 17 (plus field S18F1) contain domestic conflict event data. While no bibliographic tags are utilized in connection with these data, all are derived from the daily files of The New York Times. The eight variable definitions (adopted from Rudolph J. Rummel, "Dimensions of Conflict Behavior Within and Between Nations", General Systems Yearbook, VIII [19631, 1-50) are as follows: Assassinations. Any politically motivated murder or attempted murder of a high government official or politician.
S17F2 General Strikes
Any strike of 1,000 or more industrial or service workers that involves more than one employer and that is aimed at national government policies or authority.
S17F3 Guerrilla Warfare
Any armed activity, sabotage, or bombings carried on by independent bands of citizens or irregular forces and aimed at the overthrow of the present regime.
S17F4 Government Crises
Any rapidly developing situation that threatens to bring the downfall of the present regime - excluding situations of revolt aimed at such overthrow.
Any systematic elimination by jailing or execution of political opposition within the ranks of the regime or the opposition.
Any violent demonstration or clash of more than 100 citizens involving the use of physical force.
Any illegal or forced change in the top governmental elite, any attempt at such a change, or any successful or unsuccessful armed rebellion whose aim is independence from the central government.
S18F1 Anti-Government Demonstrations
Any peaceful public gathering of at least 100 people for the primary purpose of displaying or voicing their opposition to government policies or authority, excluding demonstrations of a distinctly anti-foreign nature.
S18F2*Weighted Conflict Index
The weighted conflict index is calculated in the following manner: Multiply the value of the number of Assassinations by 24, General Strikes by 43, Guerrilla Warfare by 46, Government Crises by 48, Purges by 86, Riots by 102, Revolutions by 148, Anti-Government Demonstrations by 200. Sum the 8 weighted values and divide by 9. The result is the value (with decimal) stored as the Weighted Conflict Index.
S18F3 Voter Turnout
S18F4 Registered Voters
Scaling: 1000 Fields S18F4-S18F7 contain electoral data. Fields S18F4 and S18F6 give, on the one hand, the number of registered voters (in some cases, such as the United States, those eligible to register and vote), and, on the other, the number of valid votes cast (for the most recent election during the year in question) for the lower house of the national legislature. Fields S18F5 and S18F7 deal with the same items on a per capita basis.
S18F6 Votes Cast, Lower House of Legislature
S18F7*Votes Cast, Lower House of Legislature/Population
S19F1 Number of Seats, Largest Party in Legislature
This segment deals primarily with the legislative process. Field S19F1 contains the number of seats held by the largest party in the lower house of each country's national assembly. Field S19F2 contains the total number of seats in the lower house, except in cases where no parties exist (or did not exist at the last election), where a zero is entered (in such cases the absence of a legislature is indicated by zero entries in fields S19F3 and S19F4). In one-party systems with legislative membership in excess of 999, the latter figure is employed in fields S19F1 and S19F2. Fields S19F3-S19F6 contain ordinal-scaled data.
S19F2 Size of Legislature (Lower House)
S19F3 Effectiveness of Legislature
(3) Effective (2) Partly Effective (1) Largely Ineffective (0) No Legislature It may be noted that the data in field S19F3 are substantively similar to the data in field S22F4. The two data sets are not, however, identical. They were initially coded at different times and incorporated into the file as components of different sub-files. Nonetheless, it is anticipated that the contents of field S19F3 of this segment will, at some future date, be deleted for reason of redundancy.
S19F4 Competitiveness of Nominating Process
(3) Competitive (2) Partly Competitive (1) Essentially Non-Competitive (0) No Legislature
S19F5 Party Coalitions
(3) More than one party, no coalitions (2) More than one party, government coalition, opposition (1) More than one party, government coalition, no opposition (0) No coalition, no opposition
S19F6 Party Legitimacy
(3) No parties excluded (2) One or more minor or "extremist" parties excluded (1) Significant exclusion of parties (or groups) (0) No parties, or all but dominant party and satellites excluded
S19F7 Size of Legislature/Number of Seats, Largest Party
Scaling: 0.01 Field 7 is an index of seats held by the largest party, obtained by dividing field S19F2 by field S19F1. The principal reason for calculating the index in this manner (rather than as a percentage of seats held) is to ensure that the indices for countries with no parties (or no legislatures) and countries with one-party systems will be adjacent, rather than at opposite extremes of the array. Thus a country with no parties has a score of 0, a one-party system has a score of 1.0, a system with 40 out of 100 seats held by the majority party has a score of 2.5, etc.
S20F1 Composite Index, Items 120-123
The first three fields of this segment contain secondary data derived from items appearing in Segment 19. Field S20F1 is a total of the ordinal scores contained in fields S19F3-S19F6 and, as such, may be construed as a simple, non-factoral, measure of political polyarchy or pluralism. Field S20F2 contains seven-year averages of the data in field S19F7, while field S20F3 contains seven-year totals of the data in field S20F1.
S20F2 Seven-Year Average, Item 124
S20F3 Seven-Year Total, Item 125
S20F5 Party Fractionalization Index
Scaling: 0.0001 Field S20F5 is a party fractionalization index, based on the formula proposed by Douglas Rae in "A Note on the Fractionalization of Some European Party Systems", Comparative Political Studies, 1 (October 1968), 413-418. The index is constructed as follows: m F = 1 - sum (ti)2 i=l where ti = the proportion of members associated with the ith party in the lower house of the legislature.
S20F7 Type of Regime
Field S20F7, together with all seven fields of Segment 21 and the first six fields of Segment 22, embrace 14 nominal and ordinal political variables coded as follows: Type of Regime (1) Civilian. Any government controlled by a nonmilitary component of the nation's population. (2) Military-Civilian. Outwardly civilian government effectively controlled by a military elite. Civilians hold only those posts (up to and including that of Chief of State) for which their services are deemed necessary for successful conduct of government operations. An example would be retention of the Emperor and selected civilian cabinet members during the period of Japanese military hegemony between 1932 and 1945. (3) Military. Direct rule by the military, usually (but not necessarily) following a military coup détat. The governing structure may vary from utilization of the military chain of command under conditions of martial law to the institution of an ad hoc administrative hierarchy with at least an upper echelon staffed by military personnel. (4) Other. All regimes not falling into one or another of the foregoing categories, including instances in which a country, save for reasons of exogenous influence, lacks an effective national government. An example of the latter would be Switzerland between 1815 and 1848.
S21F1 Number of Coups d'Etat
The number of extraconstitutional or forced changes in the top government elite and/or its effective control of the nation's power structure in a given year. The term "coup" includes, but is not exhausted by, the term "successful revolution". Unsuccessful coups are not counted.
S21F2 Number of Major Constitutional Changes
The number of basic alterations in a state's constitutional structure, the extreme case being the adoption of a new constitution that significantly alters the prerogatives of the various branches of government. Examples of the latter might be the substitution of presidential for parliamentary government or the replacement of monarchical by republican rule. Constitutional amendments which do not have signficant impact on the political system are not counted.
S21F3 Head of State
(1) Monarch. Chief of state is a monarch (either hereditary or elective) or a regent functioning on a monarch's behalf. (2) President. Chief of state is a president who may function as chief executive or merely as titular head of state, in which case he will possess little effective power. The presiding officer of a legislative assembly or state council may qualify for the coding, even though the formal title may be that of "chairman". (3) Military. A situation in which a member of the nation's armed forces is recognized as the formal head of government. In case of conflict between (2) and (3), coding is determined on the basis of whether the incumbent's role is intrinsically military or civilian in character. (4) Other. In practice, this category is used when no distinct head of state can be identified. It includes any distinct head of state not included in (1)-(3), such as a theocratic ruler, as well as non-military bodies serving in a collegial capacity.
(1) Formal executive is premierial. (2) Formal executive is non-premierial.
S21F5 Effective Executive (Type)
Refers to the individual who exercises primary influence in the shaping of most major decisions affecting the nation's internal and external affairs. The "other" category may refer to a situation in which the individual in question (such as the party first secretary in a Communist regime) holds no formal governmental post, or to one in which no truly effective national executive can be said to exist. (1) Monarch (2) President (3) Premier (4) Military (5) Other
S21F6 Effective Executive (Selection)
(1) Direct E)(!Election. Election of the effective executive by popular vote or the election of committed delegates for the purpose of executive selection. (2) Indirect Election. Selection by an elected assembly or by an elected but uncommitted electoral college. (3) Nonelective. Any means of selection not involving a direct or indirect mandate from an electorate.
S21F7 Degree of Parliamentary Responsibility
Refers to the degree to which a premier must depend on the support of a majority in the lower house of a legislature in order to remain in office. (0) Irrelevant. Office of premier does not exist. (1) Absent. Office exists, but there is no parliamentary responsibility. (2) Incomplete. The premier is, at least to some extent, constitutionally responsible to the legislature. Effective responsibility is, however, limited. (3) Complete. The premier is constitutionally and effectively dependent upon a legislative majority for continuance in office.
S22F1 Size of Cabinet
Refers to the number of ministers of "cabinet rank", excluding undersecretaries, parliamentary secretaries, ministerial alternates, etc. Include president and vice-president under a presidential system, but not under a parliamentary system. Chiefs of state excluded, except under presidential system.
S22F2 Number of Cabinet Changes
The number of times in a year that a new premier is named and/or 50% of the cabinet posts are occupied by new ministers.
S22F3 Changes in Effective Executive
The number of times in a year that effective control of the executive Dower changes hands. Such a change requires that the new executive be independent of his predecessor.
S22F4 Legislative Effectiveness
(0) None. No legislature exists. (1) Ineffective. There are three possible bases for this coding: first, legislative activity may be essentially of a "rubber stamp" character; second, domestic turmoil may make the implementation of legislation impossible; third, the effective executive may prevent the legislature from meeting, or otherwise substantially impede the exercise of its functions. (2) Partially Effective. A situation in which the effective executives power substantially outweighs, but does not completely dominate that of the legislature. (3) Effective. The possession of significant governmental autonomy by the legislature, including, typically, substantial authority in regard to taxation and disbursement, and the power to override executive vetoes of legislation.
S22F5 Legislative Selection
(0) None. No legislature exists. (1) Nonelective. Examples would be the selection of legislators by the effective executive, or by means of heredity or ascription. (2) Elective. Legislators (or members of the lower house in a bicameral system) are selected by means of either direct or indirect popular election.
S22F6 Number of Legislative Elections
The number of elections held for the lower house of a national legislature in a given year.
S22F7 International Status Ranking (S&S)
Field S22F7 together with segment 23 (fields S23F1-S23F7) embraces eight international status indicators developed by J. David Singer and Melvin Small in "The Composition and Status Ordering of the International System: 1815-1940,11 World Politics, 18 (January 1966), 236-282. Singer and Small provide entries, in each case, for every fifth year. Yearly estimates were calculated and are provided in the Cross-National Time-Series Data Archive file for the basic variable, "International Status, Composite Score", which appears in field S23F2 of this segment. For a discussion of these data and the coding criteria employed, see Singer and Small, "The Composition and Status Ordering of the International System: 1815-1940", World Politics, 18 (January 1966), pp.236-282. Singer and Small provide entries for every fifth year; we have added yearly estimates for field S23F2.
S23F1 International Status, Case Size
S23F2 International Status, Composite Score
S23F3 International Status, Composite Standardized Score
S23F4 International Status, Quintile
S23F5 International Status, Weighted Rank
S23F6 International Status, Weighted Status Ordering
S23F7 International Status, Weighted Quintile
S24F1 Electric Power Production (kWh)
Scaling: 1000000 This segment deals with components of industrial production. Field S24F1 gives electric power production in millions of kilowatt hours. Insofar as possible, the data include production for both public and private purposes, and cover both thermal and hydroelectric output, thus reflecting total gross generation of electricity, excluding station use and transmission losses. Field S24F2 gives the same information in per capita form. Field 3 contains data on crude steel production, including, insofar as possible, both ingots and steel for castings, whether obtained from pig-iron or scrap. Wrought (puddled) iron is generally excluded. Field S24F4 gives the same data in per capita form. Field S24F5 contains data on the total production of hydraulic cements used for construction-purposes (portland, metallurgic, aluminous, natural, etc.). Field S24F6 gives the same data in per capita form.
S24F2*Electric Power Production (kWh) Per Capita
S24F3 Steel Production (metric tons)
S24F4*Steel Production (metric tons) Per Capita
S24F5 Cement Production (metric tons)
S24F6*Cement Production (metric tons) Per Capita
S25F1 International Reserves, less Gold, in $US
S25F2 Gold Reserves, Fine Troy Ounces
S25F3 Gold Reserves, end-of-year $US
S25F4 Gold Reserves, in $US, as % of Total Reserves
S25F5 External Public Debt (Disbursed) in $US
S25F6 Consumer Prices, 1975=100
S25F7 Consumer Prices, % Change over Previous Year
S26F1*% Annual Change Population
Scaling: .01 All of the fields in these segments contain derived data of a percent annual increase character, based on a set of 25 variables selected from those described above. Calculation is by means of a special computer routine called DELTA, which is described elsewhere.
S26F2*% Annual Change Population Density
S26F3*% Annual Change Population, Cities of 100,000 & Over Per Capita
S26F4*% Annual Change Population, Cities of 50,000 & Over Per Capita
S26F5*% Annual Change National Government Revenue Per Capita
S26F6*% Annual Change National Government Expenditure Per Capita
S26F7*% Annual Change Imports Per Capita
S27F1*% Annual Change Export Per Capita
S27F2*% Annual Change National Gov't Revenue & Expenditure Per Capita
S27F4*% Annual Change Railroad Mileage Per Square Mile
S27F5*% Annual Change All Highway Vehicles Per Capita
S27F6*% Annual Change Telegraph Mileage Per Square Mile
S27F7*% Annual Change Telegrams Per Capita
S28F1*% Annual Change Telephones Per Capita
S28F2*% Annual Change All Mail Per Capita
S28F3*% Annual Change Daily Newspaper Circulation Per Capita
S28F4*% Annual Change Primary School Enrollment Per Capita
S28F5*% Annual Change Secondary School Enrollment Per Capita
S28F6*% Annual Change Prim+Sec School Enrollment Per Capita
S28F7*% Annual Change University Enrollment Per Capita
S29F1*% Annual Change Energy Production in Kilograms Per Capita
S29F2*% Annual Change Energy Consumption in Kilograms Per Capita
S29F3*% Annual Change Percent GDP Originating In Industrial Activity
S29F4*% Annual Change Per Capita GDP Originating In Industrial Activity
S29F5*% Annual Change Percent Work Force in Agriculture
S29F6*% Annual Change Percent Work Force in Industry
S29F7*% Annual Change Rail Passenger-Kilometers
S30F1*% Annual Change Radios Per Capita
S30F2*% Annual Change Percent Literate
S30F3*% Annual Change Physicians Per Capita
S30F4*% Annual Change Gross Domestic Product Per Capita
S30F5*% Annual Change Gross National Product Per Capita
S30F6*% Annual Change Currency in Circulation Per Capita
S30F7*% Annual Change Age of Currency in Months