Cross National Time Series

Banks' Cross-National Time-Series Data Archive

Variables and Variable Locations (* indicates computer-calculated items)

country/year

Not all of the country labels are invariant through time. Alternative labels are utilized, as follows, for the periods indicated:

      Austrian Empire for Austria-Hungary, 1815-1866
      Dahomey for Benin, 1960-1974
      Central African Republic for Central African Empire, 1960-1975
      Republic of China for China, 1912-1948
      Congo (Brazzaville) for Congo Republic, 1960-1970
      Santo Domingo for Dominican Republic, 1844-1921
      United Arab Republic for Egypt, 1958-1960
      Abyssinia for Ethiopia, 1898-1935
      Persia for Iran, 1815-1913
      Cambodia for Kampuchea, 1953-1970
      Khmer Republic for Kampuchea, 1971-1974
      Malagasy Republic for Madagascar, 1960-1970
      Federation of Malaya for Malaysia, 1957-1962
      Vietnam Republic for South Vietnam, 1954-1974
      Ceylon for Sri Lanka, 1948-1970
      Tanganyika for Tanzania, 1961-1962
      Siam for Thailand, 1815-1913
      Ottoman Empire for Turkey, 1815-1913
      Russia for USSR, 1815-1913
      Yemen for Yemen Arab Republic, 1921-1961
      South Yemen for Yemen PDR, 1967-1969
      Congo (Kinshasa) for Zaire, 1960-1970
      Rhodesia for Zimbabwe Rhodesia, 1965-1978

code

  Country codes are invariant through time.

S02F1 Area in Square Kilometers

  Scaling: 1000

  Area data were initially assembled in either square kilometers (Field
  S02F1) or square miles (Field S02F2) and converted from one to the other
  on the basis of the factors .3861 (from K2 to M2) and 2.590 (from M2 to
  K2).  As in a limited number of other original data fields (identified
  below), where an unusually large number of individual sources were
  consulted, no bibliographic references are provided for most of the area
  data.  A substantial portion of the latter for the earlier years were,
  however, derived from the Almanach de Gotha, the Journal of the Royal
  Statistical Society (London), and The Statesman's Yearbook.  Entries
  with < tag in the bibliographic column are unscaled. 

S02F2 Area in Square Miles

  Scaling: 1000

  Entries with < tag in the bibliographic column are unscaled.    

S02F3 Population

  Scaling: 1000

S02F4*Population Density

  Scaling: 0.1

  Field S02F4 (population density) is calculated directly from Fields
  S02F2 (area in square miles) and S02F3 (population).

S02F5 Area of Empire in Square Miles

  Scaling: 1000

  Area and population of empire data are provided for only 13 countries:
  Austria-Hungary, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Netherlands,
  Portugal, Russia, Spain, Turkey (Ottoman Empire), United Kingdom, and
  United States, thus omitting a few marginal cases such as the dual
  monarchies of Denmark-Iceland (to 1944) and Sweden-Norway (to 1905).
  For the Austro-Hungarian, Ottoman, and Russian Empires, the core
  territories and imperial domains are contiguous, hence the data in
  Fields S02F5, S02F6, and S02F7 duplicate those in Fields S02F1, S02F2,
  and S02F3, respectively. The other ten countries are more conventionally
  identified as "colonial" powers, most of whose possessions are
  non-contiguous "overseas" territories.

S02F6 Population of Empire

  Scaling: 1000

S02F7*Population Density of Empire

  Scaling: 0.1

  Field S02F7 (population density of empire) is calculated directly from
  Fields S02F5 (area of empire in square miles) and S02F6 (population of
  empire). 

S03F1 Population, Cities of 100,000 & Over

  Scaling: 1000

  Urbanization data.  Fields S03F1, S03F3, S03F5, and S03F7 (plus Field
  S04F2 ) give aggregate population figures for cities of 100,000 and
  over, 50,000 and over, 25,000 and over, and 10,000 and over.  Thus
  "cities of 50,000 and over" includes "cities of 100,000 and over",
  "cities of 25,000 and over" includes "cities of 50,000 and over" in
  addition to "cities of 100,000 and over", and so forth.  Fields S03F2,
  S03F4, and S03F6 (plus Fields S04F1 and S04F3) give per capita data for the same classes of cities.

  The inclusion of data for cities of 20,000 and over as well as for
  cities of 25,000 and over was originally mandated by a lack of
  uniformity in reporting categories in the sources utilized.  Since
  preparation of the original version of the file, however, a series of
  missing data estimates, proportionally calculated across urbanization
  categories, have been prepared.  The procedure for calculating these
  entries (identified by an "F" in the tag column) is discussed in Banks
  and Carr, op. cit.

  In assembling the urbanization data, considerable difficulty was
  encountered with regard to the definition of "city" or "urban area".
  Insofar as possible, data for core cities or urban areas are employed,
  excluding greater metropolitan or suburban populations.  In cases where the reference units are not adequately defined, every effort has been
  made to cross-check the relevant figures against those reported in other
  sources.  It cannot be claimed, however, that the reliability problem is
  completely surmounted, particularly for recent years, when deliberate
  redefinition by reporting agencies has tended to yield longitudinal
  discontinuities.

S03F2*Population, Cities of 100,000 & Over Per Capita

      Scaling: 0.001

S03F3 Population, Cities of 50,000 & Over

      Scaling: 1000

S03F4*Population, Cities of 50,000 & Over Per Capita

      Scaling: 0.001

S03F5 Population, Cities of 25,000 & Over

      Scaling: 1000

S03F6*Population, Cities of 25,000 & Over Per Capita

      Scaling: 0.001

S03F7 Population, Cities of 20,000 & Over

      Scaling: 1000

S04F1*Population, Cities of 20,000 & Over Per Capita

      Scaling: 0.001

S04F2 Population, Cities of 10,000 & Over

      Scaling: 1000

S04F3*Population, Cities of 10,000 & Over Per Capita

      Scaling: 0.001

S04F6*National Gov't Revenue & Expenditure

      Scaling: 1000

  Field deals with national government revenue and expenditure,
  calculated directly from fields S05F2 and S05F5.  In U.S. dollars

S04F6*National Gov't Revenue & Expenditure

      Scaling: 1000

S04F7*National Gov't Revenue & Expenditure Per Capita

      Scaling: 0.01

  Field S04F7 (national government revenue and expenditure per capita) is
  also a dependent (calculated) field based on fields S04F5 and S04F6.  In
  U.S. dollars

S05F1 National Gov't Revenue

      Scaling: 1000

  This segment deals with national government revenue and expenditure,
  exclusive of "extraordinary" expenditures financed by direct foreign aid
  or loans.  Fields S05F2 and S05F5 contain national government revenue and
  expenditure data, respectively.  Fields S05F3 and S05F5 contain the
  same items on a per capita basis.  Field S05F7 contains the ratio of
  national defense expenditure to total national expenditure.  The term
  "national government" should be construed as referring exclusively to
  central government.  Thus, monies collected and dispersed locally by
  national government agencies (as in certain unitary systems) are,
  wherever possible, excluded.

  Revenue and expenditure data, particularly when expressed in U.S.
  dollar equivalents, are peculiarly susceptible to both random and
  systematic error.  Such data contained in the Cross-National
  Times-Series Data Archive file are no exception, and should be 
  used with appropriate caution.  The possibility of error could, of course, have been

  substantially reduced had conversion to a common currency unit not been

  attempted, but the resultant lack of comparability would severely limit

  the utility of the data in question.

  In general, official rates of exchange are employed only when deviations

  therefrom are presumed to be minimal.  Otherwise, free (occasionally

  black) market rates are employed, except in cases of such extreme

  fluctuation as to preclude the assembly of meaningful series.  Needless

  to say, the overwhelming proportion of data omitted for this reason

  occurs in the 1919-1939 period.

  Since the British pound sterling was the principal basis of

  international exchange in the pre-World War I period, most data for the

  period were assembled accordingly and were converted into dollar

  equivalents at the rate of 4.87 dollars per pound.  Some data for

  1.919-1939 and most data for the post-World War II period were assembled

  by means of direct conversion to dollar equivalents.  It should be noted

  that here, as elsewhere, there are no "base-year" figures; in other

  words, there is no adjustment for incremental inflation/ deflation in

  either the British pound (before 1919) or the U.S. dollar (after 1919).

  Since 1973, IMF average period market rates have been utilized wherever

  feasible.

S05F2 National Gov't Revenue

S05F3*National Gov't Revenue Per Capita

      Scaling: 0.01

S05F5 National Gov't Expenditure

      Scaling: 1000

S05F6*National Gov't Expenditure Per Capita

      Scaling: 0.01


  In U.S. dollars

S05F7 National Defense Expenditure/National Gov't Expenditure

      Scaling: 0.001

S06F2 Imports

      Scaling: 10000


  This segment is composed entirely of trade data, exclusive of

  transshipments and bullion transfers.  Field S06F2 containing imports.  

  Field S06F5 containing exports.  Field  S06F6 contain the same items 

  on a per capita basis.


  Field S06F7 contains a periodic update of the proportion of world trade

  (imports and exports) for each country for each year.  Since the

  denominator employed is simply a summation of imports and exports for

  all independent nations included in the archives it falls somewhat short

  of being a total summation of world trade.  It may be assumed, however,

  that the proportion contributed by non-independent territories for most

  years is relatively small.  As in the case of the revenue and

  expenditure data, conversion to U.S. dollar equivalents involves a

  certain degree of risk as regards the introduction of both random and

  systematic error, but without such conversion the data would be largely

  worthless for comparative purposes.

S06F2 Imports

S06F3*Imports Per Capita

      Scaling: 0.01


  In U.S. dollars

S06F5 Exports

      Scaling: 10000

S06F6*Exports Per Capita

      Scaling: 0.01


  In U.S. dollars

S06F7*Proportion of World Trade

      Scaling: 0.00001

S07F1 Energy Production, Metric Tons Coal Equivalent

      Scaling: 1000


  This segment deals with energy (production and consumption) and national

  defense expenditure.  Fields S07F1 and S07F3 contain data on overall

  energy production and consumption, respectively, as conventionally

  measured in metric tons of coal equivalent.  Fields S07F2 and S07F4

  contain the same items in kilograms per capita.


      United Nations definitions are employed throughout:


          Production data are based on the production of coal, lignite,

  crude petroleum, natural gas and hydro and nuclear energy; where peat

  used as fuel is important, it is included with coal and lignite.

  Consumption data are based on the apparent consumption of coal, lignite,

  petroleum products, natural gas and hydro and nuclear energy.  Coke,

  manufactured gas and electricity internally traded are considered to

  have been consumed by the importing country.  Bunkers supplied to

  foreign-going ships are excluded from consumption. (UN Statistical

  Yearbook: 1971, p. 44).


  Field S07F5 embraces national defense expenditure, as calculated from

  fields S05F4, S05F5 and S05F7. While deriving the data in this way

  unquestionably results in some loss of precision, the latter was not

  considered sufficiently consequential to offset the added labor required

  to assemble collateral data directly from external sources.


  Field S07F6 contains the Field S07F5 data converted to per capita form.

S07F2*Energy Production in Kilograms Per Capita

S07F3 Energy Consumption, Metric Tons Coal Equivalent

      Scaling: 1000

S07F4 Energy Consumption, in Kilograms Per Capita

S07F5*National Defense Expenditure

      Scaling: 10000

S07F6*National Defense Expenditure Per Capita

S08F1 Percent GDP Originating in Industrial Activity

      Location 442-450        Coverage 1905-1981


  This segment contains industrial, labor force, and size of military

  data.  Field S08F1 contains percent GDP originating in industrial

  activity, while field S08F2 contain the same information on a per capita

  basis.  "Industrial activity" is defined as embracing categories 2-4 of

  the revised (1968) International Standard Industrial Classification of

  all Economic Activities (ISIC), which include mining and quarrying;

  manufacturing; and electricity, gas, and water.

  Fields S08F3-S08F5 contain percent work force engaged in agriculture,

  industry, and other activity, respectively.  "Industry" is here defined

  as embracing revised ISIC categories 2-3 and 5, which include mining and

  quarrying; manufacturing; and construction, while "agriculture" is

  defined in terms of revised ISIC category 1, which includes agriculture,

  forestry, and fishing.  "Other activity" is simply the sum of the

  foregoing subtracted from 100%.

  It should be noted that certain sources report on "civilian labor force

  employed" while others report on "number of employees" (based on

  statistics of establishments).  The latter normally embrace only a

  limited portion of the labor force and, for that reason, have not been

  utilized.

  Field S08F6 contains data on size of the military, while field S08F7

  contains the same information on a per capita basis.  The "military" is

  defined as embracing all active-duty members of a nation's armed forces

  (army, navy, air corps) and excludes all semi- or paramilitary forces,

  save in a limited number of cases (such as Japan and Panama) where de

  facto military establishments are not formally acknowledged.  In the

  case of Switzerland, which does not maintain a continuously active

  military establishment, estimates of active-duty reserves are utilized.

S08F2*Per Capita GDP Originating in Industrial Activity

  In U.S. dollars

S08F3 Percent Work Force in Agriculture

      Scaling: 0.1

S08F4 Percent Work Force in Industry

      Scaling: 0.1

S08F5 Percent Work Force in Other Activity

      Scaling: 0.1

S08F6 Size of Military

      Scaling: 1000

S08F7*Size of Military/Population

      Scaling: 0.0001

S09F1 Railroad Mileage

  This segment contains industrial, labor force, and size of military

  data.  Field S09F1 contains percent GDP originating in industrial

  activity, while field S09F2 contain the same information on a per capita

  basis.  "Industrial activity" is defined as embracing categories 2-4 of

  the revised (1968) International Standard Industrial Classification of

  all Economic Activities (ISIC), which include mining and quarrying;

  manufacturing; and electricity, gas, and water.

  Fields S09F3-S09F5 contain percent work force engaged in agriculture,

  industry, and other activity, respectively.  "Industry" is here defined

  as embracing revised ISIC categories 2-3 and 5, which include mining and

  quarrying; manufacturing; and construction, while "agriculture" is

  defined in terms of revised ISIC category 1, which includes agriculture,

  forestry, and fishing.  "Other activity" is simply the sum of the

  foregoing subtracted from 100%.

  It should be noted that certain sources report on "civilian labor force

  employed" while others report on "number of employees" (based on

  statistics of establishments).  The latter normally embrace only a

  limited portion of the labor force and, for that reason, have not been

  utilized.

  Field S09F6 contains data on size of the military, while field S09F7

  contains the same information on a per capita basis.  The "military" is

  defined as embracing all active-duty members of a nation's armed forces

  (army, navy, air corps) and excludes all semi- or paramilitary forces,

  save in a limited number of cases (such as Japan and Panama) where de

  facto military establishments are not formally acknowledged.  In the

  case of Switzerland, which does not maintain a continuously active

  military establishment, estimates of active-duty reserves are utilized.

S09F2*Railroad Mileage Per Square Mile

      Scaling: 0.0001

S09F3*Rail Passenger-Miles

      Scaling: 1000000

S09F4 Rail Passenger-Kilometers

      Scaling: 1000000

S09F5*Rail Ton-Miles

      Scaling: 1000000

S09F6 Rail Ton-Kilometers

      Scaling: 1000000

S09F7*Rail Ton-Miles Per Capita

      Scaling: 0.1

S10F1 Passenger Cars

      Scaling: 1000


  This segment deals with highway vehicles.  Fields S10F1 and S10F3 are

  based on the total number of passenger and commercial vehicles,

  respectively, while fields S10F2 and S10F4 contain the same two items in

  per capita form.  Field S10F5 (all highway vehicles) is the sum of

  fields S10F1 and S10F3, while field S10F6 is based on all highway

  vehicles per capita.

  Motorcycles and motorized construction equipment are excluded from all

  categories of this segment.  Taxis (though technically "commercial

  vehicles") are counted as passenger cars.  Buses, vans, lorries, etc.,

  are all classified as commercial vehicles, even though some may be

  privately owned and not used for commercial purposes.

S10F2*Passenger Cars Per Capita

      Scaling: 0.00001

S10F3 Commercial Vehicles

      Scaling: 1000

S10F4*Commercial Vehicles Per Capita

      Scaling: 0.00001

S10F5*All Highway Vehicles

      Scaling: 1000

S10F6*All Highway Vehicles Per Capita

      Scaling: 0.00001

S11F1 Telegraph Mileage

      Scaling: 100


  Field S11F1 of this segment deals with telegraph mileage, the latter

  being defined as miles of line (both public and private), rather than as

  miles of wire.  Telegraph mileage per square mile is given in field

  S11F2. It may be noted that virtually no data could be found for either

  variable for the post-World War II period, presumably reflecting the

  declining importance of the telegram as a means of communication during

  the contemporary era.  Fields S11F4 and S11F5 deal with the number of

  telegrams and telegrams per capita, respectively.  In both cases, every

  effort has been made to report purely domestic telegraphic activity,

  excluding foreign sent and received, as well as in-transit messages.

  However, in some cases (particularly in the pre-World War I period) the

  sources do not adequately distinguish between the several message

  categories, and occasional over-reporting may be expected.  The latter

  is a serious reliability problem as regards certain Latin American

  countries during the latter years of the nineteenth century, when an

  unusually high proportion of telegrams fall into the foreign-sent and

  foreign-received categories.

  The number of telephones and telephones per capita are located in fields

  S11F6 and S11F7, and, generally speaking, exhibit a high degree of

  reliability because of their ultimate source: the reasonably accurate

  local telephone directory.  It should be noted, however, that there is

  some likelihood of under-reporting in the early years of telephonic

  communication, when a disproportionate number of instruments were owned

  or operated by private businesses and government offices.

S11F2*Telegraph Mileage Per Square Mile

      Scaling: 0.0001

S11F4 Telegrams

      Scaling: 1000

S11F5*Telegrams Per Capita

      Scaling: 0.001

S11F6 Telephones

      Scaling: 100

S11F7*Telephones Per Capita

      Scaling: 0.00001

S12F1 First Class Mail (with next field, 17 digits)

      Scaling: 1000


  Only the first four fields of this segment contain data, and all four

  involve mail flow information.  Fields S12F1 and S12F3 deal with first

  class mail and all mail, respectively, while fields S12F2 and S12F4 deal

  with the same items on a per capita basis.

  As in the case of telegraphic communication, the coding criteria call

  for the exclusion of foreign sent/received and in-transit items,

  although in cases where official government figures are used, at least

  some foreign items appear to be included.


  Newspapers carried by mail are included as bona fide (non-first class)

  postal matter, but since figures for the latter are occasionally

  lacking, some discrepancies are to be expected in the "all mail"

  category.  Post cards are, of course, construed as "first class" items

  and prior to World War I constituted a large part of the latter class of

  mail in many European countries (most notably Germany).

S12F2 First Class Mail

S12F3*First Class Mail Per Capita

      Scaling: 0.001

S12F4 All Mail (with next field, 17 digits)

      Scaling: 1000

S12F5 All Mail

S12F6*All Mail Per Capita

      Scaling: 0.001

S13F1 Radios

      Scaling: 1000


  Fields S13F1 and S13F3 of this segment contain data on radio and

  television sets, respectively, while fields S13F2 and S13F4 deal with

  the same items on a per capita basis.  Field S13F is devoted to

  newspaper circulation per capita, field S13F6 concerns book production

  by number of titles published, and field S13F7 deals with the latter on

  a per capita basis.  All data in this segment are for comparatively

  recent years (the earliest, number of radio receivers, goes back only to

  1938, while the most recent, television receivers, dates from 1960).

  There is a tendency for news circulation to be under-reported, since

  data for weekly and biweekly publications are not included.  It should

  also be noted that book production figures generally include children's

  and school text books, and are not restricted to either first edition or

  hardbound titles.  It should be emphasized, however, that the data

  reference only number of titles, not volumes in print.

S13F2*Radios Per Capita

      Scaling: 0.0001

S13F3 Television Sets

      Scaling: 10

S13F4*Television Sets Per Capita

      Scaling: 0.00001

S13F5 Daily Newspaper Circulation Per Capita

      Scaling: 0.0001

S13F6 Book Production by Titles

S13F7*Book Production by Titles Per Capita

S14F1 Primary School Enrollment

      Scaling: 1000


  All of the fields in this segment, as well as the first four fields of

  Segment 15 deal with school enrollment.  Fields S14F1 and S14F3 contain

  data on primary and secondary enrollment, respectively, while fields

  S14F2 and S14F4 deal with the same items on a per capita basis.  Field

  S14F5 aggregates fields S14F1 and S14F3, yielding primary and secondary

  enrollment, while field S14F6 presents the same data in per capita form.

  Field S14F7 offers primary enrollment as a proportion of primary and

  secondary enrollment.


  Although significant improvement has been registered in recent years as

  regards the standardization of reporting categories in educational

  statistics, many difficulties remain in attempting to assemble truly

  comparable data, particularly of a longitudinal character.  Insofar as

  possible, data on preprimary, vocational or technical, part-time, and

  adult education students have been omitted from the archive listings.

  With the foregoing exceptions, every efforts has been made to assemble

  data on the basis of relevant UNESCO criteria:


  First level: Education whose main function is to provide basic

  instruction in the tools of learning (e.g., at elementary school,

  primary school).  Its length may vary from 4 to 9 years, depending on

  the organization of the school system in each country.


  Second level: Education based upon at least four years of previous

  instruction at the first level, and providing general or specialized

  instruction, or both (e.g., at middle school, secondary school, high

  school, . . . ).


  Third level: Education which requires, as a minimum condition of

  admission, the successful completion of education at the second level,

  or evidence of the attainment of an equivalent level of knowledge (UN

  Statistical Yearbook: 1971, p. 774).


  Regrettably, the UN criteria for categorizing second-level instruction

  changed during 1964-65.  In general, 1964 "secondary level" figures are

  equated with 1965 and later "second level: general" education figures,

  but not uniformly so. Also, the omission of vocational education

  introduces an element of bias, since more and more contemporary students

  are being enrolled in this category, especially in the socialist

  countries.

S14F2*Primary School Enrollment Per Capita

      Scaling: 0.0001

S14F3 Secondary School Enrollment

      Scaling: 1000

S14F4*Secondary School Enrollment Per Capita

      Scaling: 0.0001

S14F5 Primary + Secondary School Enrollment

      Scaling: 1000

S14F6*Primary + Secondary School Enrollment Per Capita

      Scaling: 0.0001

S14F7*Primary/Primary + Secondary School Enrollment

      Scaling: 0.01

S15F1 University Enrollment

      Scaling: 1000


  Fields S15F1 and S15F3 of this segment deal with university and total

  school enrollment, respectively, while fields S15F2 and S15F4 report the

  same items on a per capita basis.  

  Field S15F5 contains literacy data, calculated, wherever possible, on

  the basis of non-literates, 15 years of age and over.  Literacy is

  defined in the UN Demographic Yearbook (from which most of the

  post-World War II data are extracted) as "ability both to read and to

  write".  While this is not an entirely adequate definition, it is

  unrealistic to assume that the caliber of most reporting agencies could

  sustain a more precise one.  Indeed, for the limited amount of pre-World

  War I literacy data that is included in the file, overall reliability

  must be assessed with extreme caution.

  Field S15F6 deals with inhabitants per physician, while its reciprocal

  (physicians per capita) appears in field S15F7. The latter is deemed a

  somewhat more useful cross-national indicator than the former (which

  appears in the UN Statistical Yearbook), since the direction of the

  array, for most countries, accords with that of other "developmental"

  indicators (tending to yield positive rather than negative correlation

  coefficients).

S15F2*University Enrollment Per Capita

      Scaling: 0.0001

S15F3*All School Enrollment

      Scaling: 1000

S15F4*All School Enrollment Per Capita

      Scaling: 0.0001

S15F5 Percent Literate

      Scaling: 0.1

S15F6 Inhabitants Per Physician

      Scaling: 10

S15F7*Physicians Per Capita

S16F1 National Income Per Capita

  This segment contains data on components of national income and

  currency.  Field S16F1 is devoted-to national income per capita, field

  S16F2 to gross domestic product (at factor cost) per capita, and field

  S16F3 to gross national product (at market prices) per capita.  These

  three basic components of aggregate product are defined as follows:


  Gross national product at market prices is the market value of the

  product, before deduction of provisions for the consumption of fixed

  capital, attributable to the factors of production supplied by normal

  residents of the given country.  It is identically equal to the sum of

  consumption expenditure and gross domestic capital formation, private

  and public, and the net exports of goods and services plus the net

  factor incomes received from abroad.


  Gross domestic product at factor cost is the value at factor cost of the

  product, before deduction of provisions for the consumption of fixed

  capital, attributable to factor services rendered to resident producers

  of the given country.  It differs from the gross domestic product at

  market prices by the exclusion of the excess of indirect taxes over

  subsidies.


  National income is the some of the incomes accruing to factors of

  production supplied by normal residents of the given country before

  deduction of direct taxes. (UN Yearbook of National Accounts Statistics:

  1969, V. 1, P. xi).


  The interrelationships of the three aggregates are as follows: GNP at

  market prices less net factor income from abroad and indirect taxes net

  of subsidies equals GDP at factor cost.  The latter, in turn, less

  depreciation, plus net factor income from abroad, equals national income

  (ibid, p. 819).  All data for these three indices for the period

  1970-1973 are estimated because of changes in the above definitions in

  1970, which make current aggregate product figures inconsistent with

  earlier figures.

  Field S16F4 deals with per capita currency in circulation, expressed in

  U.S. dollars at the free market rate, save in a limited number of cases

  where the free rate tends very closely to approximate the official rate.

  Field S16F5 gives the age of a nation's currency in months.  "Age" is

  defined in terms of the number of months that have elapsed since the

  introduction of a new monetary system or since an upward or downward

  revaluation of 5% or more.  In cases of multiple revaluations totaling

  5% or more during a given year, the count of months is from the last

  such revaluation.

  Field S16F6 gives a nation's official exchange rate, expressed in local

  currency per U.S. dollar.  Field S16F7 gives the free or black market

  rate in local currency per U.S. dollar, primarily as reported (since

  1946) in Pick's Currency Yearbook.

S16F2 Gross Domestic Product Per Capita (Factor Cost)

  In U.S. dollars

S16F3 Gross National Product Per Capita (Market Prices)

  In U.S. dollars

S16F4 Currency in Circulation Per Capita

      Scaling: 0.01


  In U.S. dollars

S16F5 Age of Currency in Months

S16F6 Official Exchange Rate, Local Currency Per $U.S.

      Scaling: 0.01

S16F7 Free of Black Market Rate, Local Currency Per $U.S.

      Scaling: 0.01

S17F1 Assassinations

  All seven fields of Segment 17 (plus field S18F1) contain domestic

  conflict event data.  While no bibliographic tags are utilized in

  connection with these data, all are derived from the daily files of The

  New York Times.  The eight variable definitions (adopted from Rudolph J.

  Rummel, "Dimensions of Conflict Behavior Within and Between Nations",

  General Systems Yearbook, VIII [19631, 1-50) are as follows:


  Assassinations.  Any politically motivated murder or attempted murder of

  a high government official or politician.

S17F2 General Strikes

  Any strike of 1,000 or more industrial or service workers that involves

  more than one employer and that is aimed at national government policies

  or authority.

S17F3 Guerrilla Warfare

  Any armed activity, sabotage, or bombings carried on by independent

  bands of citizens or irregular forces and aimed at the overthrow of the

  present regime.

S17F4 Government Crises

  Any rapidly developing situation that threatens to bring the downfall of

  the present regime - excluding situations of revolt aimed at such

  overthrow.

S17F5 Purges

  Any systematic elimination by jailing or execution of political

  opposition within the ranks of the regime or the opposition.

S17F6 Riots

  Any violent demonstration or clash of more than 100 citizens involving

  the use of physical force.

S17F7 Revolutions

  Any illegal or forced change in the top governmental elite, any attempt


  at such a change, or any successful or unsuccessful armed rebellion

  whose aim is independence from the central government.

S18F1 Anti-Government Demonstrations

  Any peaceful public gathering of at least 100 people for the primary

  purpose of displaying or voicing their opposition to government policies

  or authority, excluding demonstrations of a distinctly anti-foreign

  nature.

S18F2*Weighted Conflict Index

  The weighted conflict index is calculated in the following manner:


  Multiply the value of the number of Assassinations by 24,

  General Strikes by 43,

  Guerrilla Warfare by 46,

  Government Crises by 48,

  Purges by 86,

  Riots by 102,

  Revolutions by 148,

  Anti-Government Demonstrations by 200.


  Sum the 8 weighted values and divide by 9.  The result is the value

  (with decimal) stored as the Weighted Conflict Index.

S18F3 Voter Turnout

      Scaling: 0.001

S18F4 Registered Voters

      Scaling: 1000


  Fields S18F4-S18F7 contain electoral data.  Fields S18F4 and S18F6 give,

  on the one hand, the number of registered voters (in some cases, such as

  the United States, those eligible to register and vote), and, on the

  other, the number of valid votes cast (for the most recent election

  during the year in question) for the lower house of the national

  legislature.  Fields S18F5 and S18F7 deal with the same items on a per

  capita basis.

S18F5*Registered Voters/Population

      Scaling: 0.001

S18F6 Votes Cast, Lower House of Legislature

      Scaling: 1000

S18F7*Votes Cast, Lower House of Legislature/Population

      Scaling: 0.001

S19F1 Number of Seats, Largest Party in Legislature

  This segment deals primarily with the legislative process.  Field S19F1

  contains the number of seats held by the largest party in the lower

  house of each country's national assembly.  Field S19F2 contains the

  total number of seats in the lower house, except in cases where no

  parties exist (or did not exist at the last election), where a zero is

  entered (in such cases the absence of a legislature is indicated by zero

  entries in fields S19F3 and S19F4).  In one-party systems with

  legislative membership in excess of 999, the latter figure is employed

  in fields S19F1 and S19F2.

  Fields S19F3-S19F6 contain ordinal-scaled data.

S19F2 Size of Legislature (Lower House)

S19F3 Effectiveness of Legislature

  (3) Effective

  (2) Partly Effective

  (1) Largely Ineffective

  (0) No Legislature


  It may be noted that the data in field S19F3 are substantively similar

  to the data in field S22F4.  The two data sets are not, however,

  identical.  They were initially coded at different times and

  incorporated into the file as components of different sub-files.

  Nonetheless, it is anticipated that the contents of field S19F3 of this

  segment will, at some future date, be deleted for reason of redundancy.

S19F4 Competitiveness of Nominating Process

  (3) Competitive

  (2) Partly Competitive

  (1) Essentially Non-Competitive

  (0) No Legislature

S19F5 Party Coalitions

  (3) More than one party, no coalitions

  (2) More than one party, government coalition, opposition

  (1) More than one party, government coalition, no opposition

  (0)   No coalition, no opposition

S19F6 Party Legitimacy

  (3) No parties excluded

  (2) One or more minor or "extremist" parties excluded

  (1) Significant exclusion of parties (or groups)

  (0) No parties, or all but dominant party and satellites excluded

S19F7 Size of Legislature/Number of Seats, Largest Party

      Scaling: 0.01


  Field 7 is an index of seats held by the largest party, obtained by

  dividing field S19F2 by field S19F1. The principal reason for

  calculating the index in this manner (rather than as a percentage of

  seats held) is to ensure that the indices for countries with no parties

  (or no legislatures) and countries with one-party systems will be

  adjacent, rather than at opposite extremes of the array.  Thus a country

  with no parties has a score of 0, a one-party system has a score of 1.0,

  a system with 40 out of 100 seats held by the majority party has a score

  of 2.5, etc.

S20F1 Composite Index, Items 120-123

  The first three fields of this segment contain secondary data derived

  from items appearing in Segment 19.  Field S20F1 is a total of the

  ordinal scores contained in fields S19F3-S19F6  and, as such, may be

  construed as a simple, non-factoral, measure of political polyarchy or

  pluralism.  Field S20F2 contains seven-year averages of the data in

  field S19F7, while field S20F3 contains seven-year totals of the data in

  field S20F1.

S20F2 Seven-Year Average, Item 124

S20F3 Seven-Year Total, Item 125

S20F5 Party Fractionalization Index

      Scaling: 0.0001


  Field S20F5 is a party fractionalization index, based on the formula

  proposed by Douglas Rae in "A Note on the Fractionalization of Some

  European Party Systems", Comparative Political Studies, 1 (October

  1968), 413-418.  The index is constructed as follows:

                                m

                      F = 1 - sum (ti)2

                               i=l


  where ti = the proportion of members associated with the ith party in

  the lower house of the legislature.

S20F7 Type of Regime

  Field S20F7, together with all seven fields of Segment 21 and the first

  six fields of Segment 22, embrace 14 nominal and ordinal political

  variables coded as follows:


  Type of Regime

      (1) Civilian.  Any government controlled by a nonmilitary component

  of the nation's population.

      (2)  Military-Civilian.  Outwardly civilian government effectively

  controlled by a military elite.  Civilians hold only those posts (up to

  and including that of Chief of State) for which their services are

  deemed necessary for successful conduct of government operations.  An

  example would be retention of the Emperor and selected civilian cabinet

  members during the period of Japanese military hegemony between 1932 and

  1945. 

      (3)  Military. Direct rule by the military, usually (but not

  necessarily) following a military coup d’état.  The governing structure

  may vary from utilization of the military chain of command under

  conditions of martial law to the institution of an ad hoc administrative

  hierarchy with at least an upper echelon staffed by military personnel. 

      (4) Other.  All regimes not falling into one or another of the

  foregoing categories, including instances in which a country, save for

  reasons of exogenous influence, lacks an effective national government.

  An example of the latter would be Switzerland between 1815 and 1848.

S21F1 Number of Coups d'Etat

  The number of extraconstitutional or forced changes in the top

  government elite and/or its effective control of the nation's power

  structure in a given year.  The term "coup" includes, but is not

  exhausted by, the term "successful revolution".  Unsuccessful coups are

  not counted.

S21F2 Number of Major Constitutional Changes

  The number of basic alterations in a state's constitutional structure,

  the extreme case being the adoption of a new constitution that

  significantly alters the prerogatives of the various branches of

  government.  Examples of the latter might be the substitution of

  presidential for parliamentary government or the replacement of

  monarchical by republican rule.  Constitutional amendments which do not

  have signficant impact on the political system are not counted.

S21F3 Head of State

  (1) Monarch.  Chief of state is a monarch (either hereditary or

  elective) or a regent functioning on a monarch's behalf.

  (2) President.  Chief of state is a president who may function as chief

  executive or merely as titular head of state, in which case he will

  possess little effective power. The presiding officer of a legislative

  assembly or state council may qualify for the coding, even though the

  formal title may be that of "chairman".

  (3) Military.  A situation in which a member of the nation's armed

  forces is recognized as the formal head of government.  In case of

  conflict between (2) and (3), coding is determined on the basis of

  whether the incumbent's role is intrinsically military or civilian in

  character.

  (4) Other.  In practice, this category is used when no distinct head of

  state can be identified.  It includes any distinct head of state not

  included in (1)-(3), such as a theocratic ruler, as well as non-military

  bodies serving in a collegial capacity.

S21F4 Premier

  (1) Formal executive is premierial.

  (2) Formal executive is non-premierial.

S21F5 Effective Executive (Type)

  Refers to the individual who exercises primary influence in the shaping

  of most major decisions affecting the nation's internal and external

  affairs.  The "other" category may refer to a situation in which the

  individual in question (such as the party first secretary in a Communist

  regime) holds no formal governmental post, or to one in which no truly

  effective national executive can be said to exist.

          (1) Monarch

          (2) President

          (3) Premier

          (4) Military

          (5) Other

S21F6 Effective Executive (Selection)

  (1) Direct E)(!Election.  Election of the effective executive by popular

  vote or the election of committed delegates for the purpose of executive

  selection.

  (2) Indirect Election.  Selection by an elected assembly or by an

  elected but uncommitted electoral college.

  (3) Nonelective.  Any means of selection not involving a direct or

  indirect mandate from an electorate.

S21F7 Degree of Parliamentary Responsibility

  Refers to the degree to which a premier must depend on the support of a

  majority in the lower house of a legislature in order to remain in

  office.

  (0) Irrelevant.  Office of premier does not exist.

  (1) Absent.  Office exists, but there is no parliamentary

  responsibility.

  (2) Incomplete.  The premier is, at least to some extent,

  constitutionally responsible to the legislature.  Effective

  responsibility is, however, limited.

  (3) Complete.  The premier is constitutionally and effectively dependent

  upon a legislative majority for continuance in office.

S22F1 Size of Cabinet

  Refers to the number of ministers of "cabinet rank", excluding

  undersecretaries, parliamentary secretaries, ministerial alternates,

  etc.  Include president and vice-president under a presidential system,

  but not under a parliamentary system.  Chiefs of state excluded, except

  under presidential system.

S22F2 Number of Cabinet Changes

  The number of times in a year that a new premier is named and/or 50% of

  the cabinet posts are occupied by new ministers.

S22F3 Changes in Effective Executive

  The number of times in a year that effective control of the executive

  Dower changes hands.  Such a change requires that the new executive be

  independent of his predecessor.

S22F4 Legislative Effectiveness

  (0) None.  No legislature exists.

  (1) Ineffective.  There are three possible bases for this coding: first,

  legislative activity may be essentially of a "rubber stamp" character;

  second, domestic turmoil may make the implementation of legislation

  impossible; third, the effective executive may prevent the legislature

  from meeting, or otherwise substantially impede the exercise of its

  functions.

  (2) Partially Effective.  A situation in which the effective executives

  power substantially outweighs, but does not completely dominate that of

  the legislature. 

  (3) Effective.  The possession of significant governmental autonomy by

  the legislature, including, typically, substantial authority in regard

  to taxation and  disbursement, and the power to override executive

  vetoes of legislation.

S22F5 Legislative Selection

  (0) None.  No legislature exists.

  (1) Nonelective.  Examples would be the selection of legislators by the

  effective executive, or by means of heredity or ascription. 

  (2) Elective.  Legislators (or members of the lower house in a bicameral

  system) are selected by means of either direct or indirect popular

  election.

S22F6 Number of Legislative Elections

  The number of elections held for the lower house of a national

  legislature in a given year.

S22F7 International Status Ranking (S&S)

  Field S22F7 together with segment 23 (fields S23F1-S23F7) embraces eight

  international status indicators developed by J. David Singer and Melvin

  Small in "The Composition and Status Ordering of the International

  System: 1815-1940,11 World Politics, 18 (January 1966), 236-282.  Singer

  and Small provide entries, in each case, for every fifth year.  Yearly

  estimates were calculated and are provided in the Cross-National

  Time-Series Data Archive file for the basic variable, "International

  Status, Composite Score", which appears in field S23F2 of this segment.

  For a discussion of these data and the coding criteria employed, see

  Singer and Small, "The Composition and Status Ordering of the

  International System: 1815-1940", World Politics, 18 (January 1966),

  pp.236-282.  Singer and Small provide entries for every fifth year; we

  have added yearly estimates for field S23F2.

S23F1 International Status, Case Size

S23F2 International Status, Composite Score

S23F3 International Status, Composite Standardized Score

S23F4 International Status, Quintile

S23F5 International Status, Weighted Rank

S23F6 International Status, Weighted Status Ordering

S23F7 International Status, Weighted Quintile

S24F1 Electric Power Production (kWh)

      Scaling: 1000000


  This segment deals with components of industrial production.  Field

  S24F1 gives electric power production in millions of kilowatt hours.

  Insofar as possible, the data include production for both public and

  private purposes, and cover both thermal and hydroelectric output, thus

  reflecting total gross generation of electricity, excluding station use

  and transmission losses.  Field S24F2 gives the same information in per

  capita form.

  Field 3 contains data on crude steel production, including, insofar as

  possible, both ingots and steel for castings, whether obtained from

  pig-iron or scrap.  Wrought (puddled) iron is generally excluded.  Field

  S24F4 gives the same data in per capita form.

  Field S24F5 contains data on the total production of hydraulic cements

  used for construction-purposes (portland, metallurgic, aluminous,

  natural, etc.). Field S24F6 gives the same data in per capita form.  

S24F2*Electric Power Production (kWh) Per Capita

      Scaling: .1

S24F3 Steel Production (metric tons)

      Scaling: 1000

S24F4*Steel Production (metric tons) Per Capita

      Scaling: .0001

S24F5 Cement Production (metric tons)

      Scaling: 1000

S24F6*Cement Production (metric tons) Per Capita

      Scaling: .0001

S25F1 International Reserves, less Gold, in $US

      Scaling: 1000000

S25F2 Gold Reserves, Fine Troy Ounces

      Scaling: 1000

S25F3 Gold Reserves, end-of-year $US

      Scaling: 1000000

S25F4 Gold Reserves, in $US, as % of Total Reserves

      Scaling: .001

S25F5 External Public Debt (Disbursed) in $US

      Scaling: 1000000

S25F6 Consumer Prices, 1975=100

      Scaling: .1

S25F7 Consumer Prices, % Change over Previous Year

      Scaling: .001

S26F1*% Annual Change Population

      Scaling: .01


  All of the fields in these segments contain derived data of a percent

  annual increase character, based on a set of 25 variables selected from

  those described above.  Calculation is by means of a special computer

  routine called DELTA, which is described elsewhere.

S26F2*% Annual Change Population Density

      Scaling: .01

S26F3*% Annual Change Population, Cities of 100,000 & Over Per Capita

      Scaling: .01

S26F4*% Annual Change Population, Cities of 50,000 & Over Per Capita

      Scaling: .01

S26F5*% Annual Change National Government Revenue Per Capita

      Scaling: .01

S26F6*% Annual Change National Government Expenditure Per Capita

      Scaling: .01

S26F7*% Annual Change Imports Per Capita

      Scaling: .01

S27F1*% Annual Change Export Per Capita

      Scaling: .01

S27F2*% Annual Change National Gov't Revenue & Expenditure Per Capita

      Scaling: .01

S27F4*% Annual Change Railroad Mileage Per Square Mile

      Scaling: .01

S27F5*% Annual Change All Highway Vehicles Per Capita

      Scaling: .01

S27F6*% Annual Change Telegraph Mileage Per Square Mile

      Scaling: .01

S27F7*% Annual Change Telegrams Per Capita

      Scaling: .01

S28F1*% Annual Change Telephones Per Capita

      Scaling: .01

S28F2*% Annual Change All Mail Per Capita

      Scaling: .01

S28F3*% Annual Change Daily Newspaper Circulation Per Capita

      Scaling: .01

S28F4*% Annual Change Primary School Enrollment Per Capita

      Scaling: .01

S28F5*% Annual Change Secondary School Enrollment Per Capita

      Scaling: .01

S28F6*% Annual Change Prim+Sec School Enrollment Per Capita

      Scaling: .01

S28F7*% Annual Change University Enrollment Per Capita

      Scaling: .01

S29F1*% Annual Change Energy Production in Kilograms Per Capita

      Scaling: .01

S29F2*% Annual Change Energy Consumption in Kilograms Per Capita

      Scaling: .01

S29F3*% Annual Change Percent GDP Originating In Industrial Activity

      Scaling: .01

S29F4*% Annual Change Per Capita GDP Originating In Industrial Activity

      Scaling: .01

S29F5*% Annual Change Percent Work Force in Agriculture

      Scaling: .01

S29F6*% Annual Change Percent Work Force in Industry

      Scaling: .01

S29F7*% Annual Change Rail Passenger-Kilometers

      Scaling: .01

S30F1*% Annual Change Radios Per Capita

      Scaling: .01

S30F2*% Annual Change Percent Literate

      Scaling: .01

S30F3*% Annual Change Physicians Per Capita

      Scaling: .01

S30F4*% Annual Change Gross Domestic Product Per Capita

      Scaling: .01

S30F5*% Annual Change Gross National Product Per Capita

      Scaling: .01

S30F6*% Annual Change Currency in Circulation Per Capita

      Scaling: .01

S30F7*% Annual Change Age of Currency in Months

      Scaling: .01