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A Period of Rapid Expansion

Photo courtesy University Archives, The Bancroft Library

By 1960, UC's enrollment was almost 50,000. Its seven campuses and many research stations were spread across thousands of acres. The whole enterprise cost $360 million a year to run, and the cost (like enrollment and everything else) was skyrocketing. As a complement to sheer size, however, the University offered a diverse academic and cultural fare, as well as opportunities for research that could be matched by few other institutions.

President Kerr's approach to mass education was to decentralize administrative authority to the campuses and, in academic planning, make the large seem small and personal, to the extent it was possible. The Regents early adopted his recommendation for a major administrative reorganization under which much of the daily operating responsibility for the campuses was decentralized to the chief campus officers.

Throughout the first half of the 1960s, decentralization continued by stages, resulting in a substantial reduction of the Universitywide administrative staff and a greater autonomy for the campuses.

In 1961, the Regents adopted a University Academic Plan outlining the needs of the foreseeable future an emphasizing the theme of "unity with diversity." New general campuses at San Diego, Irvine and Santa Cruz offered University planners a rare opportunity for innovation and experiment. As the first campuses to be designed from the start with a view to eventual large enrollments, they were encouraged to evolve along lines that would foster individuality.

There would be established in the next few years a new law school at Davis, engineering programs at Davis and Santa Barbara, medical schools at San Diego and Davis, architecture and urban planning at Los Angeles, and expanded medical enrollments at San Francisco and Los Angeles. Ten new schools or colleges were created, with 80 new programs leading to master's degrees and 68 to the doctoral degree. Many of these advanced programs were established at Davis, Riverside and Santa Barbara, and several others were established at San Diego.

Both San Diego and Santa Cruz adopted "cluster college" plans, a concept that would help reduce the feeling of bigness while making the undergraduate educational experience more meaningful. Irvine, located in the most rapidly growing county in California, would emphasize the relation of campus to environment by offering strong programs in urban planning and environmental design.

And, keeping in mind enrollments by the year 2000--when 273,000 students would be attending the University--the administration was planning potential future campuses. Areas under consideration were the San Joaquin valley, the San Gabriel or San Fernando valley, the North Bay or North Coast area, and the Northern Sacramento valley.

Photo courtesy of University Archives, The Bancroft Library The Regents approved a long-range plan guaranteeing access to outstanding research libraries for the new and smaller campuses. Berkeley and Los Angeles continued to develop their collections as primary research sources, while their catalog cards were given Universitywide distribution. Vehicles began plying daily between small and large campuses to facilitate intercampus borrowing.

This plan encouraged the smaller campuses, in addition to building up their basic libraries, to acquire collections unique within the University. Substantial economies were achieved by having the San Diego campus buy and catalog books, not only for its own new undergraduate library but, simultaneously, for those at Irvine and Santa Cruz.

During the 1960s, six more scientists received the Nobel Prize, bringing the University's total to 12. Twenty-nine members were elected to the National Academy of Sciences, for a total membership of 87. Guggenheim Fellowships won by the faculty in that period totaled 299. Students ranked high in Woodrow Wilson and National Science Foundation Fellowships and in Rhodes Scholarships to Oxford University. And scholars were finding new opportunities for the development of special interests in the humanities. A University-wide Creative Arts Institute was established, enabling a number of faculty members to devote substantial periods of time to creative activity.

Students were taking advantage of an opportunity rare in public higher education provided by an Education Abroad Program. The first overseas center was set up at the University of Bordeaux in 1962. Today the list of approved study centers includes Goettingen, Padua, Madrid, Tokyo, Bogota, Edinburgh, Hong Kong, Sussex and Birmingham, England, Lund, University of the Andes, and Delphi.

In the early 1960's, the Regents created a special scholarship program for outstanding students needing financial aid, and made available a number of tuition scholarships for exceptional students from other countries, thus supplementing programs that had been supported for many years by alumni and the state. The Regents also provided matching funds to campuses undertaking Special Opportunity Programs designed to encourage qualified high school students from disadvantaged backgrounds to attend the University.

The University accelerated and broadened its public service role. Special institutes of governmental and public affairs at Berkeley, Los Angeles, and Davis were conducting research on metropolitan, state, and regional problems. The exciting potential of cybernetics was explored on several campuses. University scientists continued to work toward solutions to such problems as smog control, water conservation and the desalinization of sea water, traffic and airport safety, sewage disposal, forestry conservation, and the assurance of adequate food for a growing population.

The demand for "lifelong learning" was reflected in the expansion of offerings by University Extension which, in a single year, had more than 200,000 registrations for courses. A high proportion of the state's lawyers, dentists, and doctors were availing themselves of programs offered by Continuing Education of the Bar and Continuing Education in Medicine and the Health Sciences. Engineers, scientists, teachers, and businessmen--the majority holding at least one degree, and many with a master's or a doctorate--were returning to the classroom at intervals throughout their careers.

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And A Time of Conflict

When 1967 began, Clark Kerr had been serving as UC president for eight and a half years. His hope was to be president when the University celebrated its centennial in 1968. However, on January 20, 1967, in the midst of political and social turmoil that was seriously affecting the University, the Regents relieved Kerr of the presidency by a vote of 14-8. Throughout the last two years of his administration, student unrest and disturbances on the Berkeley campus drew criticism of the University's management from many citizens and public officials in California.

While the University succeeded in a dramatic increase in the number of campuses and programs in the post-World War II period, it also was the focus of a number of important events that brought national attention and consternation within the academy. The first event was the imposition by the Board of Regents of a Loyalty Oath as a condition of employment at the University.

In 1949, during the Cold War, the Board of Regents of the University of California imposed a requirement that all University employees sign an oath affirming not only loyalty to the state constitution, but a denial of membership or belief in organizations (including Communist organizations) advocating overthrow of the United States government. Many faculty, students, and employees resisted the oath for violating principles of shared governance, academic freedom, and tenure. In the summer of 1950, thirty-one "non-signer" professors--including internationally distinguished scholars, not one of whom had been charged of professional unfitness or personal disloyalty--and many other UC employees were dismissed. Two years later, the State Supreme Court ruled that the oath was illegal and ordered the reinstatement of these faculty. The controversy raised critical questions for American higher education, and the nature of academic freedom.

Photo courtesy of University Archives, The Bancroft Library The Regents oath was also related to the threat of constitution amendment sponsored by the California Legislature's Committee on Un-American Activities which would have imposed an oath on UC employees. In the midst of Cold War fears and Mcarthy era attacks, the Regents created a number of policies to combat any sense that the University was a safe-heaven for Communist subversives. This led to a number of restrictions of public speaking on any UC campuses. In turn, this provided the makings of another major conflict: The Free Speech Movement.

Concerned with the Civil Rights movement and an increasing sense of alienation among students toward the Board of Regents and the campus administration, students at Berkeley gathered in Sproul Plaza and listened to speakers with strong political points of view. The campus administration and President Kerr, in part influenced by conservative Regents and concerned with Regental policy, found themselves embroiled in controversy that included attempts by the police to disperse the crowds and occupations of administrative buildings.

The birth of the Free Speech Movement centered around the right of all members of the academic community and the public to gather and openly debate political issues on University grounds. The result were less restrictive policies, but also significant public criticism that the University had capitulated to "radical" students. The beginning of the anti-Vietnam War protests added mightily to an antiestablishment movement, and a sense among a growing contingent of critics that the University's administration was in disarray and overly sympathetic to student demonstrators.

Many Californians sought to punish the University, particularly by supporting budget cuts, because they thought UC was not taking sufficiently strong action against those threatening it. They wanted students responsible for disruptions at UC to be severely disciplined. As chief executive of the University, Kerr was held responsible for the restoration of order. On the methods to be used in dealing with the situation at Berkeley and on other matters, Kerr was often in disagreement with some of the Regents. In March 1965, he submitted his resignation from the presidency, but was requested by the Regents to withdraw it a few days later. Thereafter, rumors of Kerr's impending resignation or dismissal reoccurred periodically. They were particularly persistent after November 1966, when three ex officio members of the Board were replaced as a result of a change in party control of the State administration.

In announcing the actions of the Regents on January 20, 1967, Theodore Meyer, chairman of the Board, said that the Regents had decided "that the state of uncertainty which had prevailed for many months concerning the President's status should be resolved without further delay." The dismissal of Kerr from the presidency evoked expressions of gratitude and confidence for his service and leadership and criticism of his dismissal from student bodies and divisions of the Academic Senate throughout the University.

Four days after Clark Kerr's dismissal as UC's president in January 1967, The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching announced that he had accepted the chairmanship of a long-term study on the future, structure and financing of American higher education. The purpose of the study, known as the Carnegie Study of Higher Education, was to analyze how Americans could afford the quantity and quality of the higher education they were likely to demand in the years to come. During the period of the study, Kerr held the position of chairman of the Carnegie Commission on Higher Education (1967-73).

Kerr's immediate successor was Vice President Harry R. Wellman, who had served as second in command throughout Kerr's administration. He was named Acting President until a permanent successor could be found. The protests over the war would continue and included a conflict between National Guard troops and students at UC Santa Barbara and a Governor Ronald Regean intent on using force to halt the proliferation of demonstrations. Increasing concern about the minority enrollments and the desire to bring greater focus California's ethnic diversity also led to protests and the initiation of ethnic studies programs.

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A Transition to the 1970s

The year 1965 had seen tension and unrest spread from Berkeley to other UC campuses. It also had marked the arrival of Charles J. Hitch, newly appointed Vice President-Business and Finance and professor of economics.

Hitch, a graduate of the University of Arizona, had undertaken graduate study in economics at Harvard and had been with the Rand Corporation before joining the Department of Defense as Assistant Secretary of Defense (Comptroller) under the late President John F. Kennedy. Hitch also had behind him many years of teaching and research, particularly at Oxford University. (He was the first American Rhodes Scholar to become an Oxford don.)

In 1966, in a new position as Vice President of the University for Administration, Hitch had considerably expanded responsibilities. By 1967, because of his exemplary work, he was regarded as a logical choice to succeed Clark Kerr as UC president. The Regents made it official in September when they accepted the unanimous recommendation of a special committee appointed to select a president. On January 1, 1968 Hitch became the University's 13th president.

By the end of the decade, the University showed itself to be a success in carrying out its mission of higher education. By then, UC was enrolling more than 100,000 students, proving it was possible to provide education of the highest quality for large numbers of young men and women. Large numbers of these students showed they were capable of achieving high academic distinction. Many were winning major competitive honors, such as National Science Foundation Fellowships and Woodrow Wilson Fellowships. In addition, more National Merit Scholars chose to enroll at the University than at any other institution because of its academic stature.

During his tenure, Hitch believed that the University should play a major role in helping society meet some of its most urgent problems. For example, in 1968, he directed that all UC campuses mobilize their resources to help deal with the needs of cities and the growing urban crisis in America. Among other priorities was the enhancement of energy resources and the environment. For example, one of the major environmental programs of his presidency was the institution of Project Clean Air.

Hitch strengthened the University's approach in meeting these and its other challenges by effective planning and management and by bringing academic planning and fiscal planning into a closer relationship. Early in the Hitch administration, it had been apparent that a turning point was at hand. Massive growth throughout most of the 1960s had dominated the University's fiscal planning processes; to meet the unprecedented enrollment demand, emphasis in planning had focused on developing adequate programs and facilities.

In the next few years, with gradual but significant reductions in the rate of enrollment growth (a nationwide pattern), and relatively constrained state and federal funding, emphasis shifted to specific aspects of development of each campus. The University's new Growth Plan, adopted in 1972 and the new University Academic Plan, adopted in 1974, defined these shifts in direction. Wherever it could be done, Hitch told a legislative committee in 1973, the University would seek to "develop and capitalize on academic specialization and strengths" of the campuses.

In his inaugural address, Hitch called upon the University to help all minority groups gain access to higher education. By 1973, minority group enrollment rose to more 20 percent, compared to less than 9 percent in 1968. During about the same time, there also was a substantial increase in the employment of minorities and women, as well as a commitment to improve representation of these groups in higher levels of responsibility.

Another focus of the Hitch administration was the attention centered on extending the benefits of higher education to a greater number of Californians, making it easier for working men and women to upgrade or even change their lifework. With the support of the 1970 All-University Faculty Conference, the University initiated the Extended University, an experimental program that offered part-time students the opportunity to study for degrees on and off campus.

The Extended University concept was tested through a series of pilot programs designed to uncover possible solutions to the educational, fiscal, organizational and related problems associated with widening access to students wishing to study at different times. It permitted the University to experiment with unconventional forms and modes of instruction and to try new approaches to the educational process. (The program eventually ended as UC's budget grew tighter.)

In 1975, Hitch announced his retirement from the presidency. He subsequently became president of Resources for the Future, a nonprofit corporation for research and education in the development, conservation and use of natural resources.

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Increasing Enrollment and Budgetary Difficulties

In 1975, David S. Saxon, who was University Provost in the Office of the President, was appointed to the presidency of the University. His appointment as UC's l4th president was the apex of a noteworthy 28-year career with the University.

He had started as an assistant professor of physics at UCLA in 1947. As noted previously, in 1950 hs was one of thirty-one faculty fired for not signing the loyalty oath. He returned the following year achieving the rank of professor in 1958 and, after that, became a dean and a vice chancellor. In the latter capacity, he supervised a major review of academic and budgetary matters that led to changes in UCLA's academic program.

In 1974, he was appointed Executive Vice Chancellor at UCLA, as well as Provost in the Office of the President. As Provost, he was responsible for relating long-range academic planning to available budget resources for UC as a whole. In undertaking all these responsibilities, Saxon had distinguished himself as a scholar of the first rank, an outstanding teacher (earning a coveted Distinguished Teaching Award), a noted researcher, a respected educational leader, and a tireless, devoted administrator.

In an era of serious inflation, the University had to cope with revised state priorities and a "smaller is better" philosophy. In particular, he spoke out vigorously against Proposition 9, a major tax-cut initiative (another such initiative, Proposition 13, had been passed earlier by the voters). Saxon warned that "government by initiative" favoring large tax cuts could impair the state's ability to support higher education adequately. Not only that, as a concerned citizen, he stated that the repeated use of the initiative process could seriously undercut representative government.

In taking his stand on Proposition 9, Saxon failed to gain support from the Regents for what appeared to be an unpopular stand, and political experts in Sacramento told him he was wasting his time. Nevertheless, he continued to speak out against the initiative, along with other concerned citizens around the state, and Proposition 9 went down in defeat.

Increasingly, UC administrators realized that the University had to reach out to more disadvantaged students sooner in their early schooling, in order to get them motivated to start on college-preparatory courses as soon as they entered high school.As a result, Saxon helped to initiate UC's Partnership Program, to be conducted in cooperation with the state's junior high schools. By the end of the 1970s, UC was working with some 250 junior high schools and about 10,000 young students around California. It was reputed to be the largest program of its kind in the nation, and it was still growing in reputation and size.

In another area of education, UC found that students who met all its formal criteria for admission were found to be sadly lacking in writing skills. The resi;t was a sogmfocamt expansion of UC's California Writing Project (formerly the Bay Area Writing Project), which trains teachers in the newest techniques of teaching English composition to all levels, elementary school through university.This program proved so successful at its home site in the San Francisco Bay area that the National Endowment for the Humanities provided grants to help set up centers in other parts of California and in other states. Saxon also supported the further development of a similar project in mathematics.

In the late 1970s, the University pursued a number of organizational changes to help manage the mutli-campus system. A new centralized program of information systems was established that would be efficient and cost-effective in serving an array of administrative needs throughout the University. By the time the system was in place, it was capable of serving a variety of campus and corporate data needs through information systems such as computing, telecomputing and other sophisticated means of communications. With such a system in place, all major University offices could have access to an array of critical information, including extensive data for campus and Universitywide payroll, budget and staffing operations and corporate functions, as well as statistics to help UC respond to the official reporting requirements of state, federal and other external agencies.

A comprehensive Universitywide plan was also initiated to develop and maintain the library collections, facilities and services of the nine campuses in such a way that they would serve the essential academic needs of the entire University in an efficient, coherent and dependable way. A major goal was to improve the methods of library acquisitions, operations and access to holdings while reducing the rapid rise in library costs.

To achieve these goals, the University emphasized increased cooperation among the University's libraries and creation of a system that would serve all UC users regardless of campus or location. Such an approach would utilize, among other innovations, enhanced intercampus exchange, an online union catalog, a shared acquisitions program, and increased automated equipment. Librarians also began to emphasize the preservation of library materials that would otherwise become unusable over time as a result of chemical deterioration, environmental damage and wear. To make this enterprise successful two regional libraries were created, one in the northern part of the state and one in the south, to act as central repositories of books that could be easily available to any campus library or user on an as-needed basis.

President Saxon also initiated cooperative endeavors with other segments of education and the State, as well as with business and industry and minority firms. In 1981, he appointed a special task force to study UC's business opportunities for both minorities and women. In the early 1980s, Saxon brought together leaders from all levels of education in California, as well as civic and minority groups by establishing a California Round Table on Equal Educational Opportunity.

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Photo courtesy of University Archives, The Bancroft Library President Gardner and a Resurrection of UC's Budget

In 1983, David Pierpont Gardner became the University's 15th president. He had been closely associated with the University since the late 1950s. While earning master's and Ph.D. degrees at Berkeley, he was Field and Scholarship Director of the California Alumni Association. In the mid-1960s and early 1970s, he was a vice chancellor and faculty member at UC Santa Barbara, during the years of student unrest and dramatic growth of that campus. From 1971 to 1973, he served as a UC vice president, responsible for the Extended University and University Extension. During this time he pioneered new approaches to adult education.

In 1973, Gardner was named president of the University of Utah. During his 10-year presidency there, he also served as chairman of the National Commission on Excellence in Education. In this capacity, he was principally responsible for authoring "A Nation at Risk," the commission's groundbreaking 1983 report that helped launch a national effort to improve schooling in America.

When Gardner arrived at UC in 1983, the University had experienced nearly two decades of dwindling financial support, internal turmoil, major student unrest, periods of public alienation, and nearly ruinous inflation. It was readily apparent that relationships between the University and State government were strained, and UC's fiscal health was in a precarious position.

The new president's first priority was to restore confidence in the University, both within the institution and outside, and to revitalize UC's financial health.He persuaded the newly elected Governor George Deukmejian and the Legislature to approve a one-year 30 percent increase in UC's state operating budget, including a 14 percent increase in faculty salaries.

This single augmentation by the State for 1984-85, as well as subsequent budget support, gave the University the jump start it needed to set in motion a period of growth and development virtually unmatched in the history of California higher education. By 1984, the state's economic environment was improving, and public confidence in higher education was rising from the low point of the late 1960s and early 1970s.

When Gardner arrived at UC in 1983, student enrollment on the nine campuses totaled 141,000. By fall 1992, when he left, that figure had increased by about 26,000 students. There was also a dramatic upturn in private support. In 1983, annual gifts to UC totaled $157.5 million; by the beginning of the 1990s, the annual figure was $414.7 million. Over $2.5 billion in gifts and endowments were received by UC during Gardner's presidency. Federally sponsored research increased dramatically, as well, during the Gardner years. Federal research money stood at close to $900 million a year by the time he left the presidency in 1992, compared to $355 million in 1983. (Federally sponsored research represented about 10 percent of federal research at all American colleges and universities.)

State support for the University also increased steadily through the 1980s, averaging about 10 percent a year. (However, in the 1990-92 period, the State's fiscal crisis adversely affected UC's general fund allocation, and the crisis continued to deepen.) During Gardner's tenure, UC experienced a building boom greater than at any other time in its history--$3.7 billion in capital projects, with annual capital funding from the State alone growing from about $16.5 million in 1983 to $232 million in 1990-91.

At the same time, the University experienced growing enrollment pressures as the percentage of students in the eligible pool choosing to attend UC increased significantly, from about 5.2 percent of all high school graduates in 1983 to about 7.6 percent in 1991. At least one factor was the increasing attractiveness of UC to historically underrepresented minority students. Their numbers steadily increased during Gardner's presidency, particularly at the undergraduate level, and a new and widely respected fellowship program for minority and women graduate students was put into place to increase the number of such students preparing for academic careers.

These trends convinced Gardner that the University would have to reassess its long-range planning assumptions, in order to ensure that it could maintain its historic commitment to enroll all eligible California students who chose to attend. The University launched a two-year study of campus plans, culminating in the Regents' approval of Long Range Development Plans for all nine UC campuses and a 1988 decision to plan for up to three new UC campuses into the next century.

Concern about educational quality, particularly at the undergraduate level, and especially at the lower division level, manifested itself in several UC reports and their resultant activities. Among them was the Smelser Report on Lower Division Education in 1986 and the Pister Task Force Report on Faculty Rewards in 1991. (Both reports were named after two prominent UC faculty members who at Gardner's request chaired the respective task forces.)

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The Bakke Decision and the National Laboratories

Three major controversies emerged in the late 1970s and extended into the following decade, encompassing both the Hitch and Gardner presidencies. One was an emerged level of scrutiny and debate regarding University admissions and the role of race, ethnicity and gender in decisinomaking. After failing to be admitted to medical school at UC Davis, a student sued the university claiming that he had been rejected due to his race and gender.

The Bakke case was resolved by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1978. The Court ruled in Bakke's favor, but also stated that colleges and universities could continue to take account of race as one among a number of factors to be considered in admissions; however, the Court ruled that race cannot be the sole or exclusive factor.

The ruling allowed UC to continue its commitment to the enrollment of substantial numbers of minority students in its medical and other schools. President Saxon stated at a news conference following the court ruling, "we can and we shall go forward under the law to bring into the learned professions those who have been underrepresented, and that means particularly minorities." University policy would continue affirmative action in admissions decisions, and in hiring faculty and staff and in contracting. However, this issue was continue to be the focal point of debate, culminating in a Regental action in 1995, and then a state constitutional amendment (Proposition 209) significantly restricting affirmative action at the University.

The second controversy revolved around the University's continued management of the three national laboratories at Berkeley, Livermore and Los Alamos for the federal government. While the debate grew in intensity, the management contracts were renewed. President Gradner found himself on an unpopular side of a debate, especially with some faculty, arising from UC's management of the U.S. Department of Energy laboratories at Livermore and Los Alamos, the sites where nuclear weapons have been designed since World War II. Gardner's position was that UC's management was an invited public service to the nation and had been performed at the explicit request of the U.S. government for nearly 50 years. Others believed that UC should cease managing the labs. The Regents reaffirmed UC's management of the labs each time the issue came to the Board during Gardner's presidency.

And the third focused on whether or not the Board of Regents should divest itself of all investments in companies doing business in South Africa. These issues would continue to be addressed during the succeeding presidency. In 1985-86, the practice of apartheid in South Africa was the target of protest throughout the world. The stormy, sometimes violent debate over this issue within the University culminated in demands that the Regents divest themselves of all UC investments in companies doing business in South Africa.

The Regents and the State eventually voted to do so after two years of protest and acrimonious debate. However, President Gardner disagreed with the action on grounds that the University, acting in its corporate or collective capacity, should not be taking political positions, especially using UC funds, including UC's retirement funds. His controversial stand put him at odds with many students and faculty, the governor and eventually the majority of Regents.

Gardner faced one last, bitter challenge at the end of his presidency. At that time, he and the Regents were the target of criticism by the news media, some politicians, and others for the size of the retirement package triggered by his departure from the University. Although he weathered these criticisms, the Regents eventually made changes in the methodology and form of funding compensation and retirement packages for UC's senior officers. Gardner stepped down as UC's president on October 1, 1992 after nine years and two months of service in that post. As UC president, Gardner had guided the University longer than any of his predecessors except Benjamin Ide Wheeler (1899-1919) and Robert Gordon Sproul (1930-1958).

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California's Fiscal Woes and Retrenchment

In April 1992, the University chose one of its own to become UC's 16th president: Jack W. Peltason, chancellor of UC Irvine since 1984. His appointment was effective October 1. An internationally respected political scientist and higher education administrator, Peltason actually began his affiliation with UC in 1964. As vice chancellor for academic affairs, he helped assemble the faculty for the fledgling Irvine campus that would open a year later.

In 1967, he began a 10-year tenure as chancellor at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, and from 1977 to 1984, he served as president of the American Council on Education (ACE) in Washington, D.C.

In 1993, as he completed his first year in office, Peltason reported to the Regents on the state of the University, saying that it had been "a year of major challenges." The 1990s began with a national recession that hit California particularly hard in the post-Cold War environment. Faced with declining revenues, state government cut University appropriation by approximately 25 percent. The University was "experiencing the most difficult economic retrenchment in its history," explained Peltason. He said it would be "foolish to say that the consequences haven't been wrenching for everybody. Students are paying more and faculty and staff are working harder for less pay. We have had to make many choices that were neither easy nor painless.

"But we have done what stewards of the public trust must do. We have tried to protect high-quality instruction, we have continued our commitment to diversity, we have maintained a distinguished faculty and a talented and dedicated staff, and we are streamlining our operations on every campus and in the Office of the President."

Despite the problems, 1992-93 had been positive, because it had been a year of reorganization and strategic planning, and much had been accomplished. Among the accomplishments was the appointment of a transition team, headed by UCLA's chancellor, to recommend ways the University could preserve its standing as one of the world's great centers of learning despite the virtual certainty of diminished support from the State through the mid-1990s and perhaps beyond.

The work of the transition team was a first step toward preparing the University for a tougher financial environment. The next was the University's four strategic initiatives, which Peltason had announced the previous December.

The aim of these initiatives has been to focus on improving management, preserving academic quality, finding new sources of support for UC, and helping the State get the economy moving again.

At the time of Peltason's presentation to the Regents on his first year, here was the status of each initiative.

  • "We have not just reorganized administration, we have made the entire University a leaner and meaner organization," Peltason said. "In this era of reinventing government and improving the operation of public agencies, the University has been a leader, as it is in so many other areas as well. We are doing more with fewer people, and I am proud of the intelligence, ingenuity and dedication with which the University community has responded to the need to use our resources more effectively and efficiently than we have ever done before."
  • "We are working hard on preserving the University's high academic quality despite a stringent fiscal environment," Peltason stated. "Academic planning under way on the campuses has already brought us closer to our goal of achieving relative stability during the next four years, while enrollments are not expected to increase and we have a chance to put together plans for the future.

"The chancellors and the campus communities have done a remarkable job in a remarkably short time, and they deserve congratulations," Peltason said, adding that discussions would soon be held at the Universitywide level on the values and goals the University should pursue as it moves into the 21st century. He said the discussions were expected to provide clear and explicit principles that would serve as guidelines for future academic planning and help the University make the most of precious resources.

  • Under Peltason's leadership, the University was actively pursuing new sources of support. Private giving to UC had reached a new high during the past year, Peltason said, and this was an encouraging sign. In addition, UC was stepping up its fundraising efforts. The University also was working with other colleges and universities and with the business community to secure stable funding for higher education.
  • The University was moving ahead in its efforts to put its brainpower more directly at the service of California, particularly through UC's highly successful technology transfer activities. In addition, over the past few months, discussions had been held with UC faculty about the best ways to organize UC's economic development initiatives, and particularly how to capitalize further on UC's success in technology transfer.

This area was becoming even more important in light of the economic development opportunities that were expected to flow from the Clinton Administration's defense conversion and base conversion activities.

In this connection, UC's campuses and the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory had submitted 60 proposals to the Clinton Administration, for a total of about $113 million, to be considered by the Administration in awarding contracts. This involvement by the University in defense and base conversion represented just one of the ways UC was working to speed California's economic recovery.

In addition to work on the strategic initiatives, the University had been spending the year on building and renewing partnerships. In this connection, the California Business-Higher Education Forum, consisting of college and university heads and leaders in the business community, had forged a common agenda in two areas.

One was to alert California to the risks facing higher education and the importance of doing something about them. Another was to propose ways of reversing business flight from the state and promoting economic development.

Sources: The Centennial Record of the University of California, compiled and edited by Verne A. Stadtman and the Centennial Publications Staff (Berkeley: University of California, 1967), and The University of California: History and Achievements by Dean C. Johnson. (Berkeley: University of California, 1996).

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