University of California: Universitywide and Affiliated
Labor & Employment,
Institute of (ILE)
Latino Policy Institute (LPI)
Lawrence Berkeley National Labs
Lawrence Livermore National Labs
Linguistic Minority Research Institute,
University of California (UC LMRI)
Los Alamos National Labs
& Employment, Institute of (ILE)
In July of 2000, an act of the California State Legislature established
the Institute of Labor and Employment. The ILE would serve as a
driving force behind labor research in the state as well as an interface
between the state's labor community and the University of California.
A 15-person Transition Team appointed by the Office of the President
(UCOP) began developing the ILE. The formation of the ILE involved
collaboration with UCLA and UCB's Institutes of Industrial Relations
(IIRs) and their Centers for Labor and Research. The two directors
of UCLA and UCB's IIRs, Paul Ong and Jim Lincoln, respectively,
became co-directors of the Transition Team. By 2001, Professors
and Researchers such as Ruth Milkman, Michael Reich and Peter Olney
had joined ILE's leadership team.
The ILE currently supports academic research, education, and service
programs centered on the theme of labor throughout the state and
on all the UC campuses. source
Policy Institute (LPI)
The Latino Policy Institute began operations in 1990 as the Latino
Policy Research Program. It later was renamed the Latino Policy
Institute, but continued to facilitate research on issues affecting
policy and Latino and Chicano populations in California.
The institute provides funding through grants for University of
California researchers. The research is then made available to Californian
policymakers through briefings and technical reports. Policymakers
may even commission the researchers to write a report on a specific
topic. In addition to influencing policy, the institute also provides
reports and briefs for the general public through the California
Policy Research Center (CPRC) website (http://www.ucop.edu/cprc).
LPI is housed in the CPRC and is overseen by the UC Committee on
Latino Research (UCCLR). source
Lawrence Radiation Laboratory grew out of the invention of the cyclotron
in 1929 by the late Ernest O. Lawrence. The cyclotron proved to
be the most effective tool for generating high-energy beams of nuclear
particles with which to explore the atomic nucleus.
A beam of particles was accelerated for the first
time successfully in a cyclotron at Berkeley on January 2, 1931,
when an energy level of 80,000 volts was achieved with protons in
a 4.5-inch instrument made of brass and sealing wax. In 1948, the
era of high-energy physics in the laboratory was initiated when
the 184-inch cyclotron produced man-made mesons for the first time.
With this, the Bevatron, the antiproton (1955) and the antineutron
(1956) were discovered. After the liquid hydrogen bubble chamber
and associated data reduction equipment (for particle detection
and analysis) were developed in the laboratory, the Bevatron was
the source of the discovery of numerous new particles of matter
starting in 1959. As of the spring of 1965, the laboratory had accounted
for the discovery of about one-third of the approximately 80 known
particles and had revolutionized concepts of matter.
The laboratory was also responsible for pioneering
the use of cyclotron beams and the application of radioisotopes
in biology, medicine, agriculture, and industry. The first radioisotope
tracer studies in man were conducted with cyclotron-produced sodium-24
at the University of California Medical Center, San Francisco. The
first treatment of human disease, using radiophosphorus in leukemia,
was conducted at Berkeley in 1937, and subsequently the first control
of a disease (polycythemia) with a radioisotope was achieved. The
diagnosis and treatment of hyperthyroidism with iodine-131 was pioneered
(1938-42), the first studies of the biological action of heavy particles
(neutrons) were conducted in 19 experimental therapy with neutrons
was carried on (1938-42). Subsequently (1954), the high-energy beams
of protons and alpha particles from the 184-inch cyclotron were
used in human therapy, proving to be effective in the control of
some pituitary-associated diseases (e.g., acromegaly and Cushing's
Disease). Beginning in 1945, carbon 14 was used to elucidate for
the first time the intermediate chemistry of photosynthesis.
The Nobel Prize has been awarded to nine members
of the staff: Lawrence (1939), Edwin M. McMillan and Glenn T. Seaborg
(1951), Owen Chamberlain and Emilio Segré (1959), Donald
Glaser (1960), Melvin Calvin (1961), Luis W. Alvarez (1968), and
Yuan T. Lee (1986).
From 1941-45, the laboratory was a major national
resource for the development of the atomic bomb. The discovery of
plutonium (element 94) stimulated the development of the nuclear
reactor. The Berkeley laboratory was responsible for developing
the electromagnetic separation process for obtaining pure U-235,
a process used on an industrial scale at Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Cadres
of Berkeley scientists helped staff laboratories around the country,
including the Radiation Laboratory (radar development) at Massachusetts
Institute of Technology and the LOS ALAMOS Scientific Laboratory,
which was founded under University of California management in 1943.
The Berkeley laboratory is acknowledged to be
the prototype of the big, interdisciplinary science laboratory represented
by national laboratories in the United States and abroad. By 1936,
the unusual size and complexity of the laboratory was already such
that the Regents designated it "The Radiation Laboratory,"
as a discrete administrative unit in the physics department, with
Lawrence as director. With the death of Lawrence in 1958, the Regents
renamed the laboratory in his honor. Edwin M. McMillan succeeded
Lawrence as director. source
When the Soviet Union detonated its first atomic bomb in 1949, the
United States' monopoly on fission weaponry was broken, and many
American scientists feared that the Soviets would be the first to
reach the next step, the hydrogen bomb. Edward Teller, a colleague
of Ernest Lawrence at the Los Alamos nuclear weapons lab, believed
it was essential to start a second nuclear weapons laboratory; Lawrence
not only supported Teller in this, but also wanted Teller to oversee
the creation of the lab.
In July 1952, over a year after Teller presented his plan to Atomic
Energy Commission Chairman Gordon Dean, a formal act of the Atomic
Energy Commission created a new branch of the UC Radiation Laboratory
at a formal naval air station in the ranching town of Livermore.
32-year-old Herbert F. York, barely three years out of graduate
school, was selected by Lawrence to head the new laboratory. Initially,
he created four project areas: "Sherwood" (Magnetic Fusion
Program), diagnostic weapon experiments, thermonuclear weapon design,
and a general physics research program. The first buildings at Livermore
housed the latest UNIVAC electronic computer, and a technology building
with a large bay for lifting equipment. Though experts in a variety
of fields often developed new technologies on their own, they always
tried to uphold Lawrence's vision of synthetic understanding and
In the next fifty years, Livermore became a competitor of Los Alamos
in the development of nuclear weapons, and also sported great achievements
in energy, computing, and medicine by applying its knowledge of
the atom to other fields. source
Lick Observatory bears the name of the man who had the means and
determination to create the first permanently occupied mountain
observatory. In 1875, James Lick, a wealthy and eccentric San Francisco
bachelor, set aside the sum of $700,000 for the purpose of ".
. .constructing. . .a powerful telescope, superior to and more powerful
than any yet made. . .and also a suitable observatory connected
therewith." Lick personally selected 4,200-foot Mount Hamilton
east of San Jose as the site. When, in accordance with Lick's wishes,
the completed observatory built by his board of trustees was turned
over to the Regents of the University in 1888, it contained a telescope
that met the specifications--the great 36-inch refractor.
In 1895, the second important telescope, a 36-inch reflector presented
by Edward Crossley of Halifax, England, was installed on the mountain.
The brilliant work of James E. Keeler in photographing stars and
nebulae with the Crossley instrument had a great influence in turning
the attention of astronomers to the reflector as the telescope of
the future. Observations and discoveries with these two telescopes
quickly demonstrated the superiority of a mountain site in a good
climate for astronomical investigations and in the first dozen years
the pioneer venture on Mount Hamilton set the pattern for other
The Lick astronomers continued to use these telescopes most productively
and established a still-cherished tradition for the extremely efficient
use of a beam of starlight. But for 40 years, while large telescopes
were being built elsewhere, there were no additions to the principal
instruments on Mount Hamilton. In 1939, a twin astrograph designed
to map the whole sky through the 20-inch wide-angle lenses was installed
with the aid of a gift from the Carnegie Corporation. Finally, in
the postwar period, the Lick Observatory resumed its place in the
first rank among well-equipped observatories when appropriations
from the state of California totaling $2.8 million financed the
construction of a 120-inch reflector, the second largest telescope
in the world. It went into service in 1959.
Observational research at Lick Observatory has left its mark on
nearly every area of modern astronomical investigation: Planets,
satellites and comets, double stars, variable stars, star clusters,
the chemical constitution of the stars, interstellar matter and
its condensation into young stars, the motions of the stars, the
nature, number, and internal notions of galaxies, and the strange
quasi-stellar objects. Equally important, the observatory has been
a strong factor in the outstanding record of the University in training
astronomers. Many graduate students from Berkeley who have come
to Mount Hamilton to undertake thesis research under the guidance
of Lick astronomers have gone on to positions of prominence in teaching
and research in other institutions; these include the present directors
of the Mount Wilson and Palomar Observatories in Pasadena and the
Kitt Peak National Observatory in Tucson. The Warner Prize of the
American Astronomical Society for outstanding achievement by an
astronomer not yet 35 years of age has gone six out of 12 times
to Berkeley-Lick alumni.
The educational role of the Lick staff will increase as the headquarters
of the observatory are moved to the Santa Cruz campus and the staff
organizes its own program of formal graduate instruction in astronomy.
The historic function of the observatory remains unchanged. Its
staff seeks to engage in observational research of the highest quality
with ground-based optical telescopes. The instruments on Mount Hamilton,
which in recent years have seen steadily increasing use by faculty
members and students from the various campuses, will continue to
be operated as a University-wide facility. source
Minority Research Institute, University of California (UC LMRI)
The University of California Linguistic Minority Research Institute
(UC LMRI) was created as a research project in 1984 by the Office
of the President. The project was intended to fulfill the State
Legislature's suggestion that there be increased study of education
policy and practice in relation to linguistic minorities. In 1992,
it was established as a Multicampus Research Unit.
Throughout its history, the LMRI upheld its commitment to researching
the educational theory and practice related to language minorities.
In 1989, the institute launched the UCLA Latino Home-School Research
Project, which conducted lengthy interviews with kindergartners.
The project continued even through 2001, after many of the kids
were over 15 years old.
After 1991, the LMRI began publishing a newsletter to present contemporary
research and issues, which often led to increased public awareness.
The LMRI also published a few books, one of which was Changing
Schools for Changing Students: An Anthology of Language Minority.
Los Alamos National
Though devoting about half of its effort towards the peaceful applications
of nuclear energy, the laboratory's primary mission remains what
it has always been--research and development work on nuclear and
thermonuclear weapons and weapons components. The first of such
weapons were made entirely by the laboratory, but since the early
1950's the staff has been able to concentrate on the design of nuclear
assembly systems, and the actual production of weapons has been
taken over by other AEC contractors.
Historically, the laboratory was established with
the immediate and sole objective of making a nuclear weapon. Wartime
development of the atomic bomb was started in 1942 under the direction
of the Office of Scientific Research and Development. Dr. J. Robert
Oppenheimer undertook investigation of its theoretical possibilities
at the Berkeley campus with a small group of well-known physicists.
By October 1942, theoretical studies had progressed to the point
where actual experimental work was necessary. Several areas in the
southwest were surveyed as possible sites, and the decision was
made to center the weapon research at Los Alamos, in northern New
On January 1, 1943, the University was selected
to operate the new laboratory. The first scientists arrived in April
to begin their historic research. Work from the start proceeded
with speed and intensity. The bottom pole piece of the cyclotron
magnet (obtained from Harvard) was not laid in place until mid-April,
yet the first experiment was performed early in July 1943.
Theoretical studies first proved the feasibility
of a nuclear fission bomb. Differential and integral experiments
confirmed it. An actual field test with full instrumentation was
to be the next step. A test site was picked--a desolate, desert
area near Alamogordo, nearly 300 miles south of Los Alamos.
Early in the spring of 1945 preparations started.
Final assembly of the device was made in a deserted ranch house
on the night of July 12. Two days later the unit was elevated to
the top of a 100-foot tower, and instrumentation began. By pre-dawn
of July 16 all was ready, except for the threat of an approaching
storm. About 4 a.m. the light rain stopped and the weather cleared.
At 5:30 a.m. there occurred the detonation of the world's first
nuclear fission bomb with an estimated yield equivalent to 20,000
tons of TNT.
Besides weapons development and weapons testing,
in the 1960s, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory was active in the
following fields: Project Rover, the nation's program to develop
a nuclear rocket; Project Sherwood, the nation's program to control
a thermonuclear reaction; power reactor research and development;
theoretical physics and mathematics; Vela, part of the nation's
program to detect nuclear explosions in the earth's atmosphere and
in space; accelerators to learn more about the structure of matter--the
key not only to the history and structure of the universe, but also
to man's immediate environment and very existence; health and biomedical
research; and chemistry, metallurgy, and cryogenics. source