Berkeley: Student Personnel Services
Student Personnel Services were offered by the
staffs of a variety of offices on the Berkeley campus, briefly described
Financial Aids, Scholarships,
Housing Services Office
Special Services Office
Student and Alumni Placement Center
Student Health Service
Financial Aids, Scholarships,
Whether students were "needy and deserving"
in the 1897 phrase, were "gifted" or combined "scholarship, financial
need, character and promise" in 1965 terms, they could be eligible
for financial aids available through the University. Some of the
scholarships, prizes, and loans were available to undergraduate
students, some to graduates, and some to both. Various committees
determined eligibility and made awards. Award conditions were specified
by the donors, who included alumni and friends of the University,
the state of California, the Regents, and the federal government.
An overall grade average of B or 3.0 was the minimum required for
consideration for University-administered awards; a semester's minimum
of 12 units had to be carried by holders of undergraduate scholarships.
Entering students accounted for approximately
400 of the more than 900 undergraduate scholarships annually awarded
at the Berkeley campus. They ranged in value from $200 to $600.
The California Alumni Scholarships, begun in 1934, aided about 200
entrants annually by the mid-1960s. Provided by the California
Alumni Foundation in conjunction with the University, they were
awarded to entering freshmen and students entering with advanced
standing. Awards covered about one-third of a student's annual expenses.
Recipients could apply for continuation of the scholarship.
In a different category of undergraduate scholarships
were the California State Scholarships administered after 1956 by
the State Scholarship Commission in amounts to cover compulsory
fees for a maximum of four years. The program evolved from one that
began in 1897. Candidates applied from the seven congressional districts
of the state, and qualified through scores achieved on the scholastic
aptitude tests, proof of need and the evidence of academic transcripts.
Recipients could select one of 60 California institutions participating
in the program and could qualify for scholarship renewal by proving
continued financial need and the maintenance of a C average.
Regents Scholarships, established in 1962, were
designed for a limited number of entering freshmen and entering
and continuing junior students in recognition of outstanding achievement
and promise. Appointments were for four and two years respectively,
carried an award of $100 regardless of need, and a stipend to cover
the difference between a scholar's resources and the cost of an
education at Berkeley. Appointments were subject to annual review,
but were renewed automatically without reapplication if performance
was satisfactory. Stipends could be adjusted if circumstances changed.
Regents Scholars enjoyed a variety of prerogatives including priority
in University housing and library stack permits. In addition, the
Committee on Undergraduate Scholarships and Honors administered
a variety of specially endowed scholarship programs.
Loans available to both graduate and undergraduate
students were administered by the Office of the Dean of Students.
Loans were generally intended to supplement a student's funds, not
to cover the full cost of a semester's attendance. Residency, a
satisfactory scholastic record, and repayment plan were usually
necessary, although certain categories of students could make temporary
loans even in their first semester of residency. Loans in the general
category of University Loans (supported by about 175 different loan
funds) averaged around $350 and were payable before the beginning
of the next academic year. True Emergency Loans in amounts ranging
from $1 to $50 were usually repaid within two weeks. Both loan funds
at Berkeley were based on endowments, most of them established as
a memorial to an individual.
Regents Loans, established in 1963, formed a revolving
fund designed to supplement funds of scholarship holders. National
Defense Education Act Loans, established by the federal government
in 1958, required that one-ninth of the grant be matched by the
Regents. Those eligible included regularly enrolled graduate or
undergraduate students or applicants for admission who were citizens
or permanent residents of the United States pursuing a full program
of academic work and able to establish basic financial need. The
director of special services in the Office of the Dean of Students
also administered Health Profession Student Loans, as well as those
The Graduate Division's Committee on Fellowships
and Graduate Scholarships administered over 300 fellowships and
graduate scholarships, whose awards ranged from about $300 to $3,600
for an academic year. Awards were based on distinguished scholarship
and academic and professional promise and were usually limited to
those 32 years of age or younger to encourage graduate studies by
young scholars. Through the regular University fellowship competition,
based on a single application, graduates applied for general or
restricted fellowships and those restricted to specific fields of
study, honorary traveling fellowships furnishing credentials but
no stipend, and the national award programs that included National
Defense Graduate Fellowships, National Defense Foreign Language
Fellowships, National Science Foundation Graduate Traineeships,
and National Aeronautics and Space Administration Predoctoral Traineeships.
Teaching assistantships for graduate students of excellent scholarship,
teaching fellowships for mature scholars, and research assistantships
were handled through the individual departments.
A small number of grants-in-aid for travel and
unusual research needs were available to students well advanced
in doctoral research.
In a different category were the Work-Study Program
and the Special Opportunity Scholarship Program. The Work-Study
Program, begun in 1965, was designed to provide jobs for needy students
and to contribute to the fight against poverty by providing meaningful
work in the community. The Special Opportunity Scholarship Program
sought to encourage high school students with intellectual promise
but little likelihood of attending college to come to the campus
for a seven-week course of special study. The program, which began
in summer of 1964, was financed by contributions from the University
faculty and staff, with matching funds from the Regents, and was
directed by a Faculty Committee on Special Scholarships.
Service to residence halls and the dining
room commons comprised the bulk of the student food services on
the Berkeley campus. Beginning with the first residence hall, Bowles,
in 1929, service was extended to Stern Hall in 1942, to Fernwald-Smythe
Halls in 1946, to Residence Hall Unit 1 in 1959, to Residence Hall
Unit 2 in 1960, and to Residence Hall Unit 3 three years later.
By the mid-1960s, the halls served about 10,000 student meals daily.
The dining commons were opened in 1948 as a campus
cafeteria located in temporary buildings moved from Camp Parks.
Their primary task was to provide meals for the returning veterans
on campus, and did so at the rate of 1,200 meals daily. That year,
the central commissary was established to supply food for students
as well as for the Faculty Clubs, International House, and Cowell
Hospital; it furnished prepared items, canned foods, and dry stores.
When the dining commons moved to new buildings
in the Student Union complex in 1960, capacity and patronage increased
sharply, reaching 12,000 meals per day by 1965. Three of its restaurants
operated above planned capacity; the Golden Bear, which was not
open at night, was the exception. Special foods were prepared for
religious days observed by the students, with avoidance of foods
offensive to particular groups. In addition, catering was available
for special events ranging from banquets to coffee service.
Estimates for the dining commons contemplated
an annual gross income of $800,000; in 1965, the gross income was
$1.5 million. Apart from construction subsidies, the food services
Housing Services Office
In the fall of 1946, the pressing problems
of student housing were recognized by the creation of a central
housing office, under a housing supervisor, on each existing campus
of the University. The office at Berkeley provided services for
students, staff, and faculty. For students, the office processed
applications for University-operated residence halls and for married
student housing and, in addition, maintained card files of accommodations
listed by private owners in the area and in adjacent communities.
The Living Accommodations Inspector was under the jurisdiction of
the Housing Services Office and those privately owned boarding houses
that were inspected and received University approval, as well as
boarding houses, rooms in private homes, and apartments not inspected
by the University were included on these lists.
Special Services Office
Following World War II, the University's
responsibilities relating to veterans were handled by the coordinator
of veterans' affairs. In 1951, the supervisor of special services
was designated to maintain liaison between veterans and the Veterans
Administration, the State Department of Veterans' Affairs, and other
agencies offering educational benefits to veterans. The office was
further directed to assist veterans in becoming assimilated into
the life and spirit of the University. By 1952, the supervisor was
located within the Office of the Dean of Students and special services
dealt with veterans enrolled under Public Law 346 (G. I. Bill) and
Public Law 16 (Rehabilitation). Additional responsibilities developed
during the post-Korea period, many related to the National Defense
Education Act of 1958 in the area of student loans, student fellowships,
and special-purpose grants. In addition, the supervisor administered
Regents' Loans and Health Profession Student Loans, and was increasingly
involved with the work-study program established under the Economic
Opportunity Act. His office handled all Selective Service matters,
certifying full-time student status to draft boards for student
deferments. By the mid-1960s, veterans' dependents qualifying for
educational benefits from federal or state programs because of the
death or disability of a father, were also included in the special
Student and Alumni Placement Center
In 1918, the California Alumni Association
introduced a job placement service (the Military Bureau) specifically
for University alumni who were veterans of World War I. Service
was also extended to non-veteran alumni although an official agency
for this task was not established until 1923, when the alumni association,
at the request of President William Wallace Campbell, introduced
the Alumni Bureau of Occupations, with the University sharing in
the cost of operation. The bureau gradually took over the responsibility
of student placement. The demands upon it were such that in 1934,
President Sproul directed that the University assume complete responsibility
for the bureau. The name was changed to the Student and Alumni Placement
Center in November, 1958.
In 1923, the Alumni Bureau of Occupations was
composed of the manager and one staff member. In 1965, there were
27 members of the staff of the placement center, 19 of whom were
professional employment interviewers. The center provided services
to students seeking part-time and full-time temporary employment
and vacation employment to meet their financial obligations, and
prospective degree candidates and alumni seeking career positions
in industry, business, and government.
The first manager of the Alumni Bureau of Occupations
was Mrs. K. C. Gilkey, who served for a short period of time during
1923. She was followed by Mrs. Leslie Ganyard (1923-28), Miss Vera
Christie (1928-56), and Robert Calvert, Jr. after 1956; Mrs. Nansi
Corson served as acting manager between 1956-58 and after l963 while
Mr. Calvert took a leave of absence.
Student Counseling Center
Student Counseling Center was established
in 1952 through student petition to the Regents for services previously
available only to the returning veterans of World War II. By the 1960s,
it had become very active University student personnel facility, serving
an average of 4,000-5,000 students per year.
While the center's major function and primary
responsibility was student counseling, it also served a resource
and consultant function for University departments and administration
on problems typically related to student development, adjustment,
and evaluation. Consultation with community agencies and counseling
and testing services for the general public were also provided on
a limited basis.
In student counseling, the center provided the
students the opportunity to explore problems arising during and out
of academic life which could involve their studies, career, or their
personal or marital relationships. The students often found satisfaction in
the ready availability of a University staff member, with whom they
could meet on a person-to-person basis and from whom they could expect
professional assistance coping with problems or in realizing goals.
Psychological testing, covering assessment of interests, aptitudes,
and characteristics of personality, was also available for each student's
personal information and was often utilized in clarifying problems
or in making preparation for a suitable and appropriate course of
study and a successful career.
The center also provided an extensive occupational
library where the students, with the assistance of an occupational
information specialist, could find a comprehensive collection of
books and pamphlets describing occupations; directories and catalogs
of colleges, professional and technical schools, and adult education
programs; lists of scholarships, fellowships, and loans, and books
on reading and study improvement. Thus, in one location, the center
provided confidential interview facilities, psychological testing,
and occupational information, any or all of which were readily available
to the students at times they could fit into their schedules.
While student counseling was the center's primary
function and responsibility, it also served as an internship training
facility for graduate students in psychology and education and as
a testing center for those students who were required to take special
examinations for purpose of transfer or admission to professional
or technical schools situated in other localities.
The center also provided indirect services to
students through collaborative research with various academic and
nonacademic departments of the University in order to develop or
improve standards of admission and selection.
In addition to student and related University
services, the Counseling Center provided a selection program of
vocational and educational counseling to non-students on a cost-fee
basis and handled numerous requests from the public for information
on mental health resources and occupational and educational services.
Student Health Service
Prior to 1906, the Regents had accepted funds
from the Prytanean Society and others for the purpose of equipping
hospital beds for students, but the San Francisco earthquake dramatized
the need for campus health facilities as urged by Dr. George F.
Reinhardt. After the earthquake victims were given treatment in
the old Hearst Gymnasium, President Wheeler authorized Dr. Reinhardt
to have the leftover equipment moved into the Meyer residence, a
brown-shingle farmhouse across the street from the Cowell Hospital.
Dr. Reinhardt was named the first University physician, heading
the earliest prepaid comprehensive program for student health in
Ernest V. Cowell, who died in 1911, left $250,000
for the construction of a hospital for the students; by 1926, a
state bond issue provided an additional $200,000. The Ernest V.
Cowell Memorial Hospital was opened in 1930, with many of the rooms
equipped by individual donations of $300. In 1955-56, the trustees
of the S. H. Cowell Foundation provided $1.5 million for the construction
of an additional five-story wing, completed in 1959. For those students
needing services and equipment not available through the student
health service program, friends of Ruby L. Cunningham established
a memorial fund in 1945; in 1956, the fund was set up as an endowment
for handicapped students.
The necessity of providing hospital accommodations
on-campus for students with contagious diseases comprised one of
the earliest arguments for establishing an infirmary. At that time,
privately owned hospitals refused admission to such patients; the
student's whole house would be quarantined, thus isolating residents
and keeping them from their classes. By the mid-1960s, the purpose
of the student health service was described as insuring "to every
student the opportunity, of enjoying, in health and with maximum
profit, the benefits of his academic life." The service was supported
by student fees, and recognized eligibility from the first day of
registration to the last day of the semester or the date of withdrawal
from the University; in special cases, eligibility could be extended.
Additional charges were made for hospitalization exceeding 30 days
and for care between semesters for students who planned to return
to the University, but were unable to do so. In addition, a variety
of clinic services and special health services were available to
students. On the recommendation of a staff physician, students needing
specially prepared meals could arrange to pay a nominal per-meal
charge and to eat in the Cowell Hospital dining room. The Department
of Psychological Medicine provided short-term therapy; speech therapy
wais available at nominal charge following evaluation. The surgery
clinic was primarily for diagnosis and recommendations and only
urgent or emergency surgery was performed. Dental care was mainly
emergency as well, with a charge for non-emergency treatment by
In addition to the normal campus services, the
infirmary became a post hospital for the military during the influenza
epidemic of 1918; later the hospital dealt with a 1943-44 scarlet
fever epidemic on campus by growing and purifying its own supply
of the newly discovered drug, penicillin. The Donner Metabolic Unit,
built in 1953, was integrated with hospital services, but funded
and professionally controlled by Donner Laboratory.