Merriam eventually went to Munich and received his doctorate there in 1893 under the renowned paleontologist Karl Alfred von Zittel. Merriam returned to the University the next year as an instructor in paleontology under LeConte. His research covered the invertebrates as well as the vertebrates. He increased the number of courses in paleontology to eight in 1897-98, and he developed the widely attended lower division general course which was still being offered in the mid-1960s.
Merriam's research and field program were generously aided by one of his former students, Miss Annie M. Alexander. Her support made possible extensive collections that eventually became a large part of the Museum of Paleontology. Her early interest stimulated the creation, under Merriam, of a separate Department of Paleontology, which was split away from geology in 1909.
Merriam had previously been giving courses in the Departments of Geology and Zoology. He wished to consolidate his interests in one department, and to effectively provide for the training of students in all branches of paleontology. The new department was planned to offer courses that could not easily be merged into either zoology or geology. A broader training program leading to graduate instruction was developed. Field work was more readily planned and executed under the new setup.
The department remained under Merriam's leadership for nearly ten years. When he left to take the presidency of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, Bruce L. Clark took over as chairman. Clark decided to merge the department with geology, and this arrangement was continued for six years. In 1927, under William D. Matthew, the department again gained independent status. Matthew's early training had been in geology, nevertheless he realized the importance of a biological background in the training of students.
Charles L. Camp, who came in 1922, gave courses on the lower vertebrates, comparative myology, comparative osteology, and, later, the elementary course. His research dealt with Mesozoic reptiles and he collected in North America, South Africa, China, and Australia. He directed the University's South African expedition in 1947-48. He was director of the Museum of Paleontology from 1931 to 1950, and chairman of the department from 1940 to 1950.
Professor Bruce L. Clark began instruction in micropaleontology in 1928 and this subject was broadly expanded, with a separate laboratory, after that time.
Instruction in paleobotany, begun in 1931 under Ralph W. Chaney, also became a permanent feature.
Miss Alexander provided an endowment for the Museum of Paleontology in 1921. This institution was given independent status in 1931 as a center for research and the preservation of collections.
All members of the departmental staff actively engaged in research, using the materials in the museum. Museum specimens were constantly available for classroom instruction. A series of teaching exhibits were placed in the Earth Sciences Building, in which the museum and department had their quarters. These were available to the public. source
Paleontology is now a part of the Department of Integrative Biology.
The history of the Berkeley philosophy department falls into three distinct periods. The first, from 1884 to the end of the first world war, can perhaps be called the Howison period. Howison gave the department an Hegelian idealistic bent. With a strong, outgoing, almost missionary personality, he made philosophy a factor not only in the University but in the surrounding community as well. He organized a society for the discussion of philosophical questions which he called the Philosophical Union and which included ministers and laymen as well as faculty. The best-known philosophers of England and America came to speak before it--Ward, McTaggart, Rashdall, James, Royce, and Dewey. Here in 1898, William James presented his theory of pragmatism for the first time. In 1891, psychologist George M. Stratton became the second member of the department and was responsible for the early development of his subject in Berkeley. By 1920-21, there were nine members in the department, four in psychology and five in philosophy. The latter were George P. Adams, Clarence I. Lewis, Jacob Loewenberg, Stephen C. Pepper, and Charles H. Rieber. Howison had died in 1916. Lewis left for Harvard in 1921, and in 1922, Rieber moved to the Los Angeles campus. In the same year, psychology became a separate department.
The second period can be called one of critical philosophy. The younger members who were added during this time were David Wight Prall, who came in 1922 and went to Harvard some ten years later, William R. Dennes, Paul Marhenke, Donald S. Mackay, and Edward W. Strong. These men, together with Professors Adams, Loewenberg, and Pepper, made up the department until the succeeding period, which began about 1950. During this period, the Philosophical Union was converted into a series of scholarly lectures delivered by all the philosophy staff in residence. More than 2,000 students enrolled yearly in the undergraduate courses, and the number of graduate students increased to about 80. Mackay and Marhenke, both relatively young, died in 1951 and 1952. Shortly thereafter, Adams and Loewenberg reached retirement age. Thus, within the space of a very few years more than half the old staff was lost.
This was the turning point toward the third period. The department belatedly realized how understaffed it was and began to recruit new members for its greatly increased enrollment. The first of the new staff members, Karl Aschenbrenner and Benson Mates, joined the department in 1948. The following years brought other changes so that after the retirement of Dennes in 1965, only Strong remained from the second period. The new department of over 20 members included a number of younger men chiefly interested in logic, philosophy of science, and analytical philosophy. While not unmindful of past issues, this young group had an intensely contemporary orientation which reflected a deepening of philosophic vigor in the new generation. No less vigorous were those whose interests were in ethics, aesthetics and in historical studies. All members were active in research and publication as well as in graduate and undergraduate teaching. source
In 1901, Mrs. Phoebe A. Hearst donated a gymnasium for women, of whom a year's course of directed exercise was then required. The single department carried on until 1914, when separate Departments of Physical Education for Men and for Women were established. In 1933, the physical education requirement was abolished and elective courses took its place. In 1942, the two departments became two divisions, under a single department chairman.
The activity program in the early years included primarily gymnastics and drill, with emphasis upon body-building and the identification and improvement of developmental physical deficiencies. With the gradually emerging recognition of the importance of total dynamic health and well-being, stress was placed as well upon self-direction and upon opportunity for development of skills for recreation and for aesthetic expression. In 1965, students might enroll for University credit in instructional classes in some 40 different activities, including gymnastics, team and individual sports, and several forms of dance. Enrollment for 1964-65 totaled 9,779.
The department, with the cooperation and support of the Associated Students and the University administration, gave leadership to an extensive program in intramural sports. In 1964-65, tournaments were held in 28 different sports. An extension of the intramural program was established in 1963 with President Kerr's sponsorship of intercampus-intramural competition.
As an undergraduate major for the bachelor's degree, physical education was, successively, a department "in which major courses may be taken" (1909), an approved group-elective or major for the A.B. degree (1914-20), an organized group-major in physical education-hygiene (1922-39), a group major in physical education (1939-60), and a departmental major (starting in 1960). Content of the major courses grew in breadth and depth and aimed to develop an understanding of the science and art of human movement based upon anatomical, physiological, psychological, sociological, and historical foundations. Between 1910 and 1965, 1,608 bachelor's degrees (1939-60), with specialization in physical education were awarded. The largest undergraduate enrollments were registered in the 1930s and 1940s. Approximately two-thirds of these graduates were also enrolled in the teacher-education program developed in cooperation with the School of Education and directed primarily toward service in secondary schools.
The graduate program was formally established in 1930 when the M.A. degree was authorized. The Ed.D. degree in physical education was initiated in 1951. The staff and graduate students made continuous and substantial research contributions, extending the knowledge of human movement particularly in the physiological, psychological, sociological, and developmental aspects. Research laboratories were established in both Hearst and Harmon Gymnasiums in the 1930s. Emphasis in graduate programs was upon basic research rather than upon professional application. One hundred and seventeen M.A. and 18 Ed.D. degrees were earned. Nearly all of the doctoral and many of the masters graduates were engaged in college and university teaching.
The staff in 1964-65 included the equivalent of 32 full-time faculty members, seven with professional status.
Among other projects of the department that may be mentioned are the presentation, after 1930, of an annual student dance concert, the teaching of dance classes for the Parthenia (1916-23), training of Reconstruction Aides (precursors of physical therapists), cooperation with the Associated Students in the coaching of some intercollegiate teams starting in 1919, supervision of the Strawberry Canyon Recreational Area and the Haas Clubhouse starting in 1960, and assisting with Peace Corps training starting in 1962. During the Summer Sessions, the department sponsored the first Play School under the direction of C. W. and Daisy Hetherington (1913). This school was later (1914-32) conducted under the aegis of the School of Education. source
The department no longer exists as such.
The physics department occupied one lecture room and one office in North Hall until the death of John LeConte (April 29, 1891). From 1912 to 1923 it occupied all of South Hall. In 1923 LeConte Hall (dedicated to John and Joseph LeConte) was completed at a cost of $443,000. The accommodations were doubled in 1950 with the completion of an addition to LeConte Hall at a cost of $1,200,000. In 1964 the department gained another equal amount of additional space with the completion of Raymond Thayer Birge Hall, at a cost of $2,400,000.
Frederick Slate became "head" of the department on the death of John LeConte, and he retained that position until his retirement in 1918. After that the department had "chairmen": E. P. Lewis, 1918 until his death on Nov. 17, 1926; E. E. Hall, until his death on Nov. 19, 1932; Birge, until his retirement in 1955; A. C. Helmholz, 1955-1962; and B. J. Moyer, appointed in 1962.
Physics was a one-man department until 1876 when John LeConte assumed the additional duties of President and then had the assistance of a temporary instructor. The first permanent addition to the staff was Frederick Slate in 1877. He was in charge of the physics laboratory which started in 1879 in one room in South Hall and was one of the first such laboratories in America. In 1887 W. J. Raymond became the third member of the staff. He retired in 1935. Lewis was appointed in 1895 and R. S. Minor in 1903. At the end of the first half century (1918) the staff consisted of Lewis, Minor, Hall, Raymond and three instructors. In 1918 Birge became instructor. From then on the staff rapidly increased in size and distinction. By the mid-1960s, there were about 60 on the teaching staff.
John LeConte was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1878. Birge was elected in 1932, followed by E. O. Lawrence (1934), L. W. Alvarez and E. M. McMillan (1947), E. Teller (1948), R. B. Brode (1949), N. E. Bradbury (1951), E. Segré (1952), C. Kittel (1957), O. Chamberlain (1960), and G. T. Chew (1962). In the mid-1960s, the Berkeley physics department held ten per cent of the entire physics membership of the academy. But more importantly, E. O. Lawrence was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1939, McMillan (with G. T. Seaborg) in 1951, Segré and O. Chamberlain in 1959.
Originally every student in the University was required to take three years of physics lectures. Shortly thereafter only certain types of students needed to enroll. In 1887 the total physics enrollment was 76; in the fall of 1964 it was 4,908.
The first Ph.D. was awarded in 1903. The total number awarded by 1918 was only 12, but 74 were awarded to 1933, 400 to 1955, and about 800 to 1964. John LeConte published some 100 papers during his life. The only other active research worker prior to 1918 was E. P. Lewis, who published some 70 papers. Printed lists of departmental publications by both staff and students were not started until 1925. The total published from then to 1933 was 199, and to 1963 it was 2,379.
Prior to World War I the largest number of physics graduate students was 25. After the war the number rapidly increased, in spite of rigid selection, to over 200 in 1933 and to over 400 by the mid-1960s. Half of these students did their research in the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, which was technically a part of the physics department. source
In 1873, the center of gravity of teaching in these two subjects passed to San Francisco with the incorporation of the private Toland Medical College into the University. The new San Francisco Medical Department, thereby created, included on its faculty Dr. Melancthon W. Fish as professor of physiology. It also included Dr. A. A. O'Neil as professor of anatomy. During the remainder of the nineteenth century a succession of distinguished San Francisco physicians held the chair in anatomy. On the other hand, only two men were involved in the teaching of physiology during this period. Upon the retirement of Fish in 1887, a highly significant replacement was made in the person of Dr. Arnold A. D'Ancona. D'Ancona was a strong voice on behalf of the appointment of full-time teachers to the medical faculty, and was instrumental in bringing to the University the distinguished anatomist and surgeon Dr. Joseph M. Flint as professor of anatomy in 1901. Flint, unfortunately, was apparently discouraged by the dramatic San Francisco events of 1906 and returned to the east coast the following year.
The first two years of Medical School instruction were moved to Berkeley in 1906, but anatomy fell into a decline until 1915, when Dr. Herbert M. Evans came to Berkeley from Johns Hopkins University as professor of anatomy. During the next 38 years until his retirement in 1953, Evans not only built up the anatomy department, but also in 1931 established and then directed the development of the Institute of Experimental Biology, famed for vitamin and endocrine research. The University's Hormone Research Laboratory was the modern descendant of the institute.
Meanwhile, physiology underwent a comparable, but separate, evolution. In 1902, D'Ancona was able to secure the appointment of Dr. Jacques Loeb, already renowned for his research on artificial parthenogenesis, as professor of physiology. A condition of Loeb's acceptance was that he be established in a research and teaching laboratory on the Berkeley campus with a joint appointment in the College of Letters and Science and the San Francisco Medical Department, so that physiology could interact with the other basic biological sciences and with chemistry and physics. Accordingly, through the generosity of Rudolph Spreckels, a suitable building was erected in 1902 and named the Spreckels Physiological Laboratory. Until Loeb left in 1910 to join the newly-formed Rockefeller Institute in New York, the laboratory attracted graduate students and distinguished scientific visitors from all over the world, and many of the traditions of the department in the mid-1960s stemmed from the impact of this great man. Following the 1906 disaster, the laboratory also served as the focal point for rebuilding the two preclinical years of medical school teaching.
After the departure of Loeb, the department was caught up in a struggle for dominance between the two associate professors of physiology, Samuel S. Maxwell and T. Brailsford Robertson, both of whom, interestingly enough, had the Ph.D. degree in physiology rather than the previously more customary M.D. The issue was finally settled in 1916 with the creation of a new Department of Biochemistry and Pharmacology, with Robertson as professor of biochemistry, and Maxwell as chairman of physiology. In 1919, Dr. Robert Gesell was brought in as professor of physiology, but he left in 1922 and the chairmanship reverted to Maxwell.
The fortunes of physiology waned during the next five years, and by 1927 when Maxwell retired, the teaching staff had dwindled to three.
In 1927, James M. D. Olmsted was appointed professor of physiology, coming to Berkeley from the University of Toronto, and was given the formidable task of rebuilding the department. This he did with zest, so that by the time the department moved to new quarters in the Life Sciences Building in 1930, a totally new faculty had been constituted.
Olmsted relinquished the chairmanship in 1953, a year before his retirement, and it passed to Dr. Leslie L. Bennett. By this time, a Regental decision had been reached to move the first year of instruction of the School of Medicine from Berkeley to the San Francisco Medical Center, and in 1958 Bennett and four other members of the physiology faculty went to San Francisco to establish a separate department leaving three faculty members behind to continue the academic teaching of physiology in Berkeley.
Meanwhile, anatomy had undergone a similar experience. In 1956, Dr. John B. deC. M. Saunders, professor of anatomy and chairman of the department since 1937, was named dean of the School of Medicine, and Dr. William O. Reinhardt became chairman. In 1958, the department was split, Reinhardt and several others moving to San Francisco to start a department there. In this case, four faculty members remained to meet the teaching needs in Berkeley.
An administrative decision was reached by the University in 1958 to combine the Berkeley anatomy and physiology segments into one department, but with two separate budgets and two co-chairmen. Accordingly, Cook was appointed co-chairman for physiology and Dr. C. Willet Asling, professor of anatomy, was named co-chairman for anatomy in a single Department of Anatomy and Physiology.
On Cook's retirement in 1964, Nello Pace, professor of physiology, was appointed chairman of the re-named Department of Physiology-Anatomy, with Asling as vice-chairman for anatomy. For the first time the department became a single budgetary entity, and in the mid-1960s it comprised 14 faculty members and 84 graduate students. It had the responsibility for carrying out academic teaching and research in physiology and anatomy for the Berkeley campus, and offered a broad spectrum of course work, ranging from cell physiology to human dissection, at both the undergraduate and graduate levels. Emphasis was laid upon the integrative approach to the study of the life process. source
Physiology-Anatomy is now a part of the Department of Integrative Biology.
A disastrous outbreak of pear blight in 1904 resulted in a state appropriation of funds to the University in 1905 for blight control. Appropriations were also made for a plant pathology laboratory at Whittier and an experiment station at Riverside, of which Smith was in charge for six years. He not only helped to formulate this legislation but also assisted in preparing a bill passed by the legislature of 1909 appropriating $15,000 to the University for plant disease research at Berkeley.
Meanwhile, Smith was assisted on the Berkeley campus by his sister, Elizabeth H. Smith, and by Ernest B. Babcock and William T. Horne. Horne offered courses from 1909 to 1928 and interested many undergraduates in plant pathology. Thomas E. Rawlins started virus research in 1926 and developed a course in microtechnique. James T. Barrett transferred from Riverside in 1929, offered courses in pathology and mycology, and, on a commuter basis, the first pathology course at Davis. The graduate research course was first offered at Berkeley in 1908 and by the early 1920s, increasing emphasis was placed on graduate study. Nearly 100 Ph.D. degrees had been conferred by 1965, at which time emphasis was placed in teaching and research on the nature and control of plant diseases.
For research on diseases of deciduous fruits, a field laboratory was operated at San Jose, with Bert A. Rudolph in charge. In 1927, James B. Kendrick, Sr., was appointed in residence at Davis and proceeded to build up that branch of the department.
The University's agricultural extension pathologist was always closely affiliated with the department, beginning with C. Emlen Scott in 1931.
The department sponsored two Hitchcock professors, A. H. Reginald Buller and Elvin C. Stakman. In 1953, and less than a year before Smith's death, the department celebrated its 50th anniversary with a program which initiated a series of annual state-wide conferences for pathologists. Under the authority of the National Academy of Sciences, the department organized an international symposium at Berkeley in 1964 on factors determining the behavior of plant pathogens in the soil.
As part of the agricultural experiment station, the department carried on research aimed at the control of pathogen threatening crop production, often in response to urgent pleas from pathogen organizations. Occasionally such an organization provided supplemental funds. Such research yielded many standard procedures such as spraying for pear blight and walnut blight, use of a disinfectant paint lethal to crown gall of fruit trees, and soil fumigation for diseases of strawberries and ornamentals.
Basic research was always emphasized and in the 1960s was augmented by grants from nation-wide foundations. Significant contributions were made to the knowledge of the etiology of bacterial diseases; of the physiology of rusts and mildews; of the nature of plant viruses and virus diseases; and of the soil-inhabiting pathogenic fungi: fusarium, verticillium, rhizoctonia, and armillaria. source
The Department of Plant Pathology no longer exists as such, but is now represented in both the Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management and the Department of Plant and Microbial Biology.
A man of extraordinary depth, breadth, and vision, Moses' influence in the early days of the department was immense. Under his leadership, the curriculum was broadened to include courses which became permanent offerings. His immediate successor in 1911, David P. Barrows, carried these beginnings forward vigorously and was followed by chairmen who, in turn, left their clearly distinguishable imprints: E. M. Sait, R. G. Gettell, P. O. Ray, F. M. Russell, Peter Odegard, Charles Aikin, Robert Scalapino, and again, Charles Aikin. Barrows placed new emphasis upon international relations and foreign governments. His introductory course, Foreign Government, attracted 600-700 students.
The expansion of American colonial responsibility was reflected in the evolving curricula. The 1915 Panama Pacific International Exposition stimulated even greater interest in international studies and interracial problems, although the real impetus came after World War I and the establishment of the League of Nations. By 1921-22, the curriculum was modified to fall into four main fields: political theory, international relations, national government , and local government and administration. In 1927-28, a seven-field structure was developed. This program persisted until 1952-53. After some ten years, the growing emphasis upon political behavior was formalized. The 1965-66 curriculum reorganization eliminated the seven groups as such; lower division requirements were increased along with greater flexibility in electing specialized upper division courses. The undergraduate honors program, inaugurated in 1957-58, was expanded.
The graduate curriculum saw constant development since the first offering in 1904, leading to M.A. and Ph.D. degrees in political science. In 1933, an M.A. degree in international relations was offered (terminated in 1965) and in 1962-63, an M.A. degree in public administration was authorized.
Of interest is the growth in course enrollments--189 registrations in 1903 to a count of 5,111 enrollments in the fall of 1964. Undergraduate majors increased from 288 in 1933 (earlier official figures are not available) to more than 825 in the fall of 1965. Graduate students numbering 20 in 1921 rose to a high of 375 in the 1962 fall semester.
A tabulation of courses shows four political science courses announced for 1903-04 by a faculty of two. The listings in 1965-66 carried 59 undergraduate courses and 70 graduate courses and seminars, with 44 full-time and eight part-time faculty members.
Associated interests and activities of the department began to emerge soon after its creation. Beginning with Moses and Barrows, an impressive list of members over the years participated in public affairs at all levels--local, state, national, and international. The Bureau of International Relations came into being in 1921, to be assimilated in 1955 by the Institute of International Studies. The Bureau of Public Administration, encouraged by Rockefeller Foundation support in 1930, evolved into the Institute of Governmental Studies.
At the invitation of the Italian government and the American Embassy in Rome, the department undertook in 1956 a program of graduate instruction in administrative science at the University of Bologna. Other extended programs, with liberal foundation support--Ford, Rockefeller, and Falk--were: the California Legislative Internship Program; a Rotating Professorship in Governmental Affairs; an extensive research project in Political Theory and Theories on International Relations with local and overseas aspects; and a Program of Training and Research in American Government and Politics.
Faculty service to the University was constant since the early years of the department through the cooperation of the deans and other administrative officers, committee members, conference chairmen, advisers, consultants, etc. Three buildings on campus bore the names of distinguished department members: Moses Hall, Barrows Hall, and the Hans Kelsen Graduate Social Science Library. source
Among the students in these early years were Warner Brown, later department chairman in Berkeley, and Knight Dunlap, later chairman at Johns Hopkins and the Los Angeles campus. Stratton left in 1904 to start a laboratory at Johns Hopkins but returned in 1908 with Brown, who had just received his Ph.D. at Columbia. With two Ph.D.'s in the laboratory, the course listings expanded under such titles as Sensation, Perception, Emotion, Memory, and such applied topics as modern psychology for the lawyer, physician, teacher, and minister appeared. In 1915, Olga Bridgman, M.D., received her Ph.D., the first Berkeley doctorate in psychology, and immediately joined the staff to give courses on the abnormal psychology of childhood. In 1918, Edward Chace Tolman, Harvard trained, joined the department. The rats he used in his experiments in learning saturated the wall-to-wall carpets of the dignified old Philosophy Building with such smells that parturition clearly was imminent. After severe labor pains, the psychology department was born on July 1, 1922, with a faculty of four and with Professor Stratton as chairman.
As the specialized sub-fields developed, the department's faculty steadily increased to 11 members by 1940. New courses were added in clinical and in child development with the establishment of the Institute of Child Welfare in 1927; in physiological, statistical, differential, and social psychology; in perception and representative design; in industrial psychology; and in personality. The number of undergraduate students also increased steadily. Fifty-nine Ph.D.'s were granted during this 20-year period, an average of four per year just previous to World War II. The leading areas of dissertations were experimental, animal, child development, and clinical psychology.
World War II left only four teaching faculty members to carry on. Next came postwar confusion! In the first post-war year, 1946, the number of undergraduate majors doubled the previous high pre-war figures, and there was a six-fold increase in the number of graduate students. Part of the increase was due to generous graduate stipends established by federal agencies, occasioned by public clamor for care of and research upon the causes of psychiatric rejects and casualties which the war had disclosed. To the pre-war faculty of 11 (three of whom were half-time), established over three and one-half decades, 17 new members were added during the next five years.
The faculty numbered 42 by the mid-1960s and covered a wide area of specialization. The number of undergraduate majors rose to about 500 and each could elect any of ten areas of concentration for his major. Forty-six undergraduate courses were listed. Graduate students averaged around 200 in number. About 25 Ph.D.'s were granted per year, spread over a wide range of sub-fields with many more dissertations in physiological, social, and industrial psychology in the mid-1960s. This balance in the departmental program was facilitated by the move to a new building, Tolman Hall, in 1961, and by the establishment of three semi-autonomous groups within the faculty, each offering its own graduate program: 1) clinical, personality, developmental, and social psychology; 2) experimental and biological psychology; and 3) general psychology. Research was aided by grants, private and governmental, and by the establishment of the Institute of Personality Assesment (1949), the campus Computer Center (1956), the Field Station for Behavioral Research (1960), the Institute of Human Learning (1961), and the Psychology Clinic (1963). source
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