Berkeley: Departments and Programs
Peace and Conflict Studies Program
Plant and Microbial
Political Economy of Industrialized Societies Program
Portuguese and Spanish
The beginnings of instruction in Paleontology
are to be found in courses given in the 1870s and later by the extraordinarily
versatile professor Joseph LeConte. LeConte taught geology and comparative
anatomy in those early years, to say nothing of botany, French,
and chemistry. He also found time to investigate and write prolifically
on many subjects, particularly fundamental structural geology. His
textbook, Elementary Geology, was widely used. It was this
book that attracted the brilliant young scholar, John Campbell Merriam,
to the University as a graduate student in the late 1880s.
Merriam eventually went to Munich and received
his doctorate there in 1893 under the renowned paleontologist Karl
Alfred von Zittel. Merriam returned to the University the next year
as an instructor in paleontology under LeConte. His research covered
the invertebrates as well as the vertebrates. He increased the number
of courses in paleontology to eight in 1897-98, and he developed
the widely attended lower division general course which was still
being offered in the mid-1960s.
Merriam's research and field program were generously
aided by one of his former students, Miss Annie M. Alexander. Her
support made possible extensive collections that eventually became
a large part of the Museum of Paleontology. Her early interest stimulated
the creation, under Merriam, of a separate Department of Paleontology,
which was split away from geology in 1909.
Merriam had previously been giving courses in
the Departments of Geology and Zoology. He wished to consolidate
his interests in one department, and to effectively provide for
the training of students in all branches of paleontology. The new
department was planned to offer courses that could not easily be
merged into either zoology or geology. A broader training program
leading to graduate instruction was developed. Field work was more
readily planned and executed under the new setup.
The department remained under Merriam's leadership
for nearly ten years. When he left to take the presidency of the
Carnegie Institution of Washington, Bruce L. Clark took over as
chairman. Clark decided to merge the department with geology, and
this arrangement was continued for six years. In 1927, under William
D. Matthew, the department again gained independent status. Matthew's
early training had been in geology, nevertheless he realized the
importance of a biological background in the training of students.
Charles L. Camp, who came in 1922, gave courses
on the lower vertebrates, comparative myology, comparative osteology,
and, later, the elementary course. His research dealt with Mesozoic
reptiles and he collected in North America, South Africa, China,
and Australia. He directed the University's South African expedition
in 1947-48. He was director of the Museum of Paleontology from 1931
to 1950, and chairman of the department from 1940 to 1950.
Professor Bruce L. Clark began instruction in
micropaleontology in 1928 and this subject was broadly expanded,
with a separate laboratory, after that time.
Instruction in paleobotany, begun in 1931 under
Ralph W. Chaney, also became a permanent feature.
provided an endowment for the Museum
of Paleontology in 1921. This institution was given independent
status in 1931 as a center for research and the preservation of
All members of the departmental staff actively
engaged in research, using the materials in the museum. Museum specimens
were constantly available for classroom instruction. A series of
teaching exhibits were placed in the Earth Sciences Building, in
which the museum and department had their quarters. These were available
to the public. source
Paleontology is now a part of the Department of
Peace and Conflict Studies Program
There is no history currently available
for this program.
The Department of Philosophy was established
in the year 1884-85 with the appointment of George Holmes Howison
as Mills Professor of Intellectual and Moral Philosophy and Civil
Polity. He occupied the University's first endowed chair, which
was provided by a bequest munificent for that day, of Darius Ogden
Mills, a pioneer California banker. When Howison came to Berkeley
from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology he was already a
man of considerable eminence, and he lent distinction to the new
department from the time of its origin. There was no formal work
in philosophy at Berkeley previous to this appointment. Mention
should be made, however, of the presence in the English department
of young Josiah Royce, who taught composition from 1878-1882 on
the basis of his own text in logic. Royce was the first of several
Berkeley philosophers who were drawn away to Harvard. After Howison,
the Mills chair was occupied by visiting appointees for some years,
then successively from 1932, by permanent appointees Professors
George P. Adams, Stephen C. Pepper, William R. Dennes, and Edward
The history of the Berkeley philosophy department
falls into three distinct periods. The first, from 1884 to the end
of the first world war, can perhaps be called the Howison period.
Howison gave the department an Hegelian idealistic bent. With a
strong, outgoing, almost missionary personality, he made philosophy
a factor not only in the University but in the surrounding community
as well. He organized a society for the discussion of philosophical
questions which he called the Philosophical Union and which included
ministers and laymen as well as faculty. The best-known philosophers
of England and America came to speak before it--Ward, McTaggart,
Rashdall, James, Royce, and Dewey. Here in 1898, William James presented
his theory of pragmatism for the first time. In 1891, psychologist
George M. Stratton became the second member of the department and
was responsible for the early development of his subject in Berkeley.
By 1920-21, there were nine members in the department, four in psychology
and five in philosophy. The latter were George P. Adams, Clarence
I. Lewis, Jacob Loewenberg, Stephen C. Pepper, and Charles H. Rieber.
Howison had died in 1916. Lewis left for Harvard in 1921, and in
1922, Rieber moved to the Los Angeles campus. In the same year,
psychology became a separate department.
The second period can be called one of critical
philosophy. The younger members who were added during this time
were David Wight Prall, who came in 1922 and went to Harvard some
ten years later, William R. Dennes, Paul Marhenke, Donald S. Mackay,
and Edward W. Strong. These men, together with Professors Adams,
Loewenberg, and Pepper, made up the department until the succeeding
period, which began about 1950. During this period, the Philosophical
Union was converted into a series of scholarly lectures delivered
by all the philosophy staff in residence. More than 2,000 students
enrolled yearly in the undergraduate courses, and the number of
graduate students increased to about 80. Mackay and Marhenke, both
relatively young, died in 1951 and 1952. Shortly thereafter, Adams
and Loewenberg reached retirement age. Thus, within the space of
a very few years more than half the old staff was lost.
This was the turning point toward the third period.
The department belatedly realized how understaffed it was and began
to recruit new members for its greatly increased enrollment. The
first of the new staff members, Karl Aschenbrenner and Benson Mates,
joined the department in 1948. The following years brought other
changes so that after the retirement of Dennes in 1965, only Strong
remained from the second period. The new department of over 20 members
included a number of younger men chiefly interested in logic, philosophy
of science, and analytical philosophy. While not unmindful of past
issues, this young group had an intensely contemporary orientation
which reflected a deepening of philosophic vigor in the new generation.
No less vigorous were those whose interests were in ethics, aesthetics
and in historical studies. All members were active in research and
publication as well as in graduate and undergraduate teaching. source
"Skilled direction regarding proper exercise"
was endorsed by Presidents Reid (1882-84) and Holden (in 1886).
In 1888, the Board of Regents allotted $3,000 for the establishment
of the Department of Physical Culture with a staff of two: a director,
who conducted medical examinations and prescribed exercises, and
an assistant, who supervised the exercises prescribed. With but
one gymnasium, the department was organized in 1889 primarily for
men, who were required to take gymnastic exercise during the freshman
and sophomore years.
In 1901, Mrs. Phoebe A. Hearst donated a gymnasium
for women, of whom a year's course of directed exercise was then
required. The single department carried on until 1914, when separate
Departments of Physical Education for Men and for Women were established.
In 1933, the physical education requirement was abolished and elective
courses took its place. In 1942, the two departments became two
divisions, under a single department chairman.
The activity program in the early years included
primarily gymnastics and drill, with emphasis upon body-building
and the identification and improvement of developmental physical
deficiencies. With the gradually emerging recognition of the importance
of total dynamic health and well-being, stress was placed as well
upon self-direction and upon opportunity for development of skills
for recreation and for aesthetic expression. In 1965, students might
enroll for University credit in instructional classes in some 40
different activities, including gymnastics, team and individual
sports, and several forms of dance. Enrollment for 1964-65 totaled
The department, with the cooperation and support
of the Associated Students and the University administration, gave
leadership to an extensive program in intramural sports. In 1964-65,
tournaments were held in 28 different sports. An extension of the
intramural program was established in 1963 with President Kerr's
sponsorship of intercampus-intramural competition.
As an undergraduate major for the bachelor's degree,
physical education was, successively, a department "in which major
courses may be taken" (1909), an approved group-elective or major
for the A.B. degree (1914-20), an organized group-major in physical
education-hygiene (1922-39), a group major in physical education
(1939-60), and a departmental major (starting in 1960). Content
of the major courses grew in breadth and depth and aimed to develop
an understanding of the science and art of human movement based
upon anatomical, physiological, psychological, sociological, and
historical foundations. Between 1910 and 1965, 1,608 bachelor's
degrees (1939-60), with specialization in physical education were
awarded. The largest undergraduate enrollments were registered in
the 1930s and 1940s. Approximately two-thirds of these graduates
were also enrolled in the teacher-education program developed in
cooperation with the School of Education and directed primarily
toward service in secondary schools.
The graduate program was formally established
in 1930 when the M.A. degree was authorized. The Ed.D. degree in
physical education was initiated in 1951. The staff and graduate
students made continuous and substantial research contributions,
extending the knowledge of human movement particularly in the physiological,
psychological, sociological, and developmental aspects. Research
laboratories were established in both Hearst and Harmon Gymnasiums
in the 1930s. Emphasis in graduate programs was upon basic research
rather than upon professional application. One hundred and seventeen
M.A. and 18 Ed.D. degrees were earned. Nearly all of the doctoral
and many of the masters graduates were engaged in college and university
The staff in 1964-65 included the equivalent of
32 full-time faculty members, seven with professional status.
Among other projects of the department that may be
mentioned are the presentation, after 1930, of an annual student dance
concert, the teaching of dance classes for the Parthenia (1916-23),
training of Reconstruction Aides (precursors of physical therapists),
cooperation with the Associated Students in the coaching of some
intercollegiate teams starting in 1919, supervision of the Strawberry
Canyon Recreational Area and the Haas Clubhouse starting in 1960,
and assisting with Peace Corps training starting in 1962. During
the Summer Sessions, the department sponsored the first Play School
under the direction of C. W. and Daisy Hetherington (1913). This
school was later (1914-32) conducted under the aegis of the School
of Education. source
The department no longer exists as such.
The Department of Physics is as old as the
University. The first professor of physics, John LeConte, was the
first person elected to the original faculty (November 17, 1868).
From 1876 to 1881 he also served as President of the University.
The physics department occupied one lecture room
and one office in North Hall until the death of John LeConte (April
29, 1891). From 1912 to 1923 it occupied all of South Hall. In 1923
LeConte Hall (dedicated to John and Joseph LeConte) was completed
at a cost of $443,000. The accommodations were doubled in 1950 with
the completion of an addition to LeConte Hall at a cost of $1,200,000.
In 1964 the department gained another equal amount of additional
space with the completion of Raymond Thayer Birge Hall, at a cost
Frederick Slate became "head" of the department
on the death of John LeConte, and he retained that position until
his retirement in 1918. After that the department had "chairmen":
E. P. Lewis, 1918 until his death on Nov. 17, 1926; E. E. Hall,
until his death on Nov. 19, 1932; Birge, until his retirement in
1955; A. C. Helmholz, 1955-1962; and B. J. Moyer, appointed in 1962.
Physics was a one-man department until 1876 when
John LeConte assumed the additional duties of President and then
had the assistance of a temporary instructor. The first permanent
addition to the staff was Frederick Slate in 1877. He was in charge
of the physics laboratory which started in 1879 in one room in South
Hall and was one of the first such laboratories in America. In 1887
W. J. Raymond became the third member of the staff. He retired in
1935. Lewis was appointed in 1895 and R. S. Minor in 1903. At the
end of the first half century (1918) the staff consisted of Lewis,
Minor, Hall, Raymond and three instructors. In 1918 Birge became
instructor. From then on the staff rapidly increased in size and
distinction. By the mid-1960s, there were about 60 on the teaching
John LeConte was elected to the National Academy
of Sciences in 1878. Birge was elected in 1932, followed by E. O.
Lawrence (1934), L. W. Alvarez and E. M. McMillan (1947), E. Teller
(1948), R. B. Brode (1949), N. E. Bradbury (1951), E. Segré (1952),
C. Kittel (1957), O. Chamberlain (1960), and G. T. Chew (1962).
In the mid-1960s, the Berkeley physics department held ten per cent
of the entire physics membership of the academy. But more importantly,
E. O. Lawrence was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1939, McMillan (with
G. T. Seaborg) in 1951, Segré and O. Chamberlain in 1959.
Originally every student in the University was
required to take three years of physics lectures. Shortly thereafter
only certain types of students needed to enroll. In 1887 the total
physics enrollment was 76; in the fall of 1964 it was 4,908.
The first Ph.D. was awarded in 1903. The total
number awarded by 1918 was only 12, but 74 were awarded to 1933,
400 to 1955, and about 800 to 1964. John LeConte published some
100 papers during his life. The only other active research worker
prior to 1918 was E. P. Lewis, who published some 70 papers. Printed
lists of departmental publications by both staff and students were
not started until 1925. The total published from then to 1933 was
199, and to 1963 it was 2,379.
to World War I the largest number of physics graduate students was
25. After the war the number rapidly increased, in spite of rigid
selection, to over 200 in 1933 and to over 400 by the mid-1960s.
Half of these students did their research in the Lawrence
Radiation Laboratory, which was technically a part of the physics
The roots of the teaching of physiology and
anatomy go deep in the history of the University, in the case of
physiology even antedating its charter. The 1867-68 Catalogue
of the College of California listed among its eight-man faculty
Dr. William P. Gibbons, lecturer in physiology. The 1869-70 Prospectus
of the University of California stated that physiology and hygiene
were to be taught to all freshmen. The name of the instructor was
not given, but it is fairly certain that the redoubtable John LeConte
was responsible for the teaching of physiology during the first
years of the University's existence. The 1870-71 Register
listed Dr. C. F. Buckley as professor of anatomy in the Medical
Department. It is clear, then, that physiology and anatomy were
heavily represented as important fields of learning in this earliest
period of the life of the University.
In 1873, the center of gravity of teaching in
these two subjects passed to San Francisco with the incorporation
of the private Toland Medical College into the University. The new
San Francisco Medical Department, thereby created, included on its
faculty Dr. Melancthon W. Fish as professor of physiology. It also
included Dr. A. A. O'Neil as professor of anatomy. During the remainder
of the nineteenth century a succession of distinguished San Francisco
physicians held the chair in anatomy. On the other hand, only two
men were involved in the teaching of physiology during this period.
Upon the retirement of Fish in 1887, a highly significant replacement
was made in the person of Dr. Arnold A. D'Ancona. D'Ancona was a
strong voice on behalf of the appointment of full-time teachers
to the medical faculty, and was instrumental in bringing to the
University the distinguished anatomist and surgeon Dr. Joseph M.
Flint as professor of anatomy in 1901. Flint, unfortunately, was
apparently discouraged by the dramatic San Francisco events of 1906
and returned to the east coast the following year.
The first two years of Medical School instruction
were moved to Berkeley in 1906, but anatomy fell into a decline
until 1915, when Dr. Herbert M. Evans came to Berkeley from Johns
Hopkins University as professor of anatomy. During the next 38 years
until his retirement in 1953, Evans not only built up the anatomy
department, but also in 1931 established and then directed the development
of the Institute of Experimental Biology, famed for vitamin and
endocrine research. The University's Hormone Research Laboratory
was the modern descendant of the institute.
Meanwhile, physiology underwent a comparable,
but separate, evolution. In 1902, D'Ancona was able to secure the
appointment of Dr. Jacques Loeb, already renowned for his research
on artificial parthenogenesis, as professor of physiology. A condition
of Loeb's acceptance was that he be established in a research and
teaching laboratory on the Berkeley campus with a joint appointment
in the College of Letters and Science and the San Francisco Medical
Department, so that physiology could interact with the other basic
biological sciences and with chemistry and physics. Accordingly,
through the generosity of Rudolph Spreckels, a suitable building
was erected in 1902 and named the Spreckels Physiological Laboratory.
Until Loeb left in 1910 to join the newly-formed Rockefeller Institute
in New York, the laboratory attracted graduate students and distinguished
scientific visitors from all over the world, and many of the traditions
of the department in the mid-1960s stemmed from the impact of this
great man. Following the 1906 disaster, the laboratory also served
as the focal point for rebuilding the two preclinical years of medical
After the departure of Loeb, the department was
caught up in a struggle for dominance between the two associate
professors of physiology, Samuel S. Maxwell and T. Brailsford Robertson,
both of whom, interestingly enough, had the Ph.D. degree in physiology
rather than the previously more customary M.D. The issue was finally
settled in 1916 with the creation of a new Department of Biochemistry
and Pharmacology, with Robertson as professor of biochemistry, and
Maxwell as chairman of physiology. In 1919, Dr. Robert Gesell was
brought in as professor of physiology, but he left in 1922 and the
chairmanship reverted to Maxwell.
The fortunes of physiology waned during the next
five years, and by 1927 when Maxwell retired, the teaching staff
had dwindled to three.
In 1927, James M. D. Olmsted was appointed professor
of physiology, coming to Berkeley from the University of Toronto,
and was given the formidable task of rebuilding the department.
This he did with zest, so that by the time the department moved
to new quarters in the Life Sciences Building in 1930, a totally
new faculty had been constituted.
Olmsted relinquished the chairmanship in 1953,
a year before his retirement, and it passed to Dr. Leslie L. Bennett.
By this time, a Regental decision had been reached to move the first
year of instruction of the School of Medicine from Berkeley to the
San Francisco Medical Center, and in 1958 Bennett and four other
members of the physiology faculty went to San Francisco to establish
a separate department leaving three faculty members behind to continue
the academic teaching of physiology in Berkeley.
Meanwhile, anatomy had undergone a similar experience.
In 1956, Dr. John B. deC. M. Saunders, professor of anatomy and
chairman of the department since 1937, was named dean of the School
of Medicine, and Dr. William O. Reinhardt became chairman. In 1958,
the department was split, Reinhardt and several others moving to
San Francisco to start a department there. In this case, four faculty
members remained to meet the teaching needs in Berkeley.
An administrative decision was reached by the
University in 1958 to combine the Berkeley anatomy and physiology
segments into one department, but with two separate budgets and
two co-chairmen. Accordingly, Cook was appointed co-chairman for
physiology and Dr. C. Willet Asling, professor of anatomy, was named
co-chairman for anatomy in a single Department of Anatomy and Physiology.
On Cook's retirement in 1964, Nello Pace, professor
of physiology, was appointed chairman of the re-named Department
of Physiology-Anatomy, with Asling as vice-chairman for anatomy.
For the first time the department became a single budgetary entity,
and in the mid-1960s it comprised 14 faculty members and 84 graduate
students. It had the responsibility for carrying out academic teaching
and research in physiology and anatomy for the Berkeley campus,
and offered a broad spectrum of course work, ranging from cell physiology
to human dissection, at both the undergraduate and graduate levels.
Emphasis was laid upon the integrative approach to the study of
the life process. source
Physiology-Anatomy is now a part of the Department
of Integrative Biology.
Plant and Microbial Biology
There is no history currently available
for this department.
The Department of Plant Pathology was founded
by Ralph Eliot Smith, who came from Massachusetts on April 1, 1903
as assistant professor of plant pathology to study asparagus rust.
At first, he was supported by funds supplied by the asparagus industry
and offered a course in plant diseases.
A disastrous outbreak of pear blight in 1904 resulted
in a state appropriation of funds to the University in 1905 for
blight control. Appropriations were also made for a plant pathology
laboratory at Whittier and an experiment station at Riverside, of
which Smith was in charge for six years. He not only helped to formulate
this legislation but also assisted in preparing a bill passed by
the legislature of 1909 appropriating $15,000 to the University
for plant disease research at Berkeley.
Meanwhile, Smith was assisted on the Berkeley
campus by his sister, Elizabeth H. Smith, and by Ernest B. Babcock
and William T. Horne. Horne offered courses from 1909 to 1928 and
interested many undergraduates in plant pathology. Thomas E. Rawlins
started virus research in 1926 and developed a course in microtechnique.
James T. Barrett transferred from Riverside in 1929, offered courses
in pathology and mycology, and, on a commuter basis, the first pathology
course at Davis. The graduate research course was first offered
at Berkeley in 1908 and by the early 1920s, increasing emphasis
was placed on graduate study. Nearly 100 Ph.D. degrees had been
conferred by 1965, at which time emphasis was placed in teaching
and research on the nature and control of plant diseases.
For research on diseases of deciduous fruits,
a field laboratory was operated at San Jose, with Bert A. Rudolph
in charge. In 1927, James B. Kendrick, Sr., was appointed in residence
at Davis and proceeded to build up that branch of the department.
The University's agricultural extension pathologist
was always closely affiliated with the department, beginning with
C. Emlen Scott in 1931.
The department sponsored two Hitchcock professors,
A. H. Reginald Buller and Elvin C. Stakman. In 1953, and less than
a year before Smith's death, the department celebrated its 50th
anniversary with a program which initiated a series of annual state-wide
conferences for pathologists. Under the authority of the National
Academy of Sciences, the department organized an international symposium
at Berkeley in 1964 on factors determining the behavior of plant
pathogens in the soil.
As part of the agricultural experiment station,
the department carried on research aimed at the control of pathogen
threatening crop production, often in response to urgent pleas from
pathogen organizations. Occasionally such an organization provided
supplemental funds. Such research yielded many standard procedures
such as spraying for pear blight and walnut blight, use of a disinfectant
paint lethal to crown gall of fruit trees, and soil fumigation for
diseases of strawberries and ornamentals.
Basic research was always emphasized and in the
1960s was augmented by grants from nation-wide foundations. Significant
contributions were made to the knowledge of the etiology of bacterial
diseases; of the physiology of rusts and mildews; of the nature
of plant viruses and virus diseases; and of the soil-inhabiting
pathogenic fungi: fusarium, verticillium, rhizoctonia, and armillaria.
The Department of Plant Pathology no longer exists
as such, but is now represented in both the Department of Environmental
Science, Policy and Management and the Department of Plant and Microbial
Political Economy of Industrialized Societies
There is no history currently available
for this program.
The Department of Political Science is, perhaps,
the lengthened shadow of one man, Bernard Moses. Appointed professor
of history and political economy in 1875, he became head of the
Department of History and Political Science, established in 1883,
playing a vital role in the development of the social sciences and
in bringing about the creation of a separate Department of Political
Science in 1903.
A man of extraordinary depth, breadth, and vision,
Moses' influence in the early days of the department was immense.
Under his leadership, the curriculum was broadened to include courses
which became permanent offerings. His immediate successor in 1911,
David P. Barrows, carried these beginnings forward vigorously and
was followed by chairmen who, in turn, left their clearly distinguishable
imprints: E. M. Sait, R. G. Gettell, P. O. Ray, F. M. Russell, Peter
Odegard, Charles Aikin, Robert Scalapino, and again, Charles Aikin.
Barrows placed new emphasis upon international relations and foreign
governments. His introductory course, Foreign Government, attracted
The expansion of American colonial responsibility
was reflected in the evolving curricula. The 1915 Panama Pacific
International Exposition stimulated even greater interest in international
studies and interracial problems, although the real impetus came
after World War I and the establishment of the League of Nations.
By 1921-22, the curriculum was modified to fall into four main fields:
political theory, international relations, national government ,
and local government and administration. In 1927-28, a seven-field
structure was developed. This program persisted until 1952-53. After
some ten years, the growing emphasis upon political behavior was
formalized. The 1965-66 curriculum reorganization eliminated the
seven groups as such; lower division requirements were increased
along with greater flexibility in electing specialized upper division
courses. The undergraduate honors program, inaugurated in 1957-58,
The graduate curriculum saw constant development
since the first offering in 1904, leading to M.A. and Ph.D. degrees
in political science. In 1933, an M.A. degree in international relations
was offered (terminated in 1965) and in 1962-63, an M.A. degree
in public administration was authorized.
Of interest is the growth in course enrollments--189
registrations in 1903 to a count of 5,111 enrollments in the fall
of 1964. Undergraduate majors increased from 288 in 1933 (earlier
official figures are not available) to more than 825 in the fall
of 1965. Graduate students numbering 20 in 1921 rose to a high of
375 in the 1962 fall semester.
A tabulation of courses shows four political science
courses announced for 1903-04 by a faculty of two. The listings
in 1965-66 carried 59 undergraduate courses and 70 graduate courses
and seminars, with 44 full-time and eight part-time faculty members.
Associated interests and activities of the department
began to emerge soon after its creation. Beginning with Moses and
Barrows, an impressive list of members over the years participated
in public affairs at all levels--local, state, national, and international.
The Bureau of International
Relations came into being in 1921, to be assimilated in 1955 by
the Institute of International Studies.
The Bureau of Public
Administration, encouraged by Rockefeller Foundation support in
1930, evolved into the Institute of
At the invitation of the Italian government and
the American Embassy in Rome, the department undertook in 1956 a
program of graduate instruction in administrative science at the
University of Bologna. Other extended programs, with liberal foundation
support--Ford, Rockefeller, and Falk--were: the California Legislative
Internship Program; a Rotating Professorship in Governmental Affairs;
an extensive research project in Political Theory and Theories on
International Relations with local and overseas aspects; and a Program
of Training and Research in American Government and Politics.
Faculty service to the University was constant
since the early years of the department through the cooperation
of the deans and other administrative officers, committee members,
conference chairmen, advisers, consultants, etc. Three buildings
on campus bore the names of distinguished department members: Moses
Hall, Barrows Hall, and the Hans Kelsen Graduate Social Science
See DAVIS CAMPUS, Poultry
The embryonic period of psychology at the
University lasted 34 years. The first course in the subject was
given in 1888 by philosopher George Howison. Howison's student,
George Malcolm Stratton, studied at Leipzig under the experimentalist
Wilhelm Wundt and, in 1896, returned to Berkeley with his Ph.D.
and a large array of gleaming brass instruments to establish a psychological
laboratory in the Department of Philosophy. Courses in psychology
were then entered in the catalogue, one being described as "settled
(sic) results of modern psychology."
Among the students in these early years were Warner
Brown, later department chairman in Berkeley, and Knight Dunlap,
later chairman at Johns Hopkins and the Los Angeles campus. Stratton
left in 1904 to start a laboratory at Johns Hopkins but returned
in 1908 with Brown, who had just received his Ph.D. at Columbia.
With two Ph.D.'s in the laboratory, the course listings expanded
under such titles as Sensation, Perception, Emotion, Memory, and
such applied topics as modern psychology for the lawyer, physician,
teacher, and minister appeared. In 1915, Olga Bridgman, M.D., received
her Ph.D., the first Berkeley doctorate in psychology, and immediately
joined the staff to give courses on the abnormal psychology of childhood.
In 1918, Edward Chace Tolman, Harvard trained, joined the department.
The rats he used in his experiments in learning saturated the wall-to-wall
carpets of the dignified old Philosophy Building with such smells
that parturition clearly was imminent. After severe labor pains,
the psychology department was born on July 1, 1922, with a faculty
of four and with Professor Stratton as chairman.
As the specialized sub-fields developed, the department's
faculty steadily increased to 11 members by 1940. New courses were
added in clinical and in child development with the establishment
of the Institute of Child Welfare in 1927; in physiological, statistical,
differential, and social psychology; in perception and representative
design; in industrial psychology; and in personality. The number
of undergraduate students also increased steadily. Fifty-nine Ph.D.'s
were granted during this 20-year period, an average of four per
year just previous to World War II. The leading areas of dissertations
were experimental, animal, child development, and clinical psychology.
World War II left only four teaching faculty members
to carry on. Next came postwar confusion! In the first post-war
year, 1946, the number of undergraduate majors doubled the previous
high pre-war figures, and there was a six-fold increase in the number
of graduate students. Part of the increase was due to generous graduate
stipends established by federal agencies, occasioned by public clamor
for care of and research upon the causes of psychiatric rejects
and casualties which the war had disclosed. To the pre-war faculty
of 11 (three of whom were half-time), established over three and
one-half decades, 17 new members were added during the next five
The faculty numbered 42 by the mid-1960s and covered
a wide area of specialization. The number of undergraduate majors
rose to about 500 and each could elect any of ten areas of concentration
for his major. Forty-six undergraduate courses were listed. Graduate
students averaged around 200 in number. About 25 Ph.D.'s were granted
per year, spread over a wide range of sub-fields with many more
dissertations in physiological, social, and industrial psychology
in the mid-1960s. This balance in the departmental program was facilitated
by the move to a new building, Tolman Hall, in 1961, and by the
establishment of three semi-autonomous groups within the faculty,
each offering its own graduate program: 1) clinical, personality,
developmental, and social psychology; 2) experimental and biological
psychology; and 3) general psychology. Research was aided by grants,
private and governmental, and by the establishment of the Institute
of Personality Assesment (1949), the campus Computer Center (1956),
the Field Station for Behavioral Research (1960), the Institute
of Human Learning (1961), and the Psychology Clinic (1963). source