Berkeley: Colleges and Schools
College of Agriculture
The College of Agriculture at Berkeley was
born with the University. The legislative act of March 23, 1868,
which established the University, made the creation of the College
of Agriculture the first duty of the Board of Regents. Organization
of agricultural instruction and research began in 1869 with the
election of Ezra S. Carr as "Professor of Agriculture, Chemistry,
and Applied Chemistry and Horticulture." In 1874, the Regents elected
as his successor Eugene W. Hilgard, who began the first field experimentation
undertaken by the college.
The work of Hilgard in laying the foundations
of the College of Agriculture is one of the outstanding features
of the history of the University. Under Hilgard, scientific instruction
and research were encouraged and had a marked influence on similar
institutions elsewhere. Building on this foundation, the college
developed a distinguished program in teaching and research.
With the urbanization of Berkeley and the growth
of the campus, research and teaching programs relating more directly
to agricultural production were gradually transferred elsewhere.
In the period of post-war planning, the role of the college at Berkeley
was carefully considered in relation to the long range academic
plan for that campus. This plan specified the areas of instruction
and research that should be emphasized, selecting those "which benefit
particularily from close association with related disciplines on
the campus and which in turn contribute to the strength of related
disciplines." The University-wide academic plan of 1961 reiterated
the earlier policy, stating that the program in agriculture at Berkeley
"should continue to emphasize teaching and Experiment Station research
in the basic physical, biological and social sciences, taking advantage
of the vast array of scientific resources on that campus to add
to the pool of fundamental knowledge upon which advances in agricultural
The College of Agriculture at Berkeley accepted
this mission and in order to pursue it more effectively, a number
of departments were restructured and several fields of emphasis
were strengthened. The undergraduate academic program was carefully
evaluated, streamlined, and updated. Specialized undergraduate course
offerings were reduced or transferred to graduate programs and requirements
in the humanities and social sciences increased. By the mid-1960s,
the college offered only one principal curriculum, agricultural
sciences, with majors in agricultural economics, agricultural science,
dietetics, entomology, food science, genetics, nutrition (human),
and soils and plant nutrition. However, it also administered related
curricula in preforestry, preveterinary, and range management. Because
the undergraduate enrollment in the mid-1960s was not large (only
about 275), the students had a great deal of personal contact with
the faculty. Graduate enrollment increased more rapidly than undergraduate
and totaled nearly 350. Graduate programs leading to the M.S. and
Ph.D. degrees were offered in such fields as agricultural chemistry,
agricultural economics, entomology, food science, genetics, nutrition,
parasitology, plant nutrition, plant pathology, plant physiology,
and soil science.
By the mid-1960s, the budgeted College of Agriculture
and Agricultural Experiment Station faculty numbered about 130,
supplemented by approximately 50 academic specialists, postdoctoral
fellows, and extramurally supported researchers distributed through
the following units: agricultural biochemistry, agricultural economics,
cell physiology, entomology and parasitology (including the Divisions
of Biological Control Entomology and Acarology, Invertebrate Pathology,
and Parasitology), genetics, nutritional sciences, plant pathology,
poultry husbandry, and soils and plant nutrition. Among the special
facilities available to students and faculty were the Agriculture
and Giannini Foundation libraries which housed distinguished collections
of source material in agriculture and agricultural economics; the
six and two-tenths-acre Oxford Tract, which contained open plot
areas, greenhouses, laboratories, and environmental control cabinets;
related facilities at the Gill Tract in Albany; as well as special
libraries, electron microscopes, computers, and a wide range of
equipment and specialized laboratories maintained by the departments
in Agriculture, Giannini, Hilgard, Morgan, and Mulford Halls on
the Berkeley campus. source
In 1974, the College of Agriculture was merged
with the School of Forestry and Conservation to form the College
of Natural Resources.
School of Business Administration
The Department of Business Administration
was established in 1942, the undergraduate school in 1943, and the
graduate school in 1955. The 1943 school succeeded the College of
Commerce, a four-year undergraduate program, established in 1898
with the aid of the Cora Jane Flood Foundation. Prior to 1942, there
was no separate faculty in business administration. The teaching
needs were met by faculty members in economics and other departments,
who offered the courses required or accepted in the curricula in
The 1943 school offered a two-year upper division
program leading to the Bachelor of Science degree in business administration
and the Master of Business Administration degree. In 1955, the M.B.A.
program was transferred to the graduate school; in 1956, the Ph.D.
degree in business administration was added. The department and
schools were established primarily to prepare students for eventual
positions of executive and professional responsibility in private
business, or in the business aspects of governmental or other agencies,
or, secondarily, for careers in teaching and research. All students
were required to have a broad background in the analytical tools
and functional aspects of business management. Opportunities for
specialization were provided once the basic or core requirements
were fulfilled. Included in these fields were administration and
policy, accounting, business statistics, finance, industrial relations
and personnel management, insurance and risk, international business,
marketing, production, real estate and urban land economics, and
transportation and public utilities.
By the mid-1960s, the teaching programs were supported
by a series of research and community relations affiliates including:
the Institute of Business and Economic Research; the Institute of
Industrial Relations; the Center for Research in Real Estate and
Urban Land Economics and the Management Science Center. Research
relations and opportunities also occurred with other agencies such
as the National Aero-Space Laboratory, Agricultural Economics, Institute
of Transportation and Traffic Engineering, Institute of Governmental
Studies, Institute of Social Sciences, Computer Center and Chinese
The daytime campus programs of instruction and
research were implemented by adult education through University
Extension, and executive education under the graduate school. The
graduate school in Berkeley in conjunction with the graduate school
in Los Angeles published the California Management Review,
a scholarly quarterly publication. The Department of Business Administration
and the Department of Economics cooperated in the administration
of both the Institute of Business and Economic Research and the
Business Administration-Economics Library in the Kelsen Graduate
Social Science Library. In 1964, the Department and Schools of Business
Administration occupied Barrows Hall and the renovated former Stephens
Memorial Union Building together with the Departments of Economics,
Political Science and Sociology. Eventually, Moses and South Halls
became part of the shared building complex.
These shared physical arrangements reflected the
desire of the faculty in business administration, while retaining
the identity of business administration, to maintain close, direct
working relationships with the basic social science disciplines.
It was believed that education and research in business administration
had the obligation of bringing the advancing knowledge in social
science and other disciplines to bear upon problems of business.
The nucleus of the department as established in
1942, consisted of 9 faculty members and 3 teaching assistants drawn
from the roster of the Department of Economics. In 1964-65, the
department contained 67.85 full-time equivalent faculty and 11 teaching
assistants. Faculty members found support from and contributed to
a wide variety of teaching and research activities.
At the time of its demise at the end of 1942,
the four-year College of Commerce enrolled 671 undergraduate students
and 11 graduate students. The peak enrollment of the School of Business
Administration was reached during the period of the post-war veteran
onrush in 1948-49, when 1,846 students were enrolled, of whom 274
were graduate students. During the spring semester, 1965 there were
627 junior and senior students enrolled in the undergraduate school,
353 candidates for the M.B.A. degree, and 68 candidates for the
Ph.D. degree in the graduate school.
The department and schools worked closely
with the Placement Center in finding career opportunities for graduates
and alumni. The California Business Administration Alumni Association
was an effective alumni affiliate. An advisory council of business
leaders assisted in channeling the needs and advice of industry
and business into the programs. source
The School of Business Administration is now the
Haas School of Business.
College of Chemistry
One of the ten initial members of the faculty
of the University, Ezra S. Carr, M.D., professor of agriculture,
chemistry, agricultural and applied chemistry, and horticulture,
gave chemical lectures at the Oakland campus. In the autumn of 1873,
he instigated a movement to abolish the appointed board of Regents
and to abolish all colleges of the University but that of agriculture
and mechanic arts. The movement failed, and the Regents forthwith
"dispensed with his services in view of his incompetency and unfitness
for the duties of the chair."
By 1873, the first building on the Berkeley campus,
South Hall, included a chemical laboratory; the legislature had
approved a College of Chemistry the previous year, and Willard Bradley
Rising had arrived to become its first dean. He was to serve for
36 years, seeing the number of baccalaureate degrees in chemistry
rise from about three per year to about 15; a separate building
for chemistry in 1890; and a separate College of Natural Sciences
in 1893 to accommodate physics, geology, and the biological sciences.
In Rising's era the principal activity of any chemist was analysis,
particularly of minerals, drugs and agricultural products (Rising
also had the title of state analyst). Additions to his staff and
their years of service (if five years or more) were: John Maxson
Stillman, 1876-82; Edward Booth, 1878-80 and 1899-1917; Edmond O'Neill,
1879-1925; John Hatfield Gray, Jr., 1890-92 and 1896-1900; William
John Sharwood, 1892-98; Walter C. Blasdale, 1895-1940; Henry C.
Biddle, 1901-1916; William Conger Morgan, 1901-1912; and Frederick
G. Cottrell, 1902-1911.
By Rising's retirement in 1908, only four Ph.D.
degrees had been awarded in chemistry. In 1912, Gilbert Newton Lewis
was brought from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology to serve
as dean and to build up the graduate and research program. Twenty-nine
years later, in 1941, when he relinquished the deanship, the number
of undergraduate degrees per year had risen to about 60; there were
additional buildings for chemistry--Gilman Hall, Chemistry Auditorium,
Freshman Chemistry Lab, and "The Rat House" (Chemistry Annex)--and
there had been 250 Ph.D. degrees awarded in chemistry. The additions
to his staff and their years of service were: Merle Randall, 1912-44;
Richard C. Tolman, 1912-16; William C. Bray, 1912-46; Joel H. Hildebrand,
1913-52; G. Ernest Gibson, 1913-54; Gerald E. K. Branch, 1915-54;
C. Walter Porter, 1917-45; Ermon D. Eastman, 1917-45; Wendall M.
Latimer, 1917-55; T. Dale Stewart, 1917-57; Axel R. Olson, 1919-54;
Thorfin R. Hogness, 1921-30; William Francis Giauque, 1922-62; Gerhard
K. Rollefson, 1923-55; Willard F. Libby, 1933-41; Melvin Calvin,
1937 (still on staff in the mid-1960s); Kenneth S. Pitzer, 1937-61;
Samuel Rubin, 1938-43; and Glenn T. Seaborg, 1939 (still on staff
in the mid-1960s).
Lewis's scientific reputation had been built on
his work in chemical thermodynamics, and though he had other interests
(e.g., the Lewis electron-pair theory, the Lewis acid-base theory,
the discovery of deuterium), many of his staff were thermodynamicists,
and Berkeley became known as a center of thermodynamics. The Lewis
and Randall textbook, Thermodynamics and the Free Energy of Chemical
Substances (1923), was a landmark; there was Latimer's work
in systematizing the entropies of acqueous ions, Giauque's extensive
low-temperature program for which he was to receive the Nobel Prize
in 1949, and Pitzer's work on the thermodynamics of molecules with
The last decade of Lewis's deanship saw, along
with Ernest Lawrence's development of his cyclotron, the involvement
in nuclear chemistry of Berkeley faculty members, particularly of
Libby (who was to receive a Nobel Prize in 1960 for his carbon-14
method of dating archaeological specimens) and of Seaborg (who was
to share a Nobel Prize with McMillan in 1941 for the discovery of
plutonium). The first Geiger counter in the United States and the
first radium-beryllium neutron source were assembled by Berkeley
chemists. In World War II, Berkeley chemists played a key part in
the atomic bomb project. In the mid-1960s, Berkeley remained one
of the centers for research in nuclear synthesis and spectroscopy
as well as for the tracer applications of radioisotopes. For example,
when quantities of carbon-14 became available in 1947, Calvin began
a program of research on the path of carbon in photosynthesis for
which he was to receive a Nobel Prize in 1961.
Upon Lewis's retirement as dean, the post was
taken by Wendell M. Latimer, who held it for eight years (1941-49).
Latimer's principal task was to rebuild the staff, which had been
depleted by deaths and retirements; he took the opportunity to strengthen
the department in radiochemistry, and to bring in a strong staff
in chemical technology (later to become a full-fledged Department
of Chemical Engineering) and in synthetic and structural organic
chemistry. The additions to his staff (and years of their appointment)
were: Edwin F. Orlemann, 1941; Robert E. Connick, 1942; William
D. Gwinn, 1942; James Cason, 1945; William G. Dauben, 1945; Leo
Brewer, 1946; Burris B. Cunningham, 1946; George Jura, 1946; Isadore
Perlman, 1946; Richard E. Powell, 1946; Henry Rapoport 1946; David
H. Templeton, 1947; Donald S. Noyce, 1948; Chester T. O'Konski,
1948; George C. Pimentel, 1949; and Kenneth Street, Jr., 1949.
In 1948, Lewis Hall was built for chemistry.
In 1951, Kenneth Pitzer returned from a period
as director of research of the Atomic Energy Commission to take
up the deanship of chemistry at Berkeley, and held it for nine years
(1951-60), leaving in 1961 to accept the presidency of Rice University.
Additions to his staff and the dates of the appointments were: Rollie
J. Myers, Jr., 1951; William L. Jolly, 1952; John 0. Rasmussen,
1952, Andrew Streitwieser, Jr., 1952; Frederick R. Jensen, 1955;
Norman E. Phillips, 1955; Bruce H. Mahan, 1956; Ignacio Tinoco,
Jr., 1956; Harold S. Johnston, 1957; Samuel S. Markowitz, 1958;
and David A. Shirley, 1960.
In 1960, Robert E. Connick became dean. In 1963,
Latimer Hall was built for chemistry and another building was completed
in early 1966. The number of bachelor's degrees in chemistry rose
by 1965 to about 100 annually, the number of Ph.D. degrees to more
than 50. source
School of Criminology
In 1916, inspired by the need for training
in preparation for police service, August Vollmer, then chief of
police at Berkeley, and Alexander M. Kidd, professor of law, formulated
a summer session program of study in criminology. Summer session
courses were offered each year from 1916 to 1931, with the exception
In 1931, funds were allotted to establish a criminology
program in the regular session. A committee was appointed which
resulted in an approved curriculum of criminology as a group major
in 1933. In 1939, a Bureau of Criminology was organized in the Department
of Political Science and in 1950, the School of Criminology was
established. A curriculum leading to the master's degree was approved
in 1947. The first one was awarded in June, 1949. The Ph.D. degree
was approved in 1963 and first awarded in September, 1963.
In 1969, the School of Criminology had two primary
objectives: to prepare students for teaching and career services
and for policy and administrative positions in agencies, both private
and public, engaged in the administration of criminal and juvenile
justice or concerned with public safety, security, the prevention
of criminality and delinquency and the apprehension and treatment
of the criminal; and to conduct research in the measurement, prevention,
repression, detection, and treatment of criminality and delinquency.
In the original design of the undergraduate curriculum,
instruction was divided into three main branches: law enforcement,
corrections, and criminalistics. Commencing with the academic year
1961-1962, the design was changed to provide a comprehensive undergraduate
program in general criminology with special provision for students
in criminalistics. Course work in both lower division and in the
school was designed to build an appreciation of the general historical,
legal, biological, psychological, medical, and political conditions
of criminology. The graduate program afforded opportunities for
advanced study and research in the areas of the etiology of crime,
criminalistics ties, law enforcement and corrections.
In the fall of 1964, there were 119 undergraduate
and 75 graduate students enrolled in the school. The teaching complement,
including part-time staff and personnel with joint appointments
in criminology and other University departments, numbered approximately
30. There were approximately 45 upper division criminology courses
ranging from general introduction to field studies and individual
research. The 25 graduate courses, three-quarters of which were
of the seminar variety, covered such diverse areas as crime and
the political process, prediction methods in probation and parole,
and seminars in psychologic theory of criminality and problems of
criminal responsibility. Concurrently, with the increase in faculty,
curriculum, and students in the 1960s, there was increased attention
devoted to research into various aspects of the problems of crime
and crime control. As of January 1, 1965, financial grants from
foundations, private organizations and the federal government were
funding research into the federal probation and parole system; evolution
of delinquent patterns among adolescents; use of narcotic drugs;
labeling process as it relates to delinquency and schools; development
of training materials for police, probation, and court personnel;
evaluation of specialized training on management from institutions
housing youthful offenders; and preparation of curriculum material
for teachers as it relates to crime in connection with cultural
The School of Criminology no longer exists as
Graduate School of Education
The University faculty exhibited little interest
in education as a university subject until 1879. In that year the
new state constitution contained no provision for financial support
of high schools and thereafter enrollments in the University decreased
alarmingly. Few high schools adequately prepared students for university
work. The California Teachers Association petitioned the state superintendent
of public instruction to submit a bill to the legislature for the
appointment of a professor of pedagogics, a step which state superintendents
had been urging their fellow Regents to take. The limited University
budget precluded meeting this need.
The Vrooman Act of February 14, 1887, provided
financing that made possible the establishment of new departments
at the University including a Department of Pedagogy. On May 14,
the Regents announced their intention "to establish a course of
instruction in the science and art of teaching as soon as the same
can be properly organized." The search for a qualified professor
ended in 1892 when Elmer Ellsworth Brown was appointed associate
professor of the science and art of teaching.
During the first two years, Professor Brown taught
nearly all of the courses and guided graduate students in the preparation
of master's theses and doctor's dissertations. Rapidly increasing
enrollments led to the department's expansion in 1894 and 1897.
Directed student observation of teaching was provided in the Berkeley
and Oakland schools. Some University departments operated in developing
methods courses in accordance with Brown's suggestions.
In 1898, his title was changed to professor of
the theory and practice of education. Two years later, the title
of Department of Education was adopted. Among other staff appointments
made was that of an examiner of schools, in 1903, to spend one-half
year examining high schools and the other half teaching in the department.
By January, 1906, the Department of Education enrolled the largest
number of graduate students in the University.
In June, Professor Brown resigned. Six months
later, Alexis F. Lange, dean of the College of Letters, was also
appointed department chairman.
The department's purposes were expanded to include
the training of school administrators and the preparation of teachers
for normal schools and university departments of education. Between
1907 and 1923, many specialists were added to meet recognized needs:
practice teaching, history of education, educational sociology,
educational administration, vocational education, educational psychology,
elementary education, secondary education, and educational statistics.
On March 11, 1913, the School of Education was
established. Its membership included the faculty of education and
representatives of other departments "whose subject matter is represented
in the high school curricula." Professor Lange was given the additional
title of director of the School of Education. Administration of
its various programs was the responsibility of the department.
Administration was vested in the department also
as stipulated in the contract between the Regents and the Oakland
Board of Education, in 1914, in establishing the University High
School. The school board employed a "supervisory teaching force
nominated by the Department of Education." During the next few years,
the high school department heads gradually assumed responsibilities
for teaching the special methods courses and demonstrating teaching,
which most University professors were glad to forego. These developments
led to the University's gradual employment of supervisors of directed
The upgrading of elementary school teachers and
increased graduate offerings by 1921 influenced the establishment
of the University Elementary School. The Regents and the Berkeley
Board of Education cooperatively established the laboratory school
for the "purpose of research, observation, and demonstration teaching."
Between 1916 and 1921, the University developed
a new program leading to the degree, doctor of education. The department
was made responsible for it under the jurisdiction of the School
of Education and the Graduate Division.
In 1923, William W. Kemp was recalled from the
San Jose State Teachers College presidency to succeed Dean Lange.
To meet the greatly increasing enrollments, the staff was considerably
expanded. In January, 1924, Haviland Hall was completed to house
the department. About that time, the Oakland school board completed
the modern University High School, designed to meet the University's
needs. At the request of the College of Agriculture, a cooperatively
administered master of education degree was established.
Frank N. Freeman became dean in 1939. The increased
enrollment under the "G.I. Bill" and efforts to meet the critical
shortage of teachers led to further expansion of the faculty. Adult
education was developed in cooperation with the Extension Division.
At the request of the Department of Physical Education, a cooperative
program was evolved leading to the doctor of education degree.
In 1950, William A. Brownell became dean. An almost
entirely new staff revised the programs leading to higher degrees.
The number of doctoral candidates increased considerably. Counseling
psychology and higher education were added specializations. Experimental
programs in the preparation of teachers were instituted.
Theodore L. Reller was appointed dean in 1962.
Shortly afterward, Tolman Hall was completed and the entire department
was finally housed in one building. Continuing the department's
teacher education functions, it emphasized increasingly its doctoral
degrees and research programs. It began, also, the intensive reorganization
of all courses to conform to the change to the quarter system.
In the mid-1960s, the department employed more
than 200 people distributed approximately as follows: 45 professors,
45 supervisors, 60 research personnel and graduate student research
and teaching assistants, and 55 secretarial and clerical personnel.
By the mid-1960s, 1,100 students were working
for higher degrees and credentials. Three hundred and fifty were
enrolled in the doctorate programs, each year approximately 20 being
awarded the Ph.D., and 30, the Ed.D. degree. Also 150 enrolled for
the M.A. degree, 65 attaining it annually. Each year, 550 students
were recommended for a credential: 150 elementary, 250 secondary,
75 junior college, and 75 administrative, guidance and special services.
College of Engineering
The Charter of the University provided for
the establishment of Colleges of Mechanics, Civil Engineering, and
Mining, in addition to Colleges of Agriculture and Letters. By the
mid-1960s, the College of Engineering had evolved from the early
technical colleges, with the combination of the Colleges of Mechanics
and of Civil Engineering into a College of Engineering in 1931 and
with the College of Mining becoming part of the College of Engineering
in 1942. Separate disciplines were added as engineering developed
and expanded, giving the form of the college structure in Departments
of Civil Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Industrial Engineering,
Mechanical Engineering, Mineral Technology, Naval Architecture,
and Nuclear Engineering.
Early study in the technical colleges was a combination
of the science and art of engineering with humanities and foreign
language. But the practice of engineering was not neglected. The
staff and students installed most of the college's machinery and
facilities and contributed to the development of campus equipment.
Joseph N. LeConte was appointed assistant professor in the College
of Mechanics in 1892 and later professor of mechanical engineering,
serving until his retirement in 1937. He wrote of the 1890-1900
period when the only local electrical power was generated in the
engineering laboratory: "Our library (Bacon Hall) had never been
lighted at night. . . . Authority was granted to set a line of poles
from the Electrical Laboratory to the Library and South Hall. .
. . On these were strung the wires of the 'power circuit' and the
single loop of wire for arc lamps. . . . The lighting service on
the grounds consisted of about 10 open arc lamps in series. . .
.This string of antediluvian arc lamps was the bane of Cory's (Professor
Clarence L. Cory, for whom Cory Hall is named) and my existence,
and we often made nocturnal trips around the circuit to see if all
were in operation. I remember one night when President Kellogg was
giving his annual reception, three lamps went out of action at critical
locations, so that we in our dress suits climbed the poles and got
them going while on our way to the reception."
Engineering kept pace with the growth and development
of the campus, having approximately 3,000 students enrolled in the
college by the mid-1960s. About 1,200 were graduate students. The
first engineering bachelor's degree was granted in 1873 in the College
of Civil Engineering, the first master's degree in 1896, and the
first doctoral degree in 1894. Through June of 1965, the college
and its antecedents granted 17,187 bachelor's, 3,338 master's, and
506 doctoral degrees. Engineering alumni made a substantial contribution
to the development of the state and the nation. The college staff
continued to maintain leadership in engineering instruction, in
important research, and as consultants with government and private
agencies in all areas of engineering.
As a result of the increased research tasks during
the early 1940s which were supported by off-campus agencies, the
college established the Institute of Engineering Research in 1948,
which became the Office of Research Services of the college. Expenditures
on sponsored research activities averaged over $6 million a year
by the mid-1960s. These activities were directed by staff members,
manned largely by graduate students, administered by the Office
of Research Services, and much of the work was done with facilities
located at the Richmond Field Station.
Engineering at Berkeley provided active staff
participation and supervision in the Engineering Extension course
and conference programs of service to the people of the state. By
the mid-1960s, approximately 2,500 extension students each year
continued their education through this service administered at Berkeley.
Engineering Extension also assisted with the administration of other
special technical conferences and meetings which were arranged by
engineering staff members. The dean of the college, George Maslach,
followed a long line of notable leaders in the field of engineering
education, application, development, and research: Deans Frank Soulé
(civil, 1896-1907), Friedrich G. Hesse (mechanics, 1896-1901), Samuel
B. Christy (mining, 1896-1914), Clarence L. Cory (mechanics, 1901-29),
Andrew C. Lawson (mining, 1914-18), Charles Derleth, Jr. (civil,
1907-29 and engineering, 1929-42), Frank H. Probert (mining, 1918-40),
Lester C. Uren (mining, acting, 1940-41), Donald H. McLaughlin (mining,
1941-42, and engineering, 1942-43), Morrough P. O'Brien (engineering,
1943-59), and John R. Whinnery (engineering, 1959-63). Each added
to the stature and eminence of the college. source
College of Environmental Design
The College of Environmental Design was
established in 1959, bringing together the existing College of Architecture,
the Department of City and Regional Planning, and the Department
of Landscape Architecture. William Wilson Wurster, formerly dean
of the College of Architecture, was named the first dean of the
new college. The College of Environmental Design offered undergraduate
curricula leading to the degrees of bachelor of architecture and
bachelor of landscape architecture and graduate curricula leading
to the degrees of master of architecture, master of city planning,
and master of landscape architecture.
The establishment of this new college was recommended
on the basis of a three-year comprehensive study by a joint committee
of the three departments involved. The name of the college reflected
the conviction of the committee as expressed in its statement, "each
profession shares with the other two a common interest in the complex
task of organizing and designing the physical environment for human
1963, the research interests of departments within the college,
as well as departments and individuals throughout the University,
were furthered by establishment of an Institute
of Urban And Regional Development. A unit within the institute,
for Planning And Development Research, was particularly oriented
to interests of the college.
In 1964, the Department of Decorative Art, formerly
in the College of Letters and Science, was added to the college
although its undergraduate curriculum leading to the bachelor of
arts degree was still offered by the College of Letters and Science.
In 1965, the department's name was changed to Department of Design.
Prior to the establishment of the College of Environmental
Design, these four units evolved separately: the College of Architecture
from its beginning in 1903 as a department in a College of Social
Sciences; the Department of City and Regional Planning established
as an independent department in 1948; the Department of Design from
a Department of Household Art started in 1919 in the College of
Letters and Science; and the Department of Landscape Architecture
from a Division of Landscape Gardening and Horticulture established
in 1913 in the College of Agriculture.
In the mid-1960s, the dean of the college was
Martin Meyerson, who was appointed in 1963, following the retirement
of Wurster. All the departments of the college and the Institute
of Urban and Regional Development were housed in William W. and
Catherine B. Wurster Hall, which was completed in the fall of 1964.
School of Forestry
Instruction in professional forestry was
established in the University as a result of several years of effort
on the part of a small but dedicated group of students, supported
by such interested members of the faculty as Willis L. Jepson and
Ernest B. Babcock. In 1912, the students organized the Forestry
Club with the initial objective of securing the addition of forestry
to the curricula of the University. With vigorous support from Dean
Thomas Forsyth Hunt of the College of Agriculture, the necessary
appropriations were secured and President Wheeler authorized establishment
of a Division of Forestry on April 25, 1913.
The new division was established in the College
of Agriculture. The first courses were offered in the spring of
1914 by Assistant Professor Merritt Pratt. Professor Walter Mulford,
who previously had headed the forestry school at Cornell, was placed
in charge of the new program and took office on August 1, 1914.
He remained as its head until he retired in 1947. Under his leadership,
the original Division of Forestry grew into a full-fledged department
in 1939. In 1946, the School of Forestry was established with Mulford
as its first dean. By the mid-1960s, preparation for admission to
the school continued to be offered in the College of Agriculture
in the form of a lower division pre-forestry curriculum.
Initially, the school consisted of the single
Department of Forestry conducting both teaching programs and a program
of organized research within the Agricultural Experiment Station.
In 1950, the school was
enlarged by addition of the Forest Products
Laboratory, later located at the Richmond Field Station, which
functioned as a research division in the experiment station.
The first academic program offered in 1914 consisted
of a curriculum in forestry leading to the B.S. degree and programs
of graduate study leading to the M.S. degree in forestry. With minor
variations, the undergraduate offering continued to be limited to
a single major, but graduate instruction steadily expanded in scope.
When the school was established in 1946, the professional master
of forestry degree was added to the University's offerings; in 1960,
award of the Ph.D. degree in forestry was authorized. In addition,
the forestry faculty worked closely with members of other departments
in the development of formal graduate programs of interest to foresters.
Thus, they participated actively in graduate group programs in agricultural
chemistry, plant physiology, range management, and wood technology.
In cooperation with the College of Agriculture at Berkeley and Davis,
members of the school faculty also offered B.S. and M.S. degree
programs in the field of range management.
Initial enrollment growth was modest. Up to 1930,
the number of degrees granted rarely exceeded ten bachelor's and
five master's degrees annually. During the late 1930s and again
a decade later, undergraduate numbers increased greatly. Eighty
or more bachelor's degrees were granted in both 1939 and 1950. After
1955, however, the size of the school became relatively stable.
Bachelor's degrees awarded averaged 35 per year, master's degrees,
ten, and Ph.D. degrees (including those in related departments),
A unique feature of the undergraduate forestry
curriculum was the Summer Field Program required of all students
at the end of the sophomore year. This ten-week academic course
was taught at Meadow Valley in the Sierra Nevada, where a 50-man
camp, established in 1917, provided opportunity for both field instruction
and the development of close acquaintanceship among students and
between students and faculty. This camp, along with Blodgett Forest
Research Station, a 3,000-acre experimental forest also in the Sierra
Nevada, provided students and faculty with major forest facilities
for teaching and research.
The faculty of five men who established the initial
program in 1914 was gradually expanded. By the mid-1960s, it included
19 members. These men divided their time about equally between teaching
and organized forestry research which the school conducted within
the Agricultural Experiment Station. This division of labor made
it possible to have on the teaching staff men who were well qualified
in each of the numerous specialized aspects of forestry. By the
mid-1960s, more than 40 active research projects were under way
in forest ecology, wildland management, wood science and technology,
and forest economics. In addition to the research information they
produced, these projects provided a valuable training ground for
the many graduate students who served as research assistants in
In research, as in teaching, the faculty recognized
that an important part of its function was to bring all the available
resources of the University to bear on the full array of biological
and social problems arising from man's use of the forest. As a consequence,
close informal ties developed between forestry and many other faculties
on the Berkeley campus. The school made many significant contributions
to forestry research, including Joseph Kittredge Jr.'s pioneer work
on the effect of vegetation on water storage and snow melt and Arthur
W. Sampson's studies of the role of fire in vegetation succession.
F. S. Baker's Theory and Practice of Silviculture was the
first American textbook in its field and was regarded as a classic
in forestry literature. By the mid-1960s, of the 99 living fellows
of the professional Society of American Foresters, eight were University
graduates and nine were present or former members of the school
Although the undergraduate forestry curriculum
continued to be vital to the successful operation of the School
of Forestry, graduate study received increasing emphasis over the
years. Berkeley provided an unrivaled opportunity to build strong
programs of graduate work in forestry because of the availability
of strong supporting departments. The success of the school's efforts
to capitalize on these opportunities was evidenced by the number
of alumni who achieved distinction in such varied research fields
as forest genetics, forest economics, forest soils, and ecology;
in teaching; in private forest industries; and in public forest
In 1974, the School of Forestry and Conservation
was merged with the College of Agriculture to form the College of
School of Information Management and
See School of Librarianship.
Graduate School of Journalism
Charles H. Raymond, the first professor of
journalistic studies and founder of the original group major in
journalism, began his University career as professor of English.
In 1936-37, Raymond taught four journalistic studies courses in
the English department. The following year, the courses were adapted
and moved to the group major in journalistic studies which was offered
for the full academic year 1937-38. Raymond became professor of
journalistic studies, teaching six courses, all in upper division.
The subject field included history of journalism, news and editorial
writing, the country newspaper, and propaganda and the news. After
his death in the spring of 1939, the year's work was completed by
Professor Eric Bellquist of the political science department and
Edwin Emery, a former Daily Californian editor and graduate
student in history who had been assisting Raymond. Emery, who taught
at Minnesota, was the editor of Journalism Quarterly.
Succeeding Raymond as departmental chairman, Robert
W. Desmond came to the campus in 1939 as professor and the single
faculty member for the group major. Desmond served as chairman from
1939 to 1954 and again as acting chairman in 1962-63. The group
major in journalistic studies developed into a full major in journalism
in 1941, with three faculty members, two lower division, and nine
upper division courses. In addition to news writing, reporting,
and editing, courses included history of journalism, contemporary
editorial problems, newspaper management, and press and world affairs.
In 1951, the department introduced the graduate
program leading to the degree of master of journalism. In addition
to the lower and upper division courses preparing for the major,
ten graduate courses were offered in the academic year 1951-52.
When Philip F. Griffin became the department's third chairman, a
post he was to hold from 1954 to 1959, the department's faculty
had grown to ten. The course offerings included one in the lower
division, 16 in the upper division, and seven in the graduate division
Professor Charles M. Hulten has served as chairman after 1959. By
1959, the upper division courses increased to 21 and the graduate
courses to nine. As of 1965, the department offered one lower division,
20 upper division, and 11 graduate level courses. Courses included
magazine article writing, press and society, research methods and
analytical studies, press law, radio journalism, newspaper advertising,
publishing problems, comparative world journalism, critical reviewing,
international information programs, and public opinion, propaganda,
and the mass media.
In the years from 1937 to 1965, the department
graduated 1,061 men and women, many in distinguished positions in
journalism. Seventy-eight received the master of journalism degree,
983 the bachelor of arts degree. During 1964-65, 508 were enrolled
in undergraduate courses and 77 in graduate courses. From the department's
earliest beginnings, the faculty emphasized the functions and responsibilities
of the information media. The study of journalism was closely identified
and integrated with the study of the social sciences and humanities.
Between 1948-1965, the department brought in eight special guest
instructors eminent in their fields, including two Regents' Lecturers,
to enrich the department's offerings. Two more were approved as
Regents' Lecturers for 1965-66.
It was decided in 1965 to discontinue the undergraduate
major in journalism as of 1968. However, both undergraduate and
graduate journalism courses continued to be offered. There was increased
emphasis on the development of the graduate professional program,
using a newly revised master's degree curriculum as a base. source
The Department of Journalism later became the
Graduate School of Journalism.
School of Law
In 1882, William Carey Jones, an instructor
in Latin at the University, began to teach a course in Roman law.
He received his bachelor's degree from the University in 1875, and
his M.A. in 1879, when after privately "reading" law he had passed
the bar examination. Jones always regarded that course in Roman
law as the seed of the Department of Jurisprudence, although in
fact the department was not created until 12 years later.
Meanwhile, having transferred to the history department,
Jones was teaching courses in international law, constitutional
law, and jurisprudence, as well as Roman law. When the Department
of Jurisprudence was created in 1894, Jones was made its head. Four
years later, a professional emphasis was established by the addition
of courses in torts, crimes, and contracts. By 1903, both staff
and curriculum had been expanded to a point where three years of
professional study were provided and, in that year, three men received
the first LL.B. degrees granted at Berkeley: Harry A. Holzer, Moto
Y. Negoro, and Charles I. Wright.
Space became a problem: the department was housed
in old North Hall, and its 7,000-volume library was in the basement
of Bacon Hall. In 1906, Mrs. Elizabeth Boalt provided a gift of
$100,000 for a law building, while an additional $50,000 was contributed
by lawyers throughout the state. Boalt Hall, constructed with these
funds, was dedicated on April 28, 1911. At the same time an endowment
fund was established by Mrs. Jane Sather, the income from which
was used to buy books for the law library.
The Regents changed the department into the School
of Jurisprudence in 1912. Jones was appointed director, later dean,
of the school, a position he held until his death in 1923. The school,
generally called Boalt Hall, continued to grow in enrollment, faculty,
In 1950, the official name was changed to School
of Law, and in 1951, a new building was dedicated. The basic structure
retained the name Boalt Hall, but the law library was named in honor
of the man who made its construction possible, Garrett W. McEnerney.
Further expansion was initiated in 1959, by Boalt Hall alumni who
helped raise funds for building the Earl Warren Legal Center. At
the same time, the University drew plans for additional classroom,
office, and library space. A high-rise law student dormitory, Manville
Hall, was made possible through gifts of other friends of the school.
The three-part project was scheduled for completion in 1967.
Steel and concrete were of course only a small
part of the history of Boalt Hall. Starting with its one Latin instructor,
the school gathered from three continents a faculty who offered
a broad curriculum. The library had grown to nearly 200,000 volumes
by the mid-1960s.
Scores of American and foreign universities and
colleges sent students to Boalt Hall, which produced 3,600 graduates
in law by the mid-1960s. Among the many distinguished Boalt Hall
alumni are Earl Warren, former Chief justice of the United States, and
Roger Traynor, former chief justice of California. source
College of Letters and Science
The Organic Act of 1868 made a distinction
between the College of Arts (agriculture, mechanics arts, mining,
and civil engineering) and the College of Letters, which was to
"embrace a liberal course of instruction in languages, literature,
and philosophy, together with such courses or parts of courses in
the aforesaid College(s) of Arts as the authorities of the University
shall prescribe." While the Colleges of Arts began with a freshman
class and one year of instruction, adding year by year as this class
progressed to graduation, the College of Letters began with a four-year
program and four classes of students, all taken over from the College
of California. The College of Letters thus became the first full-fledged
unit in the new University.
It is not entirely certain what the College of
Letters required for the A.B. degree, but presumably Greek and Latin
were specified because by 1872, a modification substituting modern
languages and natural science was permitted. The priority of the
A.B. degree was maintained, however, because the new program qualified
the student only for the degree of bachelor of philosophy (Ph.B).
By 1874, the two degrees were associated with two separate courses,
the classical course and the literary course. By 1881, the degree
for the literary course was changed to bachelor of letters (B.L.),
but the next year the Ph.B. was re-established for a third course,
the course in letters and political science. This three-course system
omitted training in natural science, a subject then confined to
elementary work and practical applications as taught in agriculture,
chemistry, and the various colleges later combined into engineering.
In 1893, the courses were replaced by three separate
colleges: the College of Letters, reverted to its original purpose,
required Greek and Latin and offered the A.B. degree; the College
of Social Science gave "a liberal education without Greek" and offered
the B.L. and Ph.B. degrees (the latter was dropped after one year);
and the College of Natural Science offered a program leading to
the B.S. degree. This organization, with Irving Stringham as dean
of all three colleges, was maintained until 1915. In that year,
the colleges were amalgamated into the College of Letters and Science,
the B.L. and B.S. degrees were discontinued, and the A.B. degree
was extended to all programs of the new college. At the same time,
the junior certificate was established, whereby a program of lower
division courses designed to broaden the student intellectually
was required to be completed in the first two years. For the first
time science was required of all students, though the requirement
could be met by high school courses. The new college also raised
the major requirement from 15 to 24 upper-division units.
Two important changes in the college took place
between 1940 and 1960. In 1947, the dean assumed budgetary control
over the departments of the college, a responsibility previously
exercised by the President of the University. In 1954, Dean Alva
R. Davis initiated action establishing a Special Committee on Objectives,
Programs, and Requirements which, with the aid of a foundation grant,
designed a program giving students in the college greater freedom
within broadly conceived areas of guidance. This program was approved
by the Academic Senate in 1957 and became effective for freshman
students entering in September, 1958.
By 1965, nearly 75 departments, research organizations,
and special programs comprised the college, and although their activities
were extremely diversified, they fell into five major subject matter
groups: the arts, language and literature, biological sciences,
physical sciences, and social sciences; in addition, there was physical
education, aerospace studies, and naval and military science. The
University's Seismographic Stations came under the jurisdiction
of the college, as did the Lick Observatory until July 1, 1965,
when administrative control was transferred to the Santa Cruz campus.
When the College of Letters and Science was established
in 1915, there was no dean. In 1922, Monroe E. Deutsch was appointed
first dean of the college (1922-30), followed by George D. Louderback
(1930-38), Joel H. Hildebrand (1938-44), George P. Adams (1944-47),
Davis (1947-55), Lincoln Constance (1955-62), and William B. Fretter
(after 1962). source
School of Librarianship
Instruction in library science at the University
was offered by the general library staff as early as 1902 and continued
intermittently, primarily on a summer session basis, through the
First World War. Due largely to the efforts of Sydney B. Mitchell,
then associate University librarian, a Department of Library Science
was organized in the undergraduate College of Letters and Science
in 1918. This became the graduate School of Librarianship in 1926,
with Mitchell as its founding dean.
A one-year curriculum provided basic professional
education for those wishing to assume positions in school, public,
special, and university libraries. A certificate in librarianship
was awarded until 1947, when the bachelor of library science degree
was authorized. With an expanded curriculum, this became the master
of library science degree in 1955. Advanced study leading to the
degrees of doctor of library science and doctor of philosophy was
authorized by the University in 1954. From 1928 until 1954, the
school had been one of five graduate library schools offering a
second-year master's degree; this curriculum was discontinued with
the commencement of the doctoral programs.
Following a period of relatively constant student
enrollment throughout the 1930s and of sharp decline during the
war years, enrollment in the school steadily increased after 1945.
In the latter year, 27 students were graduated from the first-year
curriculum. By 1955, this number had risen to 52 and by 1965, to
118. In this same 20-year period, eight full-time faculty members
joined the instructional staff, making possible a curriculum which
reflected the many levels of librarianship.
1964, the University authorized the establishment of the Institute
of Library Research which, in cooperation with the School of
Librarianship and the School of Library Service at Los Angeles,
provided opportunities for faculty and student research and for
advanced or specialized postgraduate training for practicing librarians.
The School of Librarianship was renamed the School
of Library and Information Studies, which later became the foundation
for the current School of Information Management and Systems.
College of Natural Resources
The College of Natural Resources was formed
in 1974 by merging the College of Agriculture and the School of
Forestry and Conservation. See College of
Agriculture and School of Forestry.
School of Optometry
After a number of years of negotiation between
the President, the Regents, and a committee of the California Optometric
Association, an agreement was reached in 1921 that the University
would establish a program in optometry within the Department of
Physics, starting in the fall of 1923, providing the California
Optometric Association could obtain financial support for the program.
In the two-year period between 1921 and 1923, the committee raised
a sum of $9,000 to finance the first year of the program. In the
meantime, the California Optometric Association sponsored legislation
to increase the annual renewal fee of the certificate of registration
of each optometrist in the state by eight dollars. "This sum shall
be used at and by the University of California solely for the advancement
of optometrical research and the maintenance and support of the
department at the university in which the science of optometry is
taught." (Sect. 3148, Ch. 7, Div. 2, B and P Code.)
The program in optometry continued as a division
in the Department of Physics until 1940, at which time the Department
of Optometry in the College of Letters and Science was established
as an upper division department offering a two-year program based
on two years of preoptometry. In 1941, the School of Optometry was
established, authorized to administer a two-year curriculum based
on the completion of the requirements for the degree of associate
in arts in the College of Letters and Science and leading to the
degree of bachelor of science and the certificate in optometry.
In January, 1948, the curriculum was expanded
to three years, based on the associate of arts degree, making the
total program five years in length, effective with the class entering
the School of Optometry in September, 1948. This expanded program
led to the B.S. degree at the end of the fourth academic year and
the certificate and master of optometry at the end of the fifth
year. In 1965, with Academic Senate and Regental approval, the curriculum
was increased to four years based on two years of preprofessional
education. This six-year program terminated in the degree of doctor
of optometry and became effective with the class entering the School
of Optometry in 1966.
In February, 1946, the Graduate Council approved
a graduate program leading to the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in physiological
optics. This program was administered by a group of the faculty
representing physics, physiology, psychology, optometry, and ophthalmology.
On June 23, 1948, the Optometry Building, formerly
Durant Hall, was dedicated. The conversion of Durant Hall was made
possible by a building fund of $380,000, $80,000 of which was raised
by the California Optometric Association and the balance by an appropriation
of the California legislature. source
School of Public Health
School of Public Health was one of 13 in
the United States in the mid-1960s. Its goals were to protect humanity
from sickness and death and to promote physical, mental, and
social well-being through teaching, research, and public service.
The origins of the school go back to many academic
and professional leaders of public health and medicine in California.
They include Robert Legge and John Force, longtime chairmen of the
University's Department of Hygiene. During the late 1930s, Karl
F. Meyer's Curriculum in Public Health demonstrated the urgent need
for a School of Public Health. Public health and medical leaders,
including Lawrence Arnstein, Ford Rigby, and William Shepard, presented
these needs to the California State Legislature. The resulting bill,
AB 515, signed by Governor Earl Warren in 1943, appropriated funds
for the school, which was established in 1944 at the Berkeley, Los
Angeles, and San Francisco campuses. The organizing dean, Walter
Brown, retained Margaret Beattie and Walter Mangold as the faculty
nucleus from the antecedent Department of Hygiene. In 1955, the
school moved into Earl Warren Hall near the state health department,
with which the school was closely linked. In 1960, the University-wide
administration of the school was revised to establish two separate
schools, one at Los Angeles and the other at Berkeley, with continuing
responsibilities to the San Francisco campus.
While the baccalaureate degree program continued
in public health-biostatistics, alternative first level preparation
for other public health areas enabled the school to devote its major
resources to the graduate level.
Graduate curricula led either to professional
or academic degrees. The professional degrees, master of public
health and doctor of public health, signified competence for positions
of administrative leadership in official and voluntary health agencies.
The academic master and doctor of philosophy degrees prepared students
for careers in research and teaching in specific aspects of the
health sciences, such as biostatistics, demography, environmental
health, epidemiology, and medical microbiology. The school also
conducted a residency program for physicians seeking certification
by the American Board of Preventive Medicine.
By the mid-1960s, the 150 graduate degrees annually
awarded and the 335 graduates enrolled trebled the 1950 figures
and doubled those when Warren Hall was first occupied.
The school enjoyed close liaison with the other
professional schools and colleges as well as the academic departments
and institutes in Berkeley and San Francisco. Its
Naval Biological Laboratory was
devoted to aerobiology and related microbiological research; the
Sanitary Engineering Research Laboratory,
maintained with the College of Engineering, was the scene of pioneering
inquiry in the environmental health sciences.
In cooperation with the Western Regional Office
of the American Public Health Association, the Schools of Public
Health at Berkeley and Los Angeles provided an intensive off-campus
program of continuing education to update knowledge of public health
workers of California and the other western states.
The school had close affiliation with official
and voluntary health organizations of the bay region. The school
represented the University in the Berkeley Unified Health Plan,
by which the city, unified school district, Visiting Nurse Association,
and the University provided health services to the Berkeley community.
The plan benefited not only the quality of these services but also
the instruction and research of the school. Moreover, the plan fostered
the friendship of town and gown. source
Richard & Rhoda Goldman School
of Public Policy
There is no history currently available for
School of Social Welfare
Three historic trends contributed to the
origin of professional education for social work at Berkeley: the
multiplication of specialized institutions for charity and correction;
the agitation for social reform; and the development of social science.
They entered academic consciousness by way of the economics department
in 1904 through the work of Ernest C. Moore and Carl C. Plehn, but
it was primarily through the interests and efforts of Jessica B.
Peixotto, an expert on "social economics," who had practical experience
in the charities of Berkeley and on the State Board of Charities
and Corrections, that an organized curriculum developed. From 1904
to 1912, she taught courses in Contemporary Theories of Social Reform,
Poverty, The Child and the State, Care of Dependents, and Crime
as a Social Problem.
In 1912, the Department of Economics, stating
that "the widespread interest in the control of poverty has given
rise, in recent years, to a demand for the services of the trained
social worker," announced the inauguration of the Curriculum in
Social Economics. The program included a year of graduate study,
mainly in economics with field work in the Associated Charities
of San Francisco. The plan in general followed the ideas and aspirations
of professional schools of social work already established in New
York and Chicago. This basic idea--a graduate program combining
social science and psychological studies with practical experience
in welfare agencies-- endured. Since graduates mostly went into
casework, over the years the psychological component of the curriculum
came to be more important than "social economics." Professional
preoccupations changed, from child welfare and community organization
in the 1920s to relief and social security in the depression of
Although the student body grew slowly, progress
was steadily made in the period between the two World Wars under
the successive leadership of Professors Lucy Ward Stebbins, Emily
Noble Plehn, and Martha Chickering. In 1927, the instruction was
formalized into a Curriculum of Social Service leading to a graduate
certificate in social service, which was accredited in 1928 by the
American Association of Schools of Social Work. In 1939, a new era
was inaugurated in social welfare education on the campus under
the leadership of Harry M. Cassidy, who was called from the directorship
of the public welfare department of British Columbia to head a new
Department of Social Welfare. In 1940, a two-year master's degree
program was inaugurated and in 1944, his planning efforts reached
fruition when the Regents approved his plan for a graduate, professional
School of Social Welfare with a two-year curriculum leading to a
professional master of social welfare degree.
The School of Social Welfare achieved its most
rapid growth and development after World War II. Its student body
grew so rapidly that it went from 12th to second in size among accredited
graduate schools of social work in the United States and Canada.
Its master's degree program included every specialty recognized
by the profession of social work. In 1959, a doctor of social welfare
program was approved by the Regents.
By the mid-1960s, social welfare education on
the Berkeley campus included: an undergraduate group major in social
welfare in the College of Letters and Science; a two-year master's
degree program which graduated every kind of social caseworker,
social group worker and social worker specializing in community
organization and administration; doctoral students equipped to teach
and do research; and a wide-spread extension program throughout
northern California serving the diversified educational needs of
practicing social workers. source