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Statement of Principles (PDF)

Executive Summary (PDF)

Faculty Conference on Scholarly Publishing - UC Berkeley

UC Berkeley > The Library > Faculty Conference on Scholarly Publishing > Handouts > Commercial Publisher Mergers and Acquisitions/Publishing Models

Commercial Publisher Mergers and Acquisitions

This chart indicates the consolidation of control of commercial scholarly publishers over the last 15 years. 37 publishers are now controlled by 6 entities. "In the biomedical field alone, significant price increases occurred in 10 of the 11 mergers."¹

Reed Elsevier Taylor & Francis Informa Wolters Kluwer Candover & Cinven Wiley Blackwell Verlagsgruppe George von Holtzbrinck
~1800 journals ~1000 journals ~275 journals ~1350 journals ~1250 journals ~70 journals
Academic Press AA Balkema Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Kluwer A.R. Liss Nature Publishing/ Macmillan
Cell Press BIOS Scientific Publishers Adis International Plenum GIT Verlag Scientific American
Congressional Information Service CRC Press   Springer Scripta Technica WH Freeman
Elsevier Curzon Press     VCH Bedford, Freeman Worth
Engineering Information Gordon & Breach     Wiley  
Excerpta Medica Harwood Academic     Interscience  
Harcourt Marcel Dekker     Blackwell Publishing  
Morgan Kaufmann Routledge     Blackwell Publishing Asia  
Mosby Swets Zeitlinger     Blackwell Synergy  
Pergamon Press Taylor & Francis     Munksgaard  
Urban & Fischer Garland Science        
WB Saunders          

¹ Publisher Mergers: A Consumer-Based Approach to Antitrust Analysis. Susman, Carter, Ropes & Gray, and the Information Alliance. June 2003. (PDF)
Source: The Academic Publishing Industry: A Story of Merger and Acquisition.

Publishing Models

Model Access Who Pays Peer Review Examples
Commercial Publisher Restricted Subscriber yes Elsevier
(see Mergers and Acquisitions chart)
Open Access Unrestricted Author/Sponsor yes PloS
BioMed Central
See Directory of Open Access Journals
Fee for Access/Free After Delay All articles restricted for a period after initial publication, then freely available² Subscriber yes 195 HighWire journals
Journal of Biological Chemistry
Fee for Access/Open Access Options Some articles unrestricted, some restricted³ Subscriber
yes PNAS
Nucleic Acids Research
Digital Repository Unrestricted Institution Sometimes (depends on content type and policy) eScholarship Postprint Server
DSpace (MIT)
Preprint Server Unrestricted Grant funding to Archive Post-publication www.arXiv.org

² Some HighWire journals make their content available for free, typically after 12 months.
³ For example, in Nucleic Acids Research, UC faculty can pay $500 for their article to be Open Access.

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