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SNCC 50th Anniversary Conference.

Conference prodeedings of veteran and youth activists gathered at Shaw University in North Carolina to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), an organization which formed the vanguard of the Civil Rights Movement. 2011.
web web sites: Description from California Newsreel catalog Volume 1, Opening PlenarySNCC Advisor, Timothy Jenkins opens the conference explaining that this is not simply a gathering of reminiscence, but a coming together to provide "missing chapters in history" to a new generation of freedom fighters. Following Jenkins is a vivid and substantive description of SNCC's birth and impact given by Professor Julian Bond, retired NAACP Board of Directors Chair, who participated in SNCC's 1960 founding conference. An important lesson that emerges from this opening session is that while SNCC Veterans do not define themselves as heroes and heroines, serious and effective struggle requires commitment, and commitment often involves risk. Speakers: Chuck McDew (Former SNCC Chairman), Charles Meeker (Raleigh Mayor), Timothy Jenkins (SNCC Executive Committee Member), Judy Richardson (SNCC Field Secretary), Hollis Watkins (SNCC Field Staff), Julian Bond (SNCC Communications Director), William J. Barber (President NC-NAACP) 100 min. Volume 2, Early Student Movement Philosophy and ActivismWhile deep dissatisfaction was a major factor mobilizing the young people who would engage in direct action protests, often the first steps into activism led to a greater-than-anticipated commitment. Adult mentoring played a large role; adults who had long been struggling for change supported young activists and helped expand their view of the world. Speakers: Muriel Tillinghast (SNCC Field Secretary), David Dennis (Congress of Racial Equality aka CORE), Joan T. Mulholland (student, Tougaloo College), Johnny Parham (Atlanta Student Movement) 53 min. Volume 3, From Student Activists to Field OrganizersThe most remarkable aspect of the civil disobedience and sit-ins of the 1960s was the leadership of young people. Importantly, young activists were challenging other young people to join them, and also challenging established civil rights organizations to speed up the pace of their efforts. Their commitment and energy led to the grassroots organizing work that defined the freedom movement of the 1960s. In this session, panelists discuss their deepening involvement with the Southern Movement as grassroots community organizers. Harry Belafonte makes an unscheduled appearance in the session. Speakers: Charlie Cobb (SNCC Field Secretary), Jean Wheeler Young (SNCC Field Secretary), Chuck McDew (SNCC Chairman), Dorie Ladner (SNCC Field Secretary), Wendell Paris (SNCC Field Secretary), Wazir "Willie" Peacock (SNCC Field Secretary) 68 min. Volume 4, SNCC Builds an OrganizationThis session presents a behind-the-scenes look at the people and elements that kept SNCC running as an organization. The panelists, former SNCC staffers (many of whom also worked "in the field" as well), represent some of the glue that held SNCC together as an organization. Their work was vital in addressing communications to transportation and the provision of other resources for SNCC members. Speakers: Karen Spellman (SNCC Research Department), Judy Richardson (SNCC Field Secretary), Betty Garman Robinson (SNCC Atlanta Headquarters), Margaret Lauren Herring (SNCC Atlanta Headquarters), Tamio Wakayama (SNCC Photographer), Freddie Greene Biddle (SNCC Field Secretary) 77 min. Volume 5, The Raleigh Civil Rights Movement.Just 12 days after the Greensboro, North Carolina sit-in of February 1, 1960, students attending Shaw University and Saint Augustine College in Raleigh, North Carolina began sitting in at lunch counters. This panel of local leaders provides a close-up look at the sit-in movement in the city of SNCC's birthplace, and the segregation existing there in the 1940s and 50s. Speakers: Cash Michaels (Editor, The Carolinian), McLouis Clayton (Professor, Shaw University), George C. Debnam (Board of Trustees Shaw University). 78 min. Volume 6, Luncheon Keynote: Rev. James Lawson, "We Have Not Yet Arrived"At SNCC's founding conference in 1960 it was Rev. James Lawson who captured the political imagination of the students. In this address Lawson outlines his belief in the continuing value and necessity of non-violent struggle for social change and justice. "The power and energy of the 1960s movement is needed for the 21st century." 41 min. Volume 7, The Societal Response to SNCCThis panel and audience discussion considers the complex response to SNCC by the general public and specific sections of society. SNCC's work inspired many students, and the organization found considerable support in groups like the National Student Association and the Students for a Democratic Society. Within this discussion, a larger question is also raised and considered: What should we do today? Speakers: Larry Rubin (SNCC Field Secretary), John Doar (Former Head, Justice Department - Civil Rights Division), Timothy Jenkins (SNCC Executive Committee Member), Peniel Joseph (Professor, Tufts University), Dorothy M. Zellner (SNCC Atlanta Headquarters) 82 min. Volume 8, Up South: "We Raised Money, We Raised Hell"This panel explores the evolution of SNCC organizing that took place above the Mason-Dixon line. Panelists discuss how support groups originally formed to provide money and other assistance for the Southern movement found themselves increasingly involved in local protests and political struggles. Speakers: Mike Miller (Bay Area Friends of SNCC), William Strickland (Northern Student Movement), Fannie Rushing (Chicago Friends of SNCC), Betita (Liz) Sutherland Martinez (New York Friends of SNCC), D'Army Bailey (Student Activist, Louisiana Sit-In Movement), Julie Poussaint (New York Friends of SNCC). 81 min. Volume 9, More Than a HamburgerThis panel explores the evolution of SNCC organizing that took place above the Mason-Dixon line. Panelists discuss how support groups originally formed to provide money and other assistance for the Southern movement found themselves increasingly involved in local protests and political struggles. Speakers: Courtland Cox (SNCC Program Secretary), Gwen Patton (SNCC Field Secretary), Frank Smith (SNCC Field Secretary), Ed Brown (SNCC Field Secretary), Leah Wise (SNCC Volunteer), Kathleen Cleaver (SNCC Campus Travel Program Secretary and Black Panther Party), Professor Doris Dozier Crenshaw (SNCC SCLC Alabama) 89 min. Volume 10, Moving on Mississippi: "We Had to be Strong"Not unexpectedly, some of the Southern Movement's most vivid stories are found in Mississippi. Panelist Lawrence Guyot, former Chair of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP), insists that Mississippi is the state that "made the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee." This panel features the first-personal accounts of some of the Movement's most unsung heroes and heroines. The significance and impact of the MFDP forms an important part of the discussion. Speakers: Owen Brooks (Delta Ministry Mississippi), Brenda Travis (Pike County Non-Violent Movement), Hollis Watkins (SNCC Field Secretary), Lawrence Guyot (Chair, MFDP), Willie Blue (SNCC Field Secretary), Michael Sistrom (Historian). 80 min. Volume 11, Alabama: "Turning to Ourselves"Lowndes County, Alabama, where SNCC consciously organized an independent Black political party in 1966, played an especially important role in for empowerment of Black citizens and the development of the organization. SNCC's success in Lowndes County --one of its least known achievements -- is discussed. Speakers: Ruby Sales (SNCC Field Secretary), Gloria House (SNCC Field Secretary), Willie Ricks (SNCC Field Secretary), Annie Pearl Avery (SNCC Field Secretary), Hasan Kwame Jeffries (Professor, The Ohio State University) 86 min. Volume 12, Southwest Georgia: "Do You Want to Be Free"This panel discusses the Southwest Georgia Project, one of SNCC's earliest and most significant campaigns. Project Director, Charles Sherrod gives a vivid description of dealing with fear in rural terrain that was as vicious and violent as any place in Mississippi. This session concludes an appearance by Shirley Sherrod who recounts her recent victorious effort to win compensation for black farmers long discriminated against by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Speakers: SNCC Field Secretaries: Donald Harris, Penny Patch, Rutha Harris, Sam Mahone, John Perdew ; SNCC Project Director Charles Sherrod. 76 min. Volume 13, Arkansas, Cambridge, MD, Danville, VA: "Everybody Say Freedom"Panelists reflect on the events in Danville -- the "Last Capital of the Confederacy" -- where SNCC engaged in dramatic protest against segregation and experimented with economic challenge. The panel discusses the significant and unique struggle in Cambridge, Maryland where the protests were led by an older woman from a prominent family. In addition to fighting to end segregation, Cambridge's agenda included health care, housing and work-force issues. Arkansas may have been the only place in the South where SNCC was invited in by a semi-official organization. Speakers: Avon Rollins (SNCC Field Secretary), Bill Hanson (SNCC Project Director Arkansas), Ivanhoe Donaldson (SNCC Field Secretary), Matthew Jones (SNCC Staff/Freedom Singer). 83 min. Volume 14, The Impact and Influence of SNCC on American Society, 1960 to 1968.Panelists present insights on SNCC drawn from their years of careful study of the Southern Freedom Movement. Clayborne Carson, author of "In Struggle: SNCC and the Awakening of Black America," describes the outbreak of sit-ins as the "beginning of a new period of struggle." Charles Payne, (whose book, "I've Got the Light of Freedom" is a definitive work on Mississippi's freedom struggle), says "SNCC convinced people they could step into roles they had never played before." SNCC's national impact was great, the panel agrees, but author Taylor Branch wonders why the organization's importance remains so little-recognized. Speakers: Vincent Harding (SNCC and SCLC Advisor), Charles Payne (Professor, University of Chicago), Taylor Branch (Author), Clayborne Carson (Professor, Stanford University), Tom Hayden (Students for a Democratic Society). 116 min. Volume 15, What Was SNCC? How Did It Evolve Over the Years? Why Did It Cease to Exist? Imprint [SanThis panel probes the complex evolution of SNCC: the radicalizing effect of its style of grassroots organizing, its disillusionment with establishment politics, the attacks on SNCC by former liberal allies and more conservative black civil rights organizations, and the government's COINTELPRO assault. SNCC's own political naivet?is also discussed. Panelists include SNCC veterans from different eras in the organization's history. Speakers: Joyce Ladner (Tougaloo College Activist), Timothy Jenkins (SNCC Executive Committee Member), Cleveland Sellers (SNCC Program Secretary), Zohorah Simmons (SNCC Field Secretary). 102 min. Volume 16, What Was SNCC? How Did It Evolve Over the Years? Why Did It Cease to Exist?SNCC's impact on elections across the nation is still little known, but the changes unfolding in the South helped accelerate an emerging black electoral surge in America. Ivanhoe Donaldson explains how Julian Bond's successful campaign for a seat in the Georgia state legislature resulted in a call for assistance from Richard Hatcher who would win his campaign to become Mayor of Gary, Indiana. Courtland Cox uses the "regime change" resulting from SNCC's work in Lowndes County, Alabama as a case study. Speakers: Ivanhoe Donaldson (SNCC Field Secretary), Courtland Cox (SNCC Program Secretary), Julian Bond (SNCC Communications Director). 95 min. Volume 17, Luncheon Keynote: Harry Belafonte, "Why Can't Our Children Find Us?"Harry Belafonte challenges SNCC members to resist sinking into sentimentalism but instead ask "What can we do with our lives using that same kind of commitment and determination to continue the important work of transforming the United States into a 'more perfect' union?" Belafonte holds up his new organization, the Gathering for Justice, which consists of an intergenerational group of activists, as a model. He implores SNCC Veterans to join the organization and ask themselves "Where are we, who are we talking to, and what are we talking about?" 65 min. Volume 18, Ella Baker's Roots: "Give People Light and They Will Find a Way"This panel examines the legacy of Ella Baker, the inspiration behind the original SNNC founding conference. Rev. William Barber, discusses his campaign to formalize Ella Baker's legacy in North Carolina by commemorating her birthday as "Ella Baker Day," and declaring her home in Littleton, North Carolina a historic site. The session closes with a powerful rendition of Ella Baker's favorite song, "Guide my feet while I run this race" performed by Bernice Johnson Reagon of Sweet Honey in the Rock. Speakers: Rev. William Barber (Chair, North Carolina NAACP), Timothy Tyson (Author), Carolyn Brockington (Ella Baker's grandniece) 81 min. Volume 19, Depictions of the Movement in Popular CultureOver the years, the popular media has had a troubled relationship with organizations like SNCC. Hollywood film director Phil Alden Robinson maintains that a big challenge to producing freedom movement films for theatrical distribution is the assumption that the films won't sell overseas. The entertainment values that drive the news limit the depiction of day-to-day grassroots organizing to dramatic protests. However, "media" is no longer defined as exclusively Hollywood, network television or mainstream print media. "Young people especially", says photographer Maria Varela, "are not just cultural consumers but culture-makers." Speakers: Jennifer Lawson Gittens (Activist), Judy Richardson (SNCC National Office Atlanta), Danny Lyon (SNCC Staff Photographer), Charlie Cobb (SNCC Field Secretary), Chuck Neblett (SNCC Freedom Singer), Maria Varela (SNCC Field Secretary), Phil Alden Robinson (Film Director) 95 min. Volume 20, Black Power, Black Education and Pan Africanism.Throughout the ten years of its formal organizational existence, SNCC did a variety of things it felt necessary: sit-ins, freedom rides, campaigns aimed at the desegregation of public facilities, voter registration drives and the organizing of political parties. Doing what is necessary is a tradition of Black struggle. Pan Africanism, independent Black education and empowerment are all foundations of the Black struggle. In this context of deep political and cultural currents, we look at SNCC in relation to the political struggles of the 1960s. In addition, we look at the institutions beyond U.S. borders which SNCC's ideas helped inform. Speakers: Courtland Cox (SNCC Program Director), Geri Augusto (Secretariat, 6th Pan African Congress), Gregory Carr (Professor, Howard University), Sylvia Hill (6th Pan African Congress), Howard Moore (SNCC Attorney). 89 min. Volume 21, Black Power, Black Education and Pan Africanism.This session looks at what made SNCC "radical" by focusing on the people who worked with SNCC. The session also addresses the emergence of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party. Although 96 percent of its members were denied the right to vote, the MFDP transformed not only Mississippi politics, but the rules of the national Democratic Party. "It is the greatest example of small-democracy that we have," says Professor Wesley Hogan. Former MFDP Chairman, Lawrence Guyot, gives a detailed presentation of the MFDP and its challenges in 1964 and 1965. MFDP Attorney Armand Derfner describes the Party's continuing impact, focusing on the Voting Rights Act. Former SNCC Field Secretary, MacArthur Cotton, describes the step-by-step process involved in organizing the MFDP. Speakers: Lawrence Guyot (Chair MFDP), Michael Thelwell (Director, Washington Office MFDP), Armand Derfner (MFDP Attorney), Wesley Hogan (Professor, Virginia State University), MacArthur Cotton (SNCC Field Secretary) 96 min. Volume 22, Women Leaders and Organizers: "You Can Do This"This panel looks critically at the challenges that women overcame to perform a range of work done for SNCC. Women stepped forward as never before in the ranks of civil rights organizations. "You went ahead and learned how to do it and did it," says one panelist. Ruby Doris Smith Robinson, the woman who actually ran SNCC is discussed; also the "profound" influence of Ella Baker. Speakers: Frances Beal (SNCC Black Women's Liberation Committee), Mary King (SNCC Atlanta National Headquarters), Cynthia Fleming (Professor, University of Tennessee), Doris Derby (Free Southern Theater), Maria Varela (SNCC Field Secretary), Martha Prescod Norman Noonan (SNCC Field Secretary) 96 min. Volume 23, The Black Church and Black StruggleThe Black church was born in struggle in the midst of slavery, and despite laws and vigilante actions targeting it for destruction the church has not only survived, but has played a sustained and central role over more than 300 years of Black struggle in America. This panel of Black churchmen, with very active audience participation, reflects and examines the historical role of the church, its specific role in the Movement of the 1960s, and the lessons of that struggle for today. Speakers: Rev. Bernard Lafayette (SNCC Field Secretary), Rev. Nelson Johnson (Student Organization for Black Unity), Rev. David Forbes (Raleigh Student Movement) 90 min. Volume 24, Highlander, SSOC and Organizing in the White Community: "We Knew That We Were Not Free."Though Black-led and powered by the energy of the Black population, Whites have always been part of the Southern Freedom Movement. Indeed, as all the panelists note, in its largest sense the southern struggle was not just for Black-only freedom. Three "White" organizations were of particular importance to SNCC: The Highlander Center founded in the 1930s to begin addressing the needs of poor Appalachian Whites embraced the civil rights struggle providing one of the few southern sites for integrated discussion and planning; the Southern Conference Educational Fund (SCEF) which reflected a White southern radical organizing tradition and was one of SNCC's earliest supporters; and finally, the Southern Student Organizing Committee (SSOC), young White southerners who took seriously SNCC's call for Whites to organize White communities. The panel discusses the work of all these organizations as well as the remarkable success of the Washington, DC-based Jews for Urban Justice organization which also developed in response to SNCC's work. Speakers: Bob Zellner (SNCC Field Secretary), Sue Thrasher (Southern Students Organizing Committee), Sharlene Kranz (SNCC Staff), Margaret Lauren Herring (COFO Worker), Candie Carawan (Highlander Center), Ed Hamlett (White Southern Students Project) 97 min. Volume 25, SNCC and the Black Arts Movement: "We Had to Change the Conversation"John O'Neal, one of the founders of the Free Southern Theater, and Jamila Jones, a founder of the Harambee Singers, were directly involved with the Southern Movement and describe where artistic effort fit into that political struggle. Northern poets Amiri Baraka and Haki Madhubuti, describe the intersection and interaction between the southern struggle, its activists, and the nationwide Black arts movement in which they were key actors. The session examines the continuing engagement with the power of word and song. Speakers: Moderator, A.B. Spellman (Poet, Author), Amiri Baraka (Poet, Playwright), Haki Madhubuti (Poet, Founder, Third World Press), Jamila Jones (Harambee Singers), John O'Neal (Free Southern Theater) 89 min. Volume 26, Plenary: Joyce LadnerJoyce Ladner is introduced by her sister Dorie Ladner. Both were deeply involved with SNCC in Mississippi. Joyce and Dorie's parents were like many African American parents in that they understood how to survive under Jim Crow and constantly worried about the welfare of their children. Nevertheless, the Ladners taught their children not to accept insult and, in their own way, acted as a supportive rearguard. NAACP Mississippi Field Secretary Medgar Evers was a profound influence on both Ladner sisters. Joyce Ladner traces her roots in the tiny Black community of Palmers Crossing to civil rights activism. Speakers: Joyce Ladner (Tougaloo College Activist) 61 min. Volume 27, SNCC Children SpeakChildren of SNCC veterans present their memories of SNCC and the lessons they learned from a young age. Speakers: Maisha Moses (Daughter of Bob and Janet Moses), James Forman, Jr. (Son of James Forman), Tarik Smith (Son of Frank and Jean Smith Young), Sabina Zuniga Varela, Zora Cobb (Daughter of Charlie Cobb), Hollis Watkins, Jr. 71 min. Volume 28, Luncheon Keynote: Congressman John Lewis, "Stand Up and Make Some Noise"John Lewis, Chair of SNCC from 1963 to 1966, has been a member of Congress for 24 years. Jailed 40 times and badly beaten several times during civil rights protests, Lewis became deeply involved with the sit-in movement. "We did what young people do so well," says Lewis. "We got in the way." His address is filled with reminiscence, acknowledging old friends in SNCC and invoking the Movement martyrs. His years in Congress and the election of Barack Obama, says Lewis, does not negate the need to continue the struggle. "You're not too old to fight, to push. It's in your blood, in your DNA. Stand up and make some noise." 53 min. Volume 29, Luncheon Keynote: U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder, "The Nation's in Your Debt"According to U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder, the first Black Attorney General of the United States, There is a "direct line" from the 1960 lunch counter sit-in that took place in Greensboro, North Carolina to the election of President Barack Obama in 2008. Both Holder and Mr. Obama are "beneficiaries" of SNCC's work. The Attorney General acknowledges that the United States still suffers from racial inequality in everything from unemployment rates to the length of prison terms. "There is still work to be done." 28 min. Volume 30, The Young People's Project: "Come Let Us Build a New World"In 1988 Bob Moses founded the Algebra Project, with a mission to spread math literacy and encourage teenagers to organize and make demands on their school system. In turn, an outgrowth of the Algebra Project is the Young People's Project (YPP) where young people organize their peers. In this session YPP members explain and demonstrate how their work is structured around simple tools for building relationships. Young "math literacy workers" and organizers divide the meeting attendees into small groups or "Neighbors Circles." They are encouraged to share their experiences and discover each other's areas of interest. Speakers: Omo Moses (Young People's Project), Albert Sykes (Young People's Project), Various Young People's Project Activists. 87 min. Volume 31, The Cradle to Prison PipelineOne third of the prison population is Black; one sixth is Latino. Seven million children have a parent in prison. Fourth grade reading scores are being used to project prison needs in some states. Every day 192 children are arrested for violent crimes; 393 are arrested daily on drug charges. This panel traces the path to prison that many minority children begin traveling in early childhood. Carmen Perez, now involved with The Gathering for Justice organized by Harry Belafonte, vividly portrays the gang world that surrounded her childhood in a community outside of Los Angeles, saying how "lucky" she was to have someone "invest" in her. The panelists discuss inspiration from SNCC in their efforts to tackle the issues confronting them today. Speakers: Benetta Standly (ACLU Florida), Crystal Mattison (Children's Defense Fund Freedom School Program), Carmen Perez (The Gathering for Justice), Carrie Richburg (Pen or Pencil) 91 min. Volume 32, Actions for a New World.Members of this panel insist that SNCC continues to influence their work. "We know that not only policy must be changed," says Jonathan Lewis of the Gathering for Justice, "but the attitudes that support our work." Another panelist, Djuan Coleon of the National Alliance of Faith and Justice says 17 states are following SNCC's footsteps and trying to take grassroots organization into education. "SNCC", says Ace Washington of the Baltimore Algebra Project is, "Something I want to go on." Speakers: Ash-Lee W. Henderson (Student Activist), Jonathan Lewis (The Gathering for Justice), Djuan Coleon (National Alliance of Faith and Justice), Ace Washington (Baltimore Algebra Project), Marilyn Shaw (Baltimore Algebra Project). 159 min. Volume 33, Special Program: Dick Gregory, "They're Asking Different Questions Today""When you finally get a Black President you get a nice, polite, well-behaved educated one who ain't mad." Gregory was one of a handful of prominent entertainers who consistently supported SNCC. And he was one of the very few of this handful who regularly put his own life on the line. As he explains it: "I made all the money I needed to make, then I bumped into y'all and found out that there's another bank." Dick Gregory acknowledges recent progress in modern politics while addressing continuing problems . 67 min. Volume 34, Plenary: In Remembrance of Ella Baker, Howard Zinn, and James FormanSNCC and the Southern Movement have lost a lot of important people over the years both from political assassinations and natural causes. Charles Sherrod's moving version of "One more time" incorporates the names and photos of heroes in a moving tribute to their work. Ella Baker's grandniece, Dr. Carolyn Brockington, discusses her "Aunt Ella." Constancia "Dinky" Romilly tells of the COINTELPRO poisoning of her husband, SNCC Executive Director, James Forman, and how he "healed himself." Historian Vincent Harding honors Howard Zinn who lost his job for pushing his students to challenge injustice and racism in society. Harding reluctantly accepted Zinn's faculty position. Speakers: Carolyn Brockington, Constancia "Dinky" Romilly, Vincent Harding. 70 min. Volume 35, Dinner Keynote: Danny Glover, "The Real Costs Lie Ahead"As a college student at San Francisco State in 1968 Glover recounts that "SNCC articulated my own rebelliousness." He recalls the campus struggle for an ethnic studies department and explains that SNCC "taught us organizing." Glover elaborates on what he considers to be the new era of struggle in the 21st century. "We are world citizens today", says Glover, "and 2.5 billion people in this world are living on less than one dollar a day." Climate change, immigration, global rights for workers, are complex challenges. With the United States so dominant, African Americans--"the moral center of this country"-- have to find ways to be active in these struggles. 75 min. Volume 36, Freedom Concert.This session is full of the sound and power of movement song. Bernice Johnson Reagon explains the origin of the SNCC Freedom Singers. She introduces a brief video of Cordell Reagon who organized the singers with Charles Sherrod. Many well known activists participate in the session including Guy Carawan who introduced "We Shall Overcome" to SNCC in 1960. Folk singer Len Chandler, a regular presence at protests and rallies, explains singing freedom songs: "When you hear something twice, sing it!" Harry Belafonte leads the audience in his famous Banana Boat Song. SNCC's own anthem, "We'll Never Turn Back," written by Georgia activist Bertha Gober, closes out the gathering. 108 min. Volume 37, Plenary: Bob Moses, "We the People."In 1960 as director of the SNCC's Mississippi Project, Bob Moses traveled to the South to try to register black voters. In 1982 he received a MacArthur Fellowship, and used the money to create the Algebra Project, a foundation devoted to improving minority education in math. "Lack of education" says Moses, was the "subtext" of the voting rights struggle. "We won the right to vote; the fight for public accommodations, but not education. And in that way, though Blacks are citizens, they are second class citizens." The current fight, Moses explains, is for quality public education as a constitutional right. He introduces Albert Sykes who began working with Moses in Jackson, Mississippi more than a decade ago. Featured speaker: Bob Moses ; introduction, David Dennis. 57 min. Volume 38, Closing Program: Bernice Johnson Reagon, "Solidarity of Past, Present and Future""What you hear in Bernice's songs is the essence of struggle," says Judy Richardson introducing Dr. Bernice Johnson Reagon. And Reagon declares that "I am standing on ground plowed by people before I came into being." She describes her deep involvement with the freedom struggle in Albany, Georgia. A noted scholar of Black music, she says that the spirituals, often thought of as old people's music, "leaped into service in jail cells in the 1960s." The cultural history of Black people has always reflected what Black people expect from life on earth. Her presentation in song and spoken word outlines the history expressed by Black spiritual music and how it connects to contemporary struggle. "You will not be able to get through your life if you dismiss the ground you're standing on." 79 min.