How do I cite an e-book in my paper?

Electronic books come in a variety of forms.  Some are accessed through our catalogs and databases and read over the Internet on a computer screen.  Others can be downloaded to a computer and in some cases to mobile devices. 

As the technologies of e-books are evolving, so are the formats for citing them in footnotes and bibliographies.  Here are guides to citing e-books in the three most common styles:


For more information, see:

Thanks to Purdue University for permission to use their citation guides.