Citing Your Sources
|"Ethics, copyright laws, and courtesy to readers require
authors to identify the sources of direct quotations and of
any facts or opinions not generally known or easily checked."
Chicago Manual of Style,
15th edition, p. 594
Why cite sources?
Whenever you quote or base your ideas on another person's work,
you must document the source you used. Even when you do not quote
directly from another work, if reading that source contributed to
the ideas presented in your paper, you must give the authors proper
Citations allow readers to locate and further explore the sources
you consulted, show the depth and scope of your research, and give
credit to authors for their ideas. Citations provide evidence for
your arguments and add credibility to your work by demonstrating
that you have sought out and considered a variety of resources.
In written academic work, citing sources is standard practice and
shows that you are responding to this person, agreeing with that
person, and adding something of your own. Think of documenting your
sources as providing a trail for your reader to follow to see the
research you performed and discover what led you to your original
By following these guidelines, you avoid plagiarism,
which is a serious violation of the Code
of Student Conduct.
How do you cite sources?
Citations within your
text link specific passages to the sources you consulted
or quoted. This can be done through in-text parenthetic notes, footnotes,
or endnotes. In addition, a bibliography or list of works cited
is almost always placed at the end of your paper. The citation system
and format you use will be determined by the citation style
These guides (used with permission from Purdue University) describe and give examples for the three major styles used in the humanities, social sciences, and some scientific disciplines:
- APA Style Guide
American Psychological Association. Often preferred in the fields
of psychology and many other social sciences.
- MLA Style Guide
Modern Language Association of America. Often preferred in the
fields of literature, arts, humanities, and in some other disciplines.
From the University of Chicago Press. Often
preferred in history and many other disciplines. ("Turabian" style derives from this and is similar to it in many ways).
How do you choose a style?
Ask your instructor which style sheet he or she wishes you to use
and if there are other special formatting instructions you should
How do you find the complete style manuals?
If you have questions or citations not covered by the guides linked above, please consult one of the following official style manuals. Click on the titles for library locations and call numbers.
- APA Style
- Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.
6th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association,
- American Psychological Association's style guide FAQ
- MLA Style
- MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 7th ed. New York: Modern Language Association of America, 2009 A somewhat simplified guide, adequate for undergraduate and most other research papers.
- MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing. 3rd ed. New York: Modern Language Association of America, 2008. For graduate students, scholars, and professional writers (more depth on copyright, legal issues, and writing theses, dissertations, and scholarly publishing).
- Chicago Style
- The Chicago Manual of Style Online. 16th ed., 2010 (UCB access only)
- The Chicago Manual of Style. 15th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003
- Turabian Style
- Turabian, Kate L. A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers, 7th edition. Chicago: University
of Chicago Press, 2007.
Plagiarism is a form of academic dishonesty, violating
the Berkeley Campus
Code of Student Conduct. According to the Code:
|"Plagiarism includes use of intellectual material produced by another person without acknowledging its source."
Plagiarism is a serious violation of academic and student conduct rules and is punishable with a failing grade and possibly more severe action. For more information, consult the following UC Berkeley
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