COLWRIT 4B: Images of History/Japanese American Internment

Contact Corliss and Theresa

Corliss Lee

Contact:  (510) 768-7899

Theresa Salazar

Contact:  (510) 643-8153

About this Guide

Research Guide for College Writing 4B, Instructor Pat Steenland

Campus Library Map

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UC Berkeley Library campus map

You can also view/download a PDF map of library locations. For library contact information and building addresses, visit our directory.

Citing Your Sources

The UCB Library Guide to Citing Your Sources discusses why you should cite your sources and links to campus resources about plagiarism.  It also includes links to guides for frequently used citation styles.  Also:

Off-campus access to library resources

You can access UCB Library resources from off campus or via your laptop or other mobile device using one of two simple methods:

Proxy Server
After you make a one-time change in your web browser settings, the proxy server will ask you to log in with a CalNet ID or Library PIN when you click on the link to a licensed resource. See the setup instructions, FAQ, and Troubleshooting pages to configure your browser.

VPN (Virtual Private Network)
After you install and run the VPN "client" software on your computer, you can log in with a CalNet ID to establish a secure connection with the campus network.

Doe, Main Stacks, Moffitt Library floorplans

Looking for a location in Doe, Main Stacks or Moffitt?  Try the floorplans, or ask for assistance!

Library Hours

Hours on: 
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To select individual libraries/units, hold down the Ctrl key while clicking.

Library Prize

The UCB Library sponsors the Library Prize for Undergraduate Research.  Win $1000 (upper division students) or $750 (lower division students) for your research paper!

This guide has been archived

Please note: this course guide was created during a previous semester, and is no longer being actively maintained. For a list of current course guides, please see

Finding Background Information

These are a few examples of sources that can provide background information and an overview on your topic:

Japanese American Internment During World War II:  a History and Reference Guide (2002)

Encyclopedia of Japanese American History: an A-Z reference from 1868 to the present (2001)

The Japanese in America, 1843-1973; a chronology & fact book (1974)

Asian American History and Culture:  An Encyclopedia (2010)

Asian American Studies:  An Annotated Bibliography and Research Guide (1989)

Dictionary of Asian American History (1986)

Doe Refe = 2nd floor Doe Library      floorplan
     items listed as  "Reference Hall" are in the same room as the Doe Reference desk
Moffitt Ref = main floor, Mofitt Library      floorplan
Asian Amer = Ethnic Studies Library

How do I start?

1.  Use refefence sources (see above) to learn basic facts about your topic, including dates, places, names of individuals and organizations, titles of specific publications, etc.

2.  Find and read secondary sources (see Books/Media tab for OskiCat searches and Articles tab for searches in the America:  History and Life database). 

Make sure you look through the bibliographies of secondary sources, which can lead you to other secondary sources and to primary sources.

3.  Search for primary sources (see Primary Sources tab).

More about the writing of papers:

This classic book on writing a college research paper is easily skimmed or deep enough for the truly obsessed researcher, explains the whole research process from initial questioning, through making an argument, all the way to effectively writing your paper. 

This link is to the Google Books preview.  But buy a secondhand copy for yourself. It's worth the $8 bucks.

Reading, Writing, and Researching for History: A Guide for College Students
Professor Patrick Rael [a Berkeley PhD] has written a comprehensive but easy to skim web guide to writing history papers. Recommended by History Dept faculty.


To find books, DVDs, maps, sound recordings, manuscripts, and much more - everything except articles - use a library catalog.

OskiCat = most UC Berkeley libraries

MELVYL = all UC campus libraries, including all UC Berkeley libraries

What's the difference?  more details here

For each item make sure you know the name of the physical library, call number, and whether or not it's checked out, library use only, etc.

Call numbers are on the spine of the book; learn how to read them so you can find what you need on the shelves.

Searching OskiCat

Sample searches (both primary and secondary sources):

1.  keywords:   fred korematsu

     refine your search:    author:  korematsu, fred

2.  keywords:  japanese american citizens league

      refine your search:    author:  japanese american citizens league

3.  if you know the title (leave off "the" and "a")

     title:  view from within
title:  topaz times

     title:  daily californian (limit to journals/magazines/newspapers)

4.  researching by topic:

     keywords:     japanese internment

keywords:     japanese draft resist*

* = truncation/wildcard   child* = child, childs, children, childhood, childish, etc.

modify search

pull down languages menu to English

5.     click on the titles of relevant items, look at official subject headings, redo your search:

       subject:  japanese americans evacuation and relocation

6.     other examples:

advanced search

subject:  japanese americans newspapers
subject:  japanese american* interviews
subject:  japanese americans personal narratives
subject:  japanese americans berkeley

OskiCat:  The Movie!

Try out these OskiCat features:

SMS and QR Codes in OskiCat

You can now text yourself a call number or use a QR code reader to find the location of an item in the UCB Library. Just click on a title in your OskiCat search results, and both options will be displayed on the right.

SMS and QR image

Getting Material from NRLF

A large part of the library's collection is stored off campus in an environmentally secure building called the Northern Regional Library Facility [NRLF].

Submit online requests via the REQUEST button in OskiCat to borrow material shelved at NRLF. To receive electronic or paper copies of book chapters or journal articles, submit an online request via the "Request an article from NRLF (photocopy or web delivery)" link that appears in eligible titles in OskiCat. Staff at public service desks of any campus library can assist you with further questions. 

nrlf request button in oskicat

Log in to Request with your Calnet ID and fill out the screens.  Choose the volume you want, for periodicals:

nrlf request item selection

Finding DVDs and Videos

Media Resources Center list of DVDs and videos on the Internment

You can also find non-print media of all types in OskiCat; search by keywords, author, subject, title, etc. and pull down the "Entire Collection" menu to the type of resource you want (maps, films, etc.)

How to Cite Media

Government Information

UCB Library - Federal Government Information

note that you can chat with the Federal Documents Librarian when you have a question

look under "Quick Links" to find the Lexis-Nexis Congressional database for congressional publications

Biographical Directory of Congress

enter a year to view a list of all members of Congress for that year


Article Databases

Search an article database to find citations (title, author, title of journal, date, page numbers) for articles on a particular topic.  The Library gives you access to over 200 article databases covering different disciplines.

1.  Think about which academic disciplines might write about your topic.  Examples:  literature, film, anthropology, history...

2.  Find the appropriate article database by subject (academic discipline or department).  Look for "Recommended" databases.

Library home > Articles > Article Databases by Subject

Searching Article Databases

Sample searches in America: History and Life (article database - secondary sources):

japanese (select a field - optional)
(select a field - optional)
student* (select a field - optional)

historical period: 1940 to 1945

click on expand record to see long version of record including abstract

dorothea lange (select a field - optional)
ansel adams (select a field - optional)
internment (select a field - optional)

Watch the movie (short): navigating to America: History and Life, searching, saving and e-mailing a list of cites

See below for a movie demonstrating UC e-links from America: History and Life.

Search Results

UC-eLinks - Find Article Text/Location

Once you've searched a database to find articles, you may need to use UC-eLinks orange logo to link to a PDF or html file if the full text is not immediately available. Each database is a bit different, but a good rule of thumb is this: when you see the Uc-eLinks icon click on it to view your article access options, which can range from full text to a call number to an Interlibrary Loan request:

UC e-Links image

For more information, here's a tutorial on using UC-eLinks.

Primary Sources

Primary sources can be found in a variety of library tools:

For specific search strategies, see the Library's Guide to Finding Historical Primary Sources

Learn more about your topic in advance:

Use the bibliographies of secondary sources and reference sources to find citations to specific primary sources; search OskiCat to locate them on campus, or ask for assistance at the Library.

Searching OskiCat for Books and Media

See the Books and Media tab for search examples.

How can you tell if something is a primary source by looking at OskiCat?  Sometimes you can't, but here are some ideas:

If you're not sure, ask for assistance!

Finding Primary Sources - Articles

Sample searches in Historical Newspapers (ProQuest): (mostly primary sources)

1.   Japanese american* internment

2.   advanced search

Japanese (citation and document text)
Evacuation (citation and document text)
Alien* (citation and document text)

From:  1/1/1942 – 12/31/1945

Remember to use the terminology of the time period!

Note:  read the help screens before trying to print!

Watch the movie version navigating to Historical Newspapers, searching, revising the search, e-mailing the cites - in MLA citation style!


Sample Searches in Readers Guide (primary sources - major American magazine articles)

1.   Japanese   (keywords)
      internment  (keywords)

2.   Japanese Americans evacuation  (subject)

limit by date:  from year 1942  to year  1945

click on UC e-links to find library location

The Movie: navigating to Reader's Guide, searching, revising the searching, e-mailing the cites in MLA citation style.

Also try searching specific names and events: 

General De Witt; Executive Order 9066, Civilian Exclusion Order 346, etc.!

Internet Resources

A small sampling of Internment-related primary sources on the Internet:

Japanese American Relocation Digital Archives

Virtual Museum of the City of San Francisco

The National Archives

the first link, "Documents and Photographs" is a little hard to use - scroll through the lesson plans to the links to the documents - the links are just a series of record numbers like 296057 - then you may still have to look for a tab that says something like "Digital Copies"

Library of Congress

Search the Library of Congress site for many amazing collections - don't miss Ansel Adam's photographs of  Manzanar

The Bancroft Library - Overview

The Bancroft Library is one of the treasures of the campus, and one of the world's great libraries for the history of Bancroft Library interiorthe American West.

Some Bancroft materials are available online via Calisphere, which includes primary sources  from many California libraries and museums.

How to Use the Bancroft Library

1.  Be prepared! Read secondary sources and know something about your topic.

2.  Before you go:  Search OskiCat so you can bring call numbers with you. You can limit your OskiCat search to find materials at the Bancroft Library, instead of all campus libraries (choose "Bancroft Library" from the pulldown menu that says "Entire Collection."). Remember that there are primary sources in many other campus libraries as well.

Important:  if the item is in storage ("NRLF") and owned by The Bancroft Library, do not use the Request button in OskiCat.  Instead, use the Bancroft's online request form AT LEAST 72 hours in advance (they prefer a week.)

If you have 72 hours in advance, you can also use the online request form for materials not in storage; that will speed things up when you arrive. 

If the OskiCat record mentions a "finding aid" (an index) to a manuscript collection, you should use it to help you find what you need in the collection.  If the finding aid is online there will be a link from the OskiCat record, or you can search the Online Archive of California to find it. The finding aids that are not online are near the Registration desk at the Bancroft Library.

3.  Learn how to use the Bancroft Library. Read about Access (bring a quarter for lockers!) and Registration (bring two pieces of ID!). Remember to bring call numbers, titles, etc. with you. You will fill out a form to present to the Circulation Desk, and materials will be paged and brought to you.

4.     Read about the new camera policy ($10/day and no flash!) or about getting photocopies.

5.     Ask for assistance at The Bancroft Library's reference desk.

Read more

Finding Resources in The Bancroft Library

Finding Resources on the Japanese American Internment in The Bancroft Library

Loading Microfilm: The Movie!

Play View Larger

This short video from the University of Kansas Libraries shows a very similar microfilm reader to the ones owned by UC Berkeley -- but it is not exactly the same. If you have any questions, please ask the staff of the Newspapers and Microforms collection!

How to Scan Microfilm

To save to a flash (USB) drive, make sure you have a flash drive before you start! The Library does not sell flash drives.

1. If necessary, turn power on in this sequence:

2. On the reader, the "PC/PR" indicator should be set to "PC". If it is not, simultaneously hold the "PC/PR" and the "Shift" buttons down (for over a second). This action will toggle the reader between connections to the scanner (PC) and to the printer (indicated with a number).

3. Load microfilm/microfiche into the reader as usual. Locate the frame to scan and center it on the outlined frame on the reader screen.

Read more

Microfilm & Microfiche

Before digital storage became easy and cheap, microfilm was a way for libraries to maintain large collections of newspapers, government documents, and historical documents while saving physical storage space. Many of the UC Berkeley Libraries still have extensive microform (microfilm and microfiche) collections, containing valuable information for researchers.

Since each roll of microfilm (or microfiche card) contains thousands of tiny images of the original documents, you'll need a microfilm reader to magnify the images so that you can read, print, and scan the images.

When you search OskiCat or MELVYL you will find materials with the word [microform] in the title; check to see which library owns the item.  To search specifically for microform materials, use Advanced Keyword Search to limit your search to "All Microforms." 

Ask a Librarian 24/7 Chat

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Getting Help

Other ways to get help:  in person, by e-mail, using specialized chat services

And of course:  e-mail Corliss or email Theresa (Bancroft Library)

Research Advisory Service

Research Advisory Service for Cal Undergraduates

Book a 30-minute appointment with a librarian who will help refine and focus research inquiries, identify useful online and print sources, and develop search strategies for humanities and social sciences topics (examples of research topics).

Schedule, view, edit or cancel your appointment online (CalNetID required)

This service is for Cal undergraduates only. Graduate students and faculty should contact the library liaison to their department or program for specialized reference consultations.

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