The Research Process
Choose a topic.
Do a brain dump: Note down what you already know about your topic, including
- Names of people, organizations, companies, time period you are interested in, places of interest [countries, regions, cities]
Fill in the gaps in your knowlege: get background information from encyclopedias or other secondary sources. Wikipedia can be good here.
Select the best places/ databases to find information on your topic. Look under the History Databases tab of this guide for article database suggestions. Or use a catalog like Oskicat or Melvyl to search for books and other resources.
Use nouns from your brain dump as search terms.
Evaluate what you find. Change search terms to get closer to what you really want.
Refine Your Topic - Using the information you have gathered, determine if your research topic should be narrower or broader. You may need to search basic resources again using your new, focused topics and keywords.
Take a look this short tutorial on beginning your research for more ideas.
Library Workshop: Research 101
Unsure how to start a paper or research project? Think maybe you could stand to brush up on search strategies?
If this sounds familiar, Library Workshop: Research 101 has you covered. This interactive tutorial explores six stages of the research process. You can view it from start to finish, or focus on specific sections as needed:
Starting strategies, from choosing a topic to finding the right keywords.
The publication timeline, scholarly vs. popular sources, and differences in academic disciplines.
Search for books and other items in OskiCat, Cal's local library catalog.
Locate and access articles in library research databases.
How to cite your sources correctly.
Common techniques for constructing searches that yield useful results.
Specialized search strategies for targeting specific topics.
How to Narrow Your Topic
"I'm writing a paper on World War II."
Often students start their research with a very general topic, even though they may realize the topic is too large to deal with in a 10-15 page paper. Faculty and librarians tell them, "You have to narrow this down." But how do you narrow a topic?
- What discipline am I working in? If you are in a sociology class, ask a sociological question about World War II, like "How did WWII affect women?" If it's a political science class, your question might be something like "How did WWII affect presidential elections in the US?"
- What are some subsets or aspects of your topic. Some good aspects are:
- by place, such as a country or region
- by time period, such as a century, decade or year
- by population, such as men, women, ethnic group, youth, children or elderly
You can combine these ideas, "What were the major impacts of WWII on women in France, in the decade after the war?"
More ideas in our brief tutorial on topic selection and narrowing.
Guide to writing history papers
Reading, Writing, and Researching for History: A Guide for College Students
A comprehensive but easy-to-skim web guide to writing history papers. Recommended by History Dept faculty.
Reference sources may be a good place to browse for topics, get an overview of a subject, find names, places, dates and facts that you can use in your research.
To find reference sources, try these strategies:
- Library home > Electronic Resources > Electronic Resources: Subjects A-Z
Select a subject and browse "Other Resources for this Subject" in the left column (ex: dictionaries, encyclopedias, etc.)
- or search Oskicat by official subject heading and add appropriate subheadings, ex:
religion united states encyclopedias
ALSO: search for bibliographies
Jews United States Bibliography
Mormon* United States Bibliography
Examples of a few sources for background information, names, places, and possibly titles of primary sources:
Author: Anglim, Christopher.
Call #: Doe Reference Reference Hall KF4865.A68 A54 2009
Call #: Main (Gardner) Stacks BL2525 .W44 2008
Author: Djupe, Paul A.
Call #: Doe Reference Reference Hall BL2525 .D58 2003