Re: [Videolib] whoa! what a flurry of emails on film clips

Mark Kopp (mkopp@iu08.org)
Tue, 24 Mar 2009 12:41:51 -0400

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Very well done, Carrie! Thanks for your concise, well worded, accurately =
resourced and referenced explanation.
=20
Sincerely,
=20
Mark
=20
Mark W. Kopp
4500 Sixth Avenue
Altoona, PA 16602
814-940-0223 Phone
814-949-0984 Fax
814-937-2802 Cell
http://www.iu08.org <http://www.iu08.org/>=20
mkopp@iu08.org
=20

________________________________

From: videolib-bounces@lists.berkeley.edu on behalf of Carrie Russell
Sent: Tue 3/24/2009 11:54 AM
To: videolib@lists.berkeley.edu
Subject: [Videolib] whoa! what a flurry of emails on film clips

I am writing again to try and clarify what I said and have said in the =
past about the TEACH Act, about fair use and about anti-circumvention. =20

=20

1. TEACH Act applies to both synchronous and asynchronous teaching. It =
also applies to the blended classroom - meaning you might be taking a =
regular face-to-face class but the teacher may use digital technologies =
to deliver content to the classroom and to secure, networks for enrolled =
students only (like Blackboard). I quoted from the legislative history =
to explain this in an earlier post.=20

=20

2. TEACH limits the public performance of audiovisual works (including =
DVDs) to portions necessary to meet the teaching goal. Throughout =
Section 110(2), we are reminded that one can use the portions that they =
would typically use in the analog/video/16mm classroom, but for audio =
visual works the law is saying even though you would ordinarily screen =
an entire film in the face-to-face classroom, you cannot do that under =
TEACH. Audiovisual works are treated differently than most other works =
in TEACH.=20

=20

3. Switching over to fair use (Section 107) -- The third factor of fair =
use asks that we consider the amount of work we want to use. If one can =
generalize, the less you use, the more likely your use is fair. =
HOWEVER, the third factor is only one factor that we are asked to =
consider in making a fair use assessment. So, it is POSSIBLE that =
screening an entire film via a digital network might be fair given the =
specific facts of the situation at hand. =20

=20

(Editorial comment: I have been asked before to give an example of when =
it might be fair to show an entire film via a digital network. Some =
people on the list cannot imagine a situation when it would ever be fair =
to show an entire film. Other people think it could be possible and =
they may even be doing it. Other people think this part of TEACH is =
absurd since the same use is occurring for teaching purposes whether on =
Blackboard or in the classroom so what is the difference. The =
difference is that lobbyists for the motion picture industry fought hard =
to get this special treatment in order to establish a new revenue stream =
for licensing films for streaming. Even though you bought a DVD for =
teaching purposes, some vendors would like you to pay again in order to =
stream it). =20

=20

4. Fair use guidelines (10% of this, 10 lines of that etc) are MADE UP =
rules. They are not in the law ANYWHERE. You may choose to use =
guidelines as your local policy but they do not have the force and =
effect of law.=20

=20

5. On to anti-circumvention -- The DMCA put in effect a new legal way =
for rights holders to protect the use of their works primarily to =
control the unauthorized use of digital content that had not been =
lawfully acquired (paid for). It is a deviation from the rest of the =
copyright law in that it controls ACCESS. Under the copyright law's =
exclusive rights, there is no right of access - for example, you can go =
to the bookstore, and look at books and magazines, even read an article =
or two, without permission from the rights holder -- but the DMCA adds =
this right of access for digital works. This makes sense to an extent =
because one should pay to have digital access (like with your cable =
bill). It would be wrong to snag a cable box and get free cable. The =
thought was that rights holders need to make money on digital works =
which are obviously more vulnerable to easy copying and distribution so =
this provision is necessary.=20

=20

6. The problem with digital locks comes into play when one wants to use =
a work in a lawful way but the technology prevents them from doing so. =
For example, the library buys lots of DVDs. Many are encrypted with =
content scrambling to prevent copying. But some copying is fair, such =
as showing clips of DVDs in the classroom. If you circumvent the =
technology in order to make the lawful clip, you are in violation of the =
DMCA anti-circumvention provision (described above). You may be =
exercising fair use, but you broke a code to do it and breaking the code =
is against the anti-circumvention provision.=20

=20

7. Congress thought this might be a problem, so they added rulemaking =
proceedings to occur every three years to find out if the =
anti-circumvention provision was preventing the public from exercising =
fair use. One exemption to the anti-circumvention provision that has =
been approved for several years is that one can circumvent an e-book to =
enable the read aloud function so the reading impaired can listen to an =
e-book they have lawfully acquired.=20

=20

8. Currently under consideration is whether faculty can circumvent CSS =
technology on DVDs that they have purchased, in order to copy a clip for =
use in the face-to-face classroom.=20

=20

9. Finally to complicate matters - back to TEACH (which was passed after =
the DMCA). If you wanted to use a clip from a DVD but could not do so =
because of anti-circumvention, TEACH says you can go ahead and digitize =
an analog version of the title in order to create the digital clip to =
use for teaching. TEACH spells this out specifically because Congress =
does not want you to violate the DMCA in order to exercise a right they =
give you in TEACH. If you can only find your title in a format that is =
encrypted (there are no unencrypted version like a videotape), you are =
out of luck. You cannot break the code on the encrypted DVD UNLESS it =
is decided that these works are exempt in the DMCA rulemaking. At this =
time, they are exempt for faculty who teach film or media studies, not =
for any other faculty unless there is a change made at the rulemaking to =
expand the provision.=20

=20

10. As my cataloging professor use to say, "Clear as mud?" =20

=20

Carrie Russell, Director

Program on Public Access to Information=20

American Library Association

Office for Information Technology Policy

1615 New Hampshire Avenue NW, First Floor

Washington, DC 20009

202.628.8410/800.941.8478

202.628.8419 (fax)

crussell@alawash.org

=20

=20

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VIDEOLIB is intended to encourage the broad and lively discussion of issues relating to the selection, evaluation, acquisition,bibliographic control, preservation, and use of current and evolving video formats in libraries and related institutions. It is hoped that the list will serve as an effective working tool for video librarians, as well as a channel of communication between libraries,educational institutions, and video producers and distributors.

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