[Videolib] whoa! what a flurry of emails on film clips

Carrie Russell (crussell@alawash.org)
Tue, 24 Mar 2009 11:54:16 -0400

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I am writing again to try and clarify what I said and have said in the
past about the TEACH Act, about fair use and about anti-circumvention. =20

=20

1. TEACH Act applies to both synchronous and asynchronous teaching.
It also applies to the blended classroom - meaning you might be taking a
regular face-to-face class but the teacher may use digital technologies
to deliver content to the classroom and to secure, networks for enrolled
students only (like Blackboard). I quoted from the legislative history
to explain this in an earlier post.=20

=20

2. TEACH limits the public performance of audiovisual works
(including DVDs) to portions necessary to meet the teaching goal.
Throughout Section 110(2), we are reminded that one can use the portions
that they would typically use in the analog/video/16mm classroom, but
for audio visual works the law is saying even though you would
ordinarily screen an entire film in the face-to-face classroom, you
cannot do that under TEACH. Audiovisual works are treated differently
than most other works in TEACH.=20

=20

3. Switching over to fair use (Section 107) -- The third factor of
fair use asks that we consider the amount of work we want to use. If
one can generalize, the less you use, the more likely your use is fair.
HOWEVER, the third factor is only one factor that we are asked to
consider in making a fair use assessment. So, it is POSSIBLE that
screening an entire film via a digital network might be fair given the
specific facts of the situation at hand. =20

=20

(Editorial comment: I have been asked before to give an example of when
it might be fair to show an entire film via a digital network. Some
people on the list cannot imagine a situation when it would ever be fair
to show an entire film. Other people think it could be possible and
they may even be doing it. Other people think this part of TEACH is
absurd since the same use is occurring for teaching purposes whether on
Blackboard or in the classroom so what is the difference. The
difference is that lobbyists for the motion picture industry fought hard
to get this special treatment in order to establish a new revenue stream
for licensing films for streaming. Even though you bought a DVD for
teaching purposes, some vendors would like you to pay again in order to
stream it). =20

=20

4. Fair use guidelines (10% of this, 10 lines of that etc) are MADE
UP rules. They are not in the law ANYWHERE. You may choose to use
guidelines as your local policy but they do not have the force and
effect of law.=20

=20

5. On to anti-circumvention -- The DMCA put in effect a new legal
way for rights holders to protect the use of their works primarily to
control the unauthorized use of digital content that had not been
lawfully acquired (paid for). It is a deviation from the rest of the
copyright law in that it controls ACCESS. Under the copyright law's
exclusive rights, there is no right of access - for example, you can go
to the bookstore, and look at books and magazines, even read an article
or two, without permission from the rights holder -- but the DMCA adds
this right of access for digital works. This makes sense to an extent
because one should pay to have digital access (like with your cable
bill). It would be wrong to snag a cable box and get free cable. The
thought was that rights holders need to make money on digital works
which are obviously more vulnerable to easy copying and distribution so
this provision is necessary.=20

=20

6. The problem with digital locks comes into play when one wants to
use a work in a lawful way but the technology prevents them from doing
so. For example, the library buys lots of DVDs. Many are encrypted
with content scrambling to prevent copying. But some copying is fair,
such as showing clips of DVDs in the classroom. If you circumvent the
technology in order to make the lawful clip, you are in violation of the
DMCA anti-circumvention provision (described above). You may be
exercising fair use, but you broke a code to do it and breaking the code
is against the anti-circumvention provision.=20

=20

7. Congress thought this might be a problem, so they added
rulemaking proceedings to occur every three years to find out if the
anti-circumvention provision was preventing the public from exercising
fair use. One exemption to the anti-circumvention provision that has
been approved for several years is that one can circumvent an e-book to
enable the read aloud function so the reading impaired can listen to an
e-book they have lawfully acquired.=20

=20

8. Currently under consideration is whether faculty can circumvent
CSS technology on DVDs that they have purchased, in order to copy a clip
for use in the face-to-face classroom.

=20

9. Finally to complicate matters - back to TEACH (which was passed
after the DMCA). If you wanted to use a clip from a DVD but could not
do so because of anti-circumvention, TEACH says you can go ahead and
digitize an analog version of the title in order to create the digital
clip to use for teaching. TEACH spells this out specifically because
Congress does not want you to violate the DMCA in order to exercise a
right they give you in TEACH. If you can only find your title in a
format that is encrypted (there are no unencrypted version like a
videotape), you are out of luck. You cannot break the code on the
encrypted DVD UNLESS it is decided that these works are exempt in the
DMCA rulemaking. At this time, they are exempt for faculty who teach
film or media studies, not for any other faculty unless there is a
change made at the rulemaking to expand the provision.=20

=20

10. As my cataloging professor use to say, "Clear as mud?" =20

=20

Carrie Russell, Director

Program on Public Access to Information=20

American Library Association

Office for Information Technology Policy

1615 New Hampshire Avenue NW, First Floor

Washington, DC 20009

202.628.8410/800.941.8478

202.628.8419 (fax)

crussell@alawash.org

=20

=20

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<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D2 face=3D"Book Antiqua"><span =
style=3D'font-size:
11.0pt;font-family:"Book Antiqua"'>I am writing again to try and clarify =
what I
said and have said in the past about the TEACH Act, about fair use and =
about
anti-circumvention.&nbsp; <o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D2 face=3D"Book Antiqua"><span =
style=3D'font-size:
11.0pt;font-family:"Book Antiqua"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></font></p>

<ol style=3D'margin-top:0in' start=3D1 type=3D1>
<li class=3DMsoNormal style=3D'mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1'><font size=3D2
face=3D"Book Antiqua"><span =
style=3D'font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Book Antiqua"'>TEACH
Act applies to both synchronous and asynchronous teaching.&nbsp; It =
also
applies to the blended classroom &#8211; meaning you might be =
taking a
regular face-to-face class but the teacher may use digital =
technologies to
deliver content to the classroom and to secure, networks for =
enrolled
students only (like Blackboard).&nbsp; I quoted from the =
legislative history
to explain this in an earlier post. <o:p></o:p></span></font></li>
</ol>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D2 face=3D"Book Antiqua"><span =
style=3D'font-size:
11.0pt;font-family:"Book Antiqua"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></font></p>

<ol style=3D'margin-top:0in' start=3D2 type=3D1>
<li class=3DMsoNormal style=3D'mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1'><font size=3D2
face=3D"Book Antiqua"><span =
style=3D'font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Book Antiqua"'>TEACH
limits the public performance of audiovisual works (including DVDs) =
to
portions necessary to meet the teaching goal.&nbsp; Throughout =
Section
110(2), we are reminded that one can use the portions that they =
would
typically use in the analog/video/16mm classroom, but for audio =
visual
works the law is saying even though you would ordinarily screen an =
entire
film in the face-to-face classroom, you cannot do that under TEACH. =
&nbsp;Audiovisual
works are treated differently than most other works in TEACH. =
<o:p></o:p></span></font></li>
</ol>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D2 face=3D"Book Antiqua"><span =
style=3D'font-size:
11.0pt;font-family:"Book Antiqua"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></font></p>

<ol style=3D'margin-top:0in' start=3D3 type=3D1>
<li class=3DMsoNormal style=3D'mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1'><font size=3D2
face=3D"Book Antiqua"><span =
style=3D'font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Book Antiqua"'>Switching
over to fair use (Section 107) -- The third factor of fair use asks =
that
we consider the amount of work we want to use.&nbsp; If one can
generalize, the less you use, the more likely your use is =
fair.&nbsp;
HOWEVER, the third factor is only one factor that we are asked to =
consider
in making a fair use assessment. So, it is POSSIBLE that screening =
an
entire film via a digital network might be fair given the specific =
facts
of the situation at hand.&nbsp; <o:p></o:p></span></font></li>
</ol>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D2 face=3D"Book Antiqua"><span =
style=3D'font-size:
11.0pt;font-family:"Book Antiqua"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal style=3D'margin-left:.25in'><font size=3D2 =
face=3D"Book Antiqua"><span
style=3D'font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Book Antiqua"'>(Editorial =
comment: I have
been asked before to give an example of when it might be fair to show an =
entire
film via a digital network.&nbsp; Some people on the list cannot imagine =
a
situation when it would ever be fair to show an entire film.&nbsp; Other =
people
think it could be possible and they may even be doing it.&nbsp; Other =
people
think this part of TEACH is absurd since the same use is occurring for =
teaching
purposes whether on Blackboard or in the classroom so what is the
difference.&nbsp; The difference is that lobbyists for the motion =
picture
industry fought hard to get this special treatment in order to establish =
a new
revenue stream for licensing films for streaming.&nbsp; Even though you =
bought
a DVD for teaching purposes, some vendors would like you to pay again in =
order
to stream it). &nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D2 face=3D"Book Antiqua"><span =
style=3D'font-size:
11.0pt;font-family:"Book Antiqua"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></font></p>

<ol style=3D'margin-top:0in' start=3D4 type=3D1>
<li class=3DMsoNormal style=3D'mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1'><font size=3D2
face=3D"Book Antiqua"><span =
style=3D'font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Book Antiqua"'>Fair
use guidelines (10% of this, 10 lines of that etc) are MADE UP
rules.&nbsp; They are not in the law ANYWHERE.&nbsp; You may choose =
to use
guidelines as your local policy but they do not have the force and =
effect
of law. <o:p></o:p></span></font></li>
</ol>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D2 face=3D"Book Antiqua"><span =
style=3D'font-size:
11.0pt;font-family:"Book Antiqua"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></font></p>

<ol style=3D'margin-top:0in' start=3D5 type=3D1>
<li class=3DMsoNormal style=3D'mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1'><font size=3D2
face=3D"Book Antiqua"><span =
style=3D'font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Book Antiqua"'>On
to anti-circumvention -- The DMCA put in effect a new legal way for =
rights
holders to protect the use of their works primarily to control the
unauthorized use of digital content that had not been lawfully =
acquired
(paid for).&nbsp; It is a deviation from the rest of the copyright =
law in
that it controls ACCESS.&nbsp; Under the copyright law&#8217;s =
exclusive
rights, there is no right of access &#8211; for example, you can go =
to the
bookstore, and look at books and magazines, even read an article or =
two,
without permission from the rights holder -- &nbsp;but the DMCA =
adds this right
of access for digital works.&nbsp; This makes sense to an extent =
because
one should pay to have digital access (like with your cable =
bill).&nbsp; It
would be wrong to snag a cable box and get free cable. The thought =
was
that rights holders need to make money on digital works which are
obviously more vulnerable to easy copying and distribution so this
provision is necessary. <o:p></o:p></span></font></li>
</ol>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D2 face=3D"Book Antiqua"><span =
style=3D'font-size:
11.0pt;font-family:"Book Antiqua"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></font></p>

<ol style=3D'margin-top:0in' start=3D6 type=3D1>
<li class=3DMsoNormal style=3D'mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1'><font size=3D2
face=3D"Book Antiqua"><span =
style=3D'font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Book Antiqua"'>The
problem with digital locks comes into play when one wants to use a =
work in
a lawful way but the technology prevents them from doing so.&nbsp; =
For
example, the library buys lots of DVDs.&nbsp; Many are encrypted =
with
content scrambling to prevent copying.&nbsp; But some copying is =
fair,
such as showing clips of DVDs in the classroom.&nbsp; If you =
circumvent
the technology in order to make the lawful clip, you are in =
violation of the
DMCA anti-circumvention provision (described above). &nbsp;You may =
be
exercising fair use, but you broke a code to do it and breaking the =
code
is against the anti-circumvention provision. =
<o:p></o:p></span></font></li>
</ol>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D2 face=3D"Book Antiqua"><span =
style=3D'font-size:
11.0pt;font-family:"Book Antiqua"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></font></p>

<ol style=3D'margin-top:0in' start=3D7 type=3D1>
<li class=3DMsoNormal style=3D'mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1'><font size=3D2
face=3D"Book Antiqua"><span =
style=3D'font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Book Antiqua"'>Congress
thought this might be a problem, so they added rulemaking =
proceedings to
occur every three years to find out if the anti-circumvention =
provision
was preventing the public from exercising fair use.&nbsp; One =
exemption to
the anti-circumvention provision that has been approved for several =
years
is that one can circumvent an e-book to enable the read aloud =
function so
the reading impaired can listen to an e-book they have lawfully =
acquired. <o:p></o:p></span></font></li>
</ol>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D2 face=3D"Book Antiqua"><span =
style=3D'font-size:
11.0pt;font-family:"Book Antiqua"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></font></p>

<ol style=3D'margin-top:0in' start=3D8 type=3D1>
<li class=3DMsoNormal style=3D'mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1'><font size=3D2
face=3D"Book Antiqua"><span =
style=3D'font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Book Antiqua"'>Currently
under consideration is whether faculty can circumvent CSS =
technology on
DVDs that they have purchased, in order to copy a clip for use in =
the
face-to-face classroom.<o:p></o:p></span></font></li>
</ol>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D2 face=3D"Book Antiqua"><span =
style=3D'font-size:
11.0pt;font-family:"Book Antiqua"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></font></p>

<ol style=3D'margin-top:0in' start=3D9 type=3D1>
<li class=3DMsoNormal style=3D'mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1'><font size=3D2
face=3D"Book Antiqua"><span =
style=3D'font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Book Antiqua"'>Finally
to complicate matters &#8211; back to TEACH (which was passed after =
the
DMCA).&nbsp; If you wanted to use a clip from a DVD but could not =
do so because
of anti-circumvention, TEACH says you can go ahead and digitize an =
analog
version of the title in order to create the digital clip to use for
teaching. &nbsp;TEACH spells this out specifically because Congress =
does
not want you to violate the DMCA in order to exercise a right they =
give
you in TEACH.&nbsp; If you can only find your title in a format =
that is
encrypted (there are no unencrypted version like a videotape), you =
are out
of luck.&nbsp; You cannot break the code on the encrypted DVD =
UNLESS it is
decided that these works are exempt in the DMCA rulemaking.&nbsp; =
At this
time, they are exempt for faculty who teach film or media studies, =
not for
any other faculty unless there is a change made at the rulemaking =
to
expand the provision. <o:p></o:p></span></font></li>
</ol>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D2 face=3D"Book Antiqua"><span =
style=3D'font-size:
11.0pt;font-family:"Book Antiqua"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></font></p>

<ol style=3D'margin-top:0in' start=3D10 type=3D1>
<li class=3DMsoNormal style=3D'mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1'><font size=3D2
face=3D"Book Antiqua"><span =
style=3D'font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Book Antiqua"'>As
my cataloging professor use to say, &#8220;Clear as mud?&#8221; =
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></font></li>
</ol>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D2 face=3D"Book Antiqua"><span =
style=3D'font-size:
11.0pt;font-family:"Book Antiqua"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3D"Book Antiqua"><span =
style=3D'font-size:
12.0pt;font-family:"Book Antiqua"'>Carrie Russell, =
Director</span></font><o:p></o:p></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3D"Book Antiqua"><span =
style=3D'font-size:
12.0pt;font-family:"Book Antiqua"'>Program on Public Access to =
Information </span></font><o:p></o:p></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3D"Book Antiqua"><span =
style=3D'font-size:
12.0pt;font-family:"Book Antiqua"'>American Library =
Association</span></font><o:p></o:p></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3D"Book Antiqua"><span =
style=3D'font-size:
12.0pt;font-family:"Book Antiqua"'>Office for Information Technology =
Policy</span></font><o:p></o:p></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><st1:Street w:st=3D"on"><st1:address =
w:st=3D"on"><font size=3D3
face=3D"Book Antiqua"><span =
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Book Antiqua"'>1615
New Hampshire &nbsp;Avenue =
NW</span></font></st1:address></st1:Street><font
face=3D"Book Antiqua"><span style=3D'font-family:"Book Antiqua"'>, First =
Floor</span></font><o:p></o:p></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><st1:place w:st=3D"on"><st1:City w:st=3D"on"><font =
size=3D3
face=3D"Book Antiqua"><span =
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Book =
Antiqua"'>Washington</span></font></st1:City><font
face=3D"Book Antiqua"><span style=3D'font-family:"Book Antiqua"'>, =
<st1:State
w:st=3D"on">DC</st1:State> <st1:PostalCode =
w:st=3D"on">20009</st1:PostalCode></span></font></st1:place><o:p></o:p></=
p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3D"Book Antiqua"><span =
style=3D'font-size:
12.0pt;font-family:"Book =
Antiqua"'>202.628.8410/800.941.8478</span></font><o:p></o:p></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3D"Book Antiqua"><span =
style=3D'font-size:
12.0pt;font-family:"Book Antiqua"'>202.628.8419 =
(fax)</span></font><o:p></o:p></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3D"Book Antiqua"><span =
style=3D'font-size:
12.0pt;font-family:"Book =
Antiqua"'>crussell@alawash.org</span></font><o:p></o:p></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span =
style=3D'font-size:
12.0pt'>&nbsp;</span><o:p></o:p></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span =
style=3D'font-size:
12.0pt'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></font></p>

</div>

</body>

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--===============8947823055175320389==--