[Videolib] sovereign immunity and copyrights

Cameron Cox (ccox@intelecom.org)
Mon, 16 Oct 2006 09:44:30 -0700

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Some more thoughts on sovereign immunity and copyright law. =20

Cameron Cox
INTELECOM

###

COPYRIGHT CORNER

ELEVENTH AMENDMENT IMMUNITY

March 2004

=20

Suppose that a library in a state-supported institution or organization
infringes copyright. Is there a reason to bar copyright owners from =
suing
for damages because of the status of the library? Traditionally state
governments and entities enjoyed sovereign immunity from some types of =
suits
under the Eleventh Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. In 1990 the
Copyright Act was amended by section 511(a), in response to infringement
claims by software producers against state-supported universities that =
had
reproduced copies of software for computer labs on their campuses. The
statute eliminated sovereign immunity for States, instrumentalities of a
State and State officials and employees and stated that they were no =
longer
immune from suit for copyright infringement. The Patent Act was =
similarly
amended in 1992 to eliminate sovereign immunity from patent suits.
<http://www.unc.edu/%7Eunclng/copy-corner65.htm#_ftn1> [1] Municipal =
and
county entities traditionally do not enjoy sovereign immunity, so they =
were
not mentioned in either statute. =20

Through a series of decisions since 1999, the U.S. Supreme Court has
restored the vitality of Eleventh Amendment immunity for intellectual
property claims. Sovereign immunity may appear to be an esoteric legal
issue for copyright, and to some extent it is, however, it may have
significant impact on copyright owners as well as many of the special
subject libraries that are a part of state-supported educational
institutions, museums and archives. The recent revitalization of =
Eleventh
Amendment immunity relates to states=92 rights. In Florida Prepaid
Postsecondary Expense Board v. College Savings Bank,
<http://www.unc.edu/%7Eunclng/copy-corner65.htm#_ftn2> [2] the Supreme =
Court
held that the 1992 amendment to the Patent Act which permitted state
entities to be sued for damages in patent infringement was barred by
Eleventh Amendment immunity.
<http://www.unc.edu/%7Eunclng/copy-corner65.htm#_ftn3> [3] One of the
grounds for this holding was that Congress had no evidence that such
entities had been infringing patents when it amended the statute.

The same is not true for copyrights. In fact, quite the opposite:
section 511 was enacted in response to claims of copyright infringement =
by
state universities. So, does Eleventh Amendment immunity cover =
copyright?
It appears that it does. The 5th Circuit Court of Appeals had addressed =
the
issue in Chavez v. Artes Publico Press
<http://www.unc.edu/%7Eunclng/copy-corner65.htm#_ftn4> [4] four years =
before
Florida Prepaid, and a long series of appeals and vacated judgments
followed. The 5th Circuit ultimately dismissed the case on the basis of
Florida Prepaid because the Copyright Remedy Clarification Act was an
improper exercise of Congressional legislative power in violation of the
Eleventh Amendment. So, it appears that state entities are immune from
suits for copyright damages. Thus, privately supported institutions are
likely at greater risk for copyright infringement suits since copyright
holders are less likely to commit the resources to sue a state entity =
and
risk dismissal of the suit because of sovereign immunity than to sue a
private institution or corporation. State agencies are not totally =
immune
from copyright or patent suits, however; they still may be sued for an
injunction. Also, individual employees are not immune from suits for
damages, even when they are acting in an official capacity when the
infringement occurred.

Then there is the bad publicity factor. Even if state agencies enjoy
sovereign immunity from suits for copyright damages, it would still be =
very
embarrassing to the agency or institution to be named as a defendant in =
a
suit for an injunction. In fact, it would be a public relations =
nightmare
for the institution. =20

For the past few years, Congress has tried to find a way to mend this
problem so that for state agencies and institutions that infringe =
copyrights
are treated the same as other infringing entities and may be sued for
damages in copyright. For example, it might be possible to require a =
state
agency, such as a university, to agree to a quid pro quo concerning
intellectual property rights. If the University of North Carolina =
wanted to
hold patent rights in inventions by its faculty members, which it =
definitely
does, and be able to sue infringers for infringement of its intellectual
property, the exchange would require UNC to submit itself to suits and =
thus
opt out of Eleventh Amendment immunity.

The latest bill was Senate bill 107-1611 and its companion House bill
107-3204, the Intellectual Property Protection Restoration Act (IPPRA). =
It
would condition a state=92s own ability to recover damages in =
intellectual
property suits on its waiver of immunity from private suits against it.
This would put states on equal footing with private parties with respect =
to
suits for damages since a state would be entitled to no damages for
infringement of its own intellectual property rights unless it waived =
its
Eleventh Amendment immunity. States would have only two years to waive
their immunity. Non-waiving states that sued private parties for
infringement would be ineligible for monetary damages that would =
otherwise
be available under federal law.

This bill was totally unacceptable to states, because the waiver applied =
to
the entire state and not just to the institution that wished to enforce =
its
own intellectual property rights. So, if the University of North =
Carolina
wanted to waive its sovereign immunity in order to be able to sue for
infringement of its intellectual property, the waiver would apply to all
North Carolina state agencies and not just to the University. This is =
an
impossible standard since the North Carolina Department of Corrections,
Department of Transportation, etc., could care less whether the =
University
holds patents and copyrights. The agencies do care if their Eleventh
Amendment immunity is waived across the board, however. A more =
acceptable
bill would allow the University of North Carolina to waive only its =
rights.

It is likely that Congress will continue to try to find a solution to =
what
copyright holders see as a significant problem. Basic fairness dictates
that states be treated the same as other entities and be responsible for
compensating copyright holders when they infringe the copyright rights =
of a
private entity.

=20

=20

=20

_____ =20

<http://www.unc.edu/%7Eunclng/copy-corner65.htm#_ftnref1> [1] =
35
U.S.C. =A7 296(a) (2000).

<http://www.unc.edu/%7Eunclng/copy-corner65.htm#_ftnref2> [2] =
527
U.S. 666 (1999).

<http://www.unc.edu/%7Eunclng/copy-corner65.htm#_ftnref3> [3] =
The
case also covered trademarks.

<http://www.unc.edu/%7Eunclng/copy-corner65.htm#_ftnref4> [4] =
59
F.3d 539 (5th Cir. 1995).=20

=20

=20

=20

=20

Cameron Cox

Senior Director, Sales and Marketing

INTELECOM Intelligent Telecommunications

150 East Colorado Boulevard, Suite 300

Pasadena, CA 91105-1937

Toll free: (800) 576-2988

Outside the United States: (626) 796-7300

Fax: (626) 577-4282

Extension 112

=20

<http://www.intelecom.org/pdf/06_07_Catalog_Web.pdf>=20

=20

2006/2007 General Catalog

Core Curriculum Content

DVD * VHS * Digital Media * ITV

=20

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<div class=3DSection1>

<p class=3DMsoNormal =
style=3D'mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto'><font
size=3D2 face=3DArial><span =
style=3D'font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial'>Some more thoughts
on sovereign immunity and copyright law. =
=A0<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal =
style=3D'mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto'><font
size=3D2 face=3DArial><span =
style=3D'font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial'>Cameron Cox<br>
INTELECOM<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal =
style=3D'mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto'><font
size=3D2 face=3DArial><span =
style=3D'font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial'>###<o:p></o:p></span></font>=
</p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal align=3Dcenter =
style=3D'mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:
auto;text-align:center'><font size=3D3 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt'>COPYRIGHT CORNER<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal align=3Dcenter =
style=3D'mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:
auto;text-align:center'><b><font size=3D3 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;font-weight:bold'>ELEVENTH AMENDMENT =
IMMUNITY</span></font></b><o:p></o:p></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal align=3Dcenter =
style=3D'mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:
auto;text-align:center'><font size=3D3 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt'>March 2004<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal =
style=3D'mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto'><font
size=3D3 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span =
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt'>&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal =
style=3D'mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto'><font
size=3D3 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span =
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt'>Suppose that a
library in a state-supported institution or organization infringes
copyright.&nbsp; Is there a reason to bar copyright owners from suing =
for
damages because of the status of the library? Traditionally state =
governments
and entities enjoyed sovereign immunity from some types of suits under =
the
Eleventh Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.&nbsp; In 1990 the Copyright =
Act
was amended by section 511(a), in response to infringement claims by =
software producers
against state-supported universities that had reproduced copies of =
software for
computer labs on their campuses.&nbsp; The statute eliminated sovereign
immunity for States, instrumentalities of a State and State officials =
and
employees and stated that they were no longer immune from suit for =
copyright
infringement.&nbsp; The Patent Act was similarly amended in 1992 to =
eliminate
sovereign immunity from patent suits.<a name=3D"_ftnref1"></a><a
href=3D"http://www.unc.edu/%7Eunclng/copy-corner65.htm#_ftn1" =
title=3D""><font
face=3DArial><span =
style=3D'font-family:Arial'>[1]</span></font></a>&nbsp;&nbsp;
Municipal and county entities traditionally do not enjoy sovereign =
immunity, so
they were not mentioned in either statute.&nbsp; =
<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal =
style=3D'mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto'><font
size=3D3 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span =
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt'>Through a series
of decisions since 1999, the U.S. Supreme Court has restored the =
vitality of
Eleventh Amendment immunity for intellectual property claims.&nbsp; =
Sovereign
immunity may appear to be an esoteric legal issue for copyright, and to =
some
extent it is, however, it may have significant impact on copyright =
owners as
well as many of the special subject libraries that are a part of =
state-supported
educational institutions, museums and archives.&nbsp; The recent =
revitalization
of Eleventh Amendment immunity relates to states&#8217; rights.&nbsp; In =
<i><span
style=3D'font-style:italic'>Florida Prepaid Postsecondary Expense Board =
v.
College Savings Bank,<a name=3D"_ftnref2"></a><a
href=3D"http://www.unc.edu/%7Eunclng/copy-corner65.htm#_ftn2" =
title=3D""><b><font
face=3DArial><span =
style=3D'font-family:Arial;font-weight:bold'>[2]</span></font></b></a>
</span></i>the Supreme Court held that the 1992 amendment to the Patent =
Act
which permitted state entities to be sued for damages in patent =
infringement
was barred by Eleventh Amendment immunity.<a name=3D"_ftnref3"></a><a
href=3D"http://www.unc.edu/%7Eunclng/copy-corner65.htm#_ftn3" =
title=3D""><font
face=3DArial><span =
style=3D'font-family:Arial'>[3]</span></font></a>&nbsp; One of
the grounds for this holding was that Congress had no evidence that such
entities had been infringing patents when it amended the =
statute.<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal =
style=3D'mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto'><font
size=3D3 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span style=3D'font-size:12.0pt'>The =
same is not
true for copyrights.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; In fact, quite the =
opposite:&nbsp;
section 511 was enacted in response to claims of copyright infringement =
by
state universities.&nbsp; So, does Eleventh Amendment immunity cover
copyright?&nbsp; It appears that it does.&nbsp; The 5<sup>th</sup> =
Circuit
Court of Appeals had addressed the issue in <i><span =
style=3D'font-style:italic'>Chavez
v. Artes Publico Press</span></i><a name=3D"_ftnref4"></a><a
href=3D"http://www.unc.edu/%7Eunclng/copy-corner65.htm#_ftn4" =
title=3D""><font
face=3DArial><span style=3D'font-family:Arial'>[4]</span></font></a> =
four years
before <i><span style=3D'font-style:italic'>Florida Prepaid</span></i>, =
and a
long series of appeals and vacated judgments followed.&nbsp; The =
5<sup>th</sup>
Circuit ultimately dismissed the case on the basis of <i><span
style=3D'font-style:italic'>Florida Prepaid</span></i> because the =
Copyright
Remedy Clarification Act was an improper exercise of Congressional =
legislative
power in violation of the Eleventh Amendment.&nbsp; So, it appears that =
state
entities are immune from suits for copyright damages.&nbsp; Thus, =
privately
supported institutions are likely at greater risk for copyright =
infringement
suits since copyright holders are less likely to commit the resources to =
sue a
state entity and risk dismissal of the suit because of sovereign =
immunity than
to sue a private institution or corporation. State agencies are not =
totally
immune from copyright or patent suits, however;&nbsp; they still may be =
sued
for an injunction.&nbsp; Also, individual employees are not immune from =
suits
for damages, even when they are acting in an official capacity when the
infringement occurred.<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal =
style=3D'mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto'><font
size=3D3 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span =
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt'>&nbsp;Then there
is the bad publicity factor.&nbsp; Even if state agencies enjoy =
sovereign
immunity from suits for copyright damages, it would still be very =
embarrassing
to the agency or institution to be named as a defendant in a suit for an
injunction.&nbsp; In fact, it would be a public relations nightmare for =
the
institution.&nbsp; <o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal =
style=3D'mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto'><font
size=3D3 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span style=3D'font-size:12.0pt'>For =
the past few
years, Congress has tried to find a way to mend this problem so that for =
state
agencies and institutions that infringe copyrights are treated the same =
as
other infringing entities and may be sued for damages in =
copyright.&nbsp; For
example, it might be possible to require a state agency, such as a =
university,
to agree to a <i><span style=3D'font-style:italic'>quid pro =
quo</span></i>
concerning intellectual property rights.&nbsp; If the <st1:place =
w:st=3D"on"><st1:PlaceType
w:st=3D"on">University</st1:PlaceType> of <st1:PlaceName =
w:st=3D"on">North
Carolina</st1:PlaceName></st1:place> wanted to hold patent rights in
inventions by its faculty members, which it definitely does, and be able =
to sue
infringers for infringement of its intellectual property, the exchange =
would
require UNC to submit itself to suits and thus opt out of Eleventh =
Amendment
immunity.<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal =
style=3D'mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto'><font
size=3D3 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span style=3D'font-size:12.0pt'>The =
latest bill
was Senate bill 107-1611 and its companion House bill 107-3204, the
Intellectual Property Protection Restoration Act (IPPRA).&nbsp; It would
condition a state&#8217;s own ability to recover damages in intellectual
property suits on its waiver of immunity from private suits against =
it.&nbsp;
This would put states on equal footing with private parties with respect =
to
suits for damages since a state would be entitled to no damages for
infringement of its own intellectual property rights unless it waived =
its
Eleventh Amendment immunity.&nbsp; States would have only two years to =
waive
their immunity.&nbsp; Non-waiving states that sued private parties for
infringement would be ineligible for monetary damages that would =
otherwise be
available under federal law.<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal =
style=3D'mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto'><font
size=3D3 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span style=3D'font-size:12.0pt'>This =
bill was
totally unacceptable to states, because the waiver applied to the entire =
state
and not just to the institution that wished to enforce its own =
intellectual
property rights.&nbsp; So, if the <st1:PlaceType =
w:st=3D"on">University</st1:PlaceType>
of <st1:PlaceName w:st=3D"on">North Carolina</st1:PlaceName> wanted to =
waive its
sovereign immunity in order to be able to sue for infringement of its
intellectual property, the waiver would apply to all <st1:State =
w:st=3D"on"><st1:place
w:st=3D"on">North Carolina</st1:place></st1:State> state agencies and =
not just
to the University.&nbsp; This is an impossible standard since the North
Carolina Department of Corrections, Department of Transportation, etc., =
could
care less whether the University holds patents and copyrights.&nbsp; The
agencies do care if their Eleventh Amendment immunity is waived across =
the
board, however.&nbsp;&nbsp; A more acceptable bill would allow the =
<st1:place
w:st=3D"on"><st1:PlaceType w:st=3D"on">University</st1:PlaceType> of =
<st1:PlaceName
w:st=3D"on">North Carolina</st1:PlaceName></st1:place> to waive only =
its
rights.&nbsp; <o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal =
style=3D'mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto'><font
size=3D3 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span style=3D'font-size:12.0pt'>It is =
likely that
Congress will continue to try to find a solution to what copyright =
holders see
as a significant problem.&nbsp; Basic fairness dictates that states be =
treated
the same as other entities and be responsible for compensating copyright
holders when they infringe the copyright rights of a private =
entity.<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal =
style=3D'mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto'><font
size=3D3 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span =
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt'>&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal =
style=3D'mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto'><font
size=3D3 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span =
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt'>&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal =
style=3D'mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto'><font
size=3D3 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span =
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt'>&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span =
style=3D'font-size:
12.0pt'><br clear=3Dall>
<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<div class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt'>

<hr size=3D1 width=3D"33%" align=3Dleft>

</span></font></div>

<p class=3DMsoNormal =
style=3D'mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto'><a
name=3D"_ftn1"></a><a
href=3D"http://www.unc.edu/%7Eunclng/copy-corner65.htm#_ftnref1" =
title=3D""><font
size=3D2 face=3DArial><span =
style=3D'font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial'>[1]</span></font></a>
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 35 U.S.C. =A7 =
296(a)
(2000).<o:p></o:p></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal =
style=3D'mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto'><a
name=3D"_ftn2"></a><a
href=3D"http://www.unc.edu/%7Eunclng/copy-corner65.htm#_ftnref2" =
title=3D""><font
size=3D2 face=3DArial><span =
style=3D'font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial'>[2]</span></font></a>
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 527 =
<st1:country-region
w:st=3D"on"><st1:place w:st=3D"on">U.S.</st1:place></st1:country-region> =
666
(1999).<o:p></o:p></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal =
style=3D'mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto'><a
name=3D"_ftn3"></a><a
href=3D"http://www.unc.edu/%7Eunclng/copy-corner65.htm#_ftnref3" =
title=3D""><font
size=3D2 face=3DArial><span =
style=3D'font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial'>[3]</span></font></a>
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The case also =
covered
trademarks.<o:p></o:p></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal =
style=3D'mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto'><a
name=3D"_ftn4"></a><a
href=3D"http://www.unc.edu/%7Eunclng/copy-corner65.htm#_ftnref4" =
title=3D""><font
size=3D2 face=3DArial><span =
style=3D'font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial'>[4]</span></font></a>
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 59 F.3d 539 =
(5<sup>th</sup>
Cir. 1995). <o:p></o:p></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span =
style=3D'font-size:
12.0pt'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span =
style=3D'font-size:
12.0pt'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D2 color=3Dnavy face=3DArial><span =
style=3D'font-size:
10.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:navy'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D2 color=3Dnavy face=3DArial><span =
style=3D'font-size:
10.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:navy'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></font></p>

<div>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D2 color=3Dnavy face=3DArial><span =
style=3D'font-size:
10.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:navy'>Cameron =
Cox<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D2 color=3Dnavy face=3DArial><span =
style=3D'font-size:
10.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:navy'>Senior Director, Sales and =
Marketing<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D2 color=3Dnavy face=3DArial><span =
style=3D'font-size:
10.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:navy'>INTELECOM Intelligent =
Telecommunications<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><st1:Street tabIndex=3D"0"
style=3D"BACKGROUND-POSITION: left bottom; BACKGROUND-IMAGE: =
url(res://ietag.dll/#34/#1001); BACKGROUND-REPEAT: repeat-x"
w:st=3D"on"><st1:address tabIndex=3D"0"
style=3D"BACKGROUND-POSITION: left bottom; BACKGROUND-IMAGE: =
url(res://ietag.dll/#34/#1001); BACKGROUND-REPEAT: repeat-x"
w:st=3D"on"><font size=3D2 color=3Dnavy face=3DArial><span =
style=3D'font-size:10.0pt;
font-family:Arial;color:navy'>150 East Colorado Boulevard, Suite =
300</span></font></st1:address></st1:Street><font
size=3D2 color=3Dnavy face=3DArial><span =
style=3D'font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial;
color:navy'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><st1:place tabIndex=3D"0"
style=3D"BACKGROUND-POSITION: left bottom; BACKGROUND-IMAGE: =
url(res://ietag.dll/#34/#1001); BACKGROUND-REPEAT: repeat-x"
w:st=3D"on"><st1:City tabIndex=3D"0"
style=3D"BACKGROUND-POSITION: left bottom; BACKGROUND-IMAGE: =
url(res://ietag.dll/#34/#1001); BACKGROUND-REPEAT: repeat-x"
w:st=3D"on"><font size=3D2 color=3Dnavy face=3DArial><span =
style=3D'font-size:10.0pt;
font-family:Arial;color:navy'>Pasadena</span></font></st1:City><font =
size=3D2
color=3Dnavy face=3DArial><span =
style=3D'font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial;
color:navy'>, <st1:State tabIndex=3D"0"
style=3D"BACKGROUND-POSITION: left bottom; BACKGROUND-IMAGE: =
url(res://ietag.dll/#34/#1001); BACKGROUND-REPEAT: repeat-x"
w:st=3D"on">CA</st1:State>&nbsp; <st1:PostalCode tabIndex=3D"0"
style=3D"BACKGROUND-POSITION: left bottom; BACKGROUND-IMAGE: =
url(res://ietag.dll/#34/#1001); BACKGROUND-REPEAT: repeat-x"
w:st=3D"on">91105-1937</st1:PostalCode></span></font></st1:place><font =
size=3D2
color=3Dnavy face=3DArial><span =
style=3D'font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial;
color:navy'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D2 color=3Dnavy face=3DArial><span =
style=3D'font-size:
10.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:navy'>Toll free: (800) =
576-2988<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D2 color=3Dnavy face=3DArial><span =
style=3D'font-size:
10.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:navy'>Outside the <st1:country-region =
w:st=3D"on"><st1:place
tabIndex=3D"0"
style=3D"BACKGROUND-POSITION: left bottom; BACKGROUND-IMAGE: =
url(res://ietag.dll/#34/#1001); BACKGROUND-REPEAT: repeat-x"
w:st=3D"on">United States</st1:place></st1:country-region>: (626) =
796-7300<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D2 color=3Dnavy face=3DArial><span =
style=3D'font-size:
10.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:navy'>Fax: (626) =
577-4282<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D2 color=3Dnavy face=3DArial><span =
style=3D'font-size:
10.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:navy'>Extension =
112<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<div>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 color=3Dnavy face=3D"Times New =
Roman"><span
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;color:navy'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></font></p>=

</div>

<div>

<p class=3DMsoNormal style=3D'margin-left:.25in'><font size=3D3 =
color=3Dnavy
face=3D"Times New Roman"><span style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;color:navy'><a
href=3D"http://www.intelecom.org/pdf/06_07_Catalog_Web.pdf"><span
style=3D'text-decoration:none'><img border=3D0 width=3D131 height=3D179
id=3D"_x0000_i1029" =
src=3D"cid:image002.jpg@01C6F107.6D14E9B0"></span></a><o:p></o:p></span><=
/font></p>

</div>

<div>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D2 color=3Dnavy face=3DArial><span =
style=3D'font-size:
10.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:navy'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></font></p>

</div>

<p class=3DMsoNormal style=3D'margin-left:9.0pt'><b><font size=3D2 =
color=3Dnavy
face=3DArial><span =
style=3D'font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:navy;
font-weight:bold'>2006/2007 General =
Catalog<o:p></o:p></span></font></b></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal style=3D'margin-left:9.0pt'><b><font size=3D2 =
color=3Dnavy
face=3DArial><span =
style=3D'font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:navy;
font-weight:bold'>&nbsp;Core Curriculum =
Content<o:p></o:p></span></font></b></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><b><font size=3D2 color=3Dnavy face=3DArial><span
style=3D'font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:navy;font-weight:bold'>=
DVD </span></font></b><b><font
size=3D2 color=3Dnavy face=3DWingdings><span =
style=3D'font-size:10.0pt;font-family:
Wingdings;color:navy;font-weight:bold'>=9F</span></font></b><b><font =
size=3D2
color=3Dnavy face=3DArial><span =
style=3D'font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial;
color:navy;font-weight:bold'> VHS </span></font></b><b><font size=3D2 =
color=3Dnavy
face=3DWingdings><span =
style=3D'font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Wingdings;color:navy;
font-weight:bold'>=9F</span></font></b><b><font size=3D2 color=3Dnavy =
face=3DArial><span
style=3D'font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:navy;font-weight:bold'>=
Digital
Media </span></font></b><b><font size=3D2 color=3Dnavy =
face=3DWingdings><span
style=3D'font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Wingdings;color:navy;font-weight:bo=
ld'>=9F</span></font></b><b><font
size=3D2 color=3Dnavy face=3DArial><span =
style=3D'font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial;
color:navy;font-weight:bold'> ITV</span></font></b><font =
color=3Dnavy><span
style=3D'color:navy'><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D2 color=3Dnavy face=3DArial><span =
style=3D'font-size:
10.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:navy'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></font></p>

</div>

</div>

</body>

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VIDEOLIB is intended to encourage the broad and lively discussion of issues relating to the selection, evaluation, acquisition,bibliographic control, preservation, and use of current and evolving video formats in libraries and related institutions. It is hoped that the list will serve as an effective working tool for video librarians, as well as a channel of communication between libraries,educational institutions, and video producers and distributors.