RE: [Videolib] PAL format and conversion issues

Brewer, Michael (
Tue, 14 Mar 2006 15:19:23 -0700


I can envision numerous situations where changing format could be
covered by fair use (converting short clips from several films available
only in PAL format to show in a classroom where alternative technology
is not available). It could also be covered by TEACH (clips from either
format - NTSC or PAL - would have to be transferred to a different
format for streaming anyway).

My understanding is that there are no exclusive rights of the copyright
holder (from sections 106 -106a) that cannot be exempted (to some
degree) if (and ONLY if) the use is determined to be a fair use.

"Notwithstanding the provisions of sections 106 and 106A, the fair use
of a copyrighted work, including such use by reproduction in copies or
phonorecords or by any other means specified by that section, for
purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching (including
multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship, or research, is not an
infringement of copyright."

I am not suggesting that anyone go out and change all your PAL tapes
into NTSC. That is certainly a copyright violation. I just wanted to
suggest that the prohibition against transferring from one format to
another is not absolute.


Michael Brewer
Slavic Studies, German Studies & Media Arts Librarian
University of Arizona Library A210
1510 E. University
P.O. Box 210055
Tucson, AZ 85721
Voice: 520.307.2771
Fax: 520.621.9733

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