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South Asian History:
Colonial India

General Introduction

General Chronology
India under the British - links to primary sources.
Overview of the British in India
Primary Source Documents for the Study of Indian History, 1890-2000 AD.
Statistical Information on British India - maintained by the Digital South Asia Library of        the University of Chicago.
Timeline of the British Raj


A Select Bibliography of the British Empire
The British Empire - a timeline of the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries.
The Extent of Colonialism - in statistical terms.
John Hobson - Imperialism, 1902 AD.
Joseph A. Schumpeter - "The Sociology of Imperialism", 1918 AD.
Vladimir Lenin - Imperialism: the Highest Stage of Capitalism, 1916 AD.

  See also, "Imperialism and the Split in Socialism".

The Portuguese in India

The Coming of the Europeans
The Portuguese in India - Vasco de Gama (1497-1498 AD)

The Portuguese Capture Goa
Ferdinand Magellan's Voyage Round the World (1519-1522 AD)
Francis Xavier's Letter from India

The British in India


The East India Company - an introduction.
From Trade to Colonization - information on the historical dynamics of the      East India Companies.

The Beginning of the British Raj

Robert Clive
     Clive on the Battle of Calcutta
     Clive on the Battle of Plassey
     The Black Hole of Calcutta (1756 AD)
Battle of Plassey (1757 AD)
     See also, Sir Robert Clive, Battle of Plassey.
Battle of Buxar (1764 AD) - the British defeat Mir Kasim.
First Mysore War (1767-1769 AD) - the British conclude a humiliating
     peace pact with Hyder Ali.
The First Anglo-Maratha War (1775-1782 AD)
Second Mysore War (1780-1784 AD) - the British defeat Hyder Ali.
     See also, Manas - History and Politics.
The Earl of Cornwallis on the British Army in India (1786 AD)
Third Mysore War (1790-1792 AD) - encounter between the British
     and Tipu.
Fourth Mysore War
     The British Defeat Tipu
     Death of Tipu
     Partition of Mysore (1799 AD)
Treaty of Bassein (1802 AD)
The Second Anglo-Maratha War (1803-1805 AD) - the British defeat the      Marathas at Assaye.
The Anglo-Gurkha War (1814-1816 AD)
The Pindari War (1817-1818 AD)
The Last Anglo-Maratha War (1817-1819AD) - Marathas finally crush
     the British.
The Battle of Kelat (1839 AD)
The First Anglo-Burmese War (1824-1826 AD)
Rise of Sikh Power
First Anglo-Sikh War (1845-1846 AD)
Second Anglo-Sikh War (1848-1849 AD)
Second Anglo-Burmese War (1852 AD)
The March to Lhasa (C.G. Rawlings, 1904 AD)


Economic Benefits of Colonial Rule to Britain
     Economic Effects of British Rule on India
     Thomas Mun - England's Treasure by Foreign Trade, 1664 AD.
     Adam Smith - The Wealth of Nations: Of Colonies and
          The Costs of Empire
The South Sea Bubble - An Economic Hazard of Colonialism.


Company Rule (1757-1857 AD)
Robert Clive - Speech in Commons on India (1772 AD)
The Regulating Act (1773 AD)
Edmund Burke - Speech in Commons on India (1783 AD)
Pitt's India Act (1784 AD)
The Trials of Warring Hastings, Governor-General (1773-1784 AD)
British Education Policy in India
     Thomas Macauley on Empire and Education (1830's AD)

Clash of Cultures

The Indian Caste System and the British
Raja Ramohan Roy - a second conference between an advocate for and
     an opponent of the practice of burning widows alive (1820 AD).
Sir William Bentinck on ritual murder in India (1829 AD).
Mountstuart Elphinstone on Indian customs and manners (1840 AD).
The British and the Construction of Thuggee
Sir Monier Monier-Williams on camp life in India (1850 AD).
Dadabhai Naoroji on the benefits of British rule (1871 AD).
Charles Creighton Hazewell - "British India", 1857 AD.
Field Marshall Lord Roberts - "When Queen Victoria Became Empress of      India", 1877 AD.
Reverend Arthur Male - "The Hill of Bones - Afghanistan, 1878".
Missionaries in Northern India - The Budden and Gray Families.

Indian Cultures

The Princely States during British Rule
Sir Monier Monier-Williams - The Towers of Silence, 1870 AD. This is
     a reflection upon the history, society, and contemporary situation of
     Parsis in India.
Lalon Fakir - Songs (19th Century AD)
Toru Dutt - Sonnett (1876 AD)
Swami Vivekananda - Profile and Writings.
Rabindranath Tagore (1861-1941 AD)
     Gitanjali (1913 AD)
     "Once There was a King" (1916 AD)
     The Home and the World (1915 AD)

British Culture in India

Art and Empire - Portraying India.
The Projection of Imperial Power - the Royal Durbas in India.

The Mutiny

The Revolutionary Upheaval of 1857
The British Press and the Indian Mutiny
Elisa Greathead - An Account of the Opening of the Indian Mutiny at
     Meerut (1857 AD).
Charles Creighton Hazewell - The Indian Revolt (1857 AD)
Robert Traill Spence Lowell - The Relief of Lucknow
Lakshmibai, The Rani of Jhansi

India after the Mutiny - Consolidating British Rule

Overview of the British Raj (1858-1947 AD)
Aspects of Social Change in South Asia, 1860 to the Present.
Post-Rebellion Developments
British Policy after the Mutiny - the Northwest
     Post-Mutiny Policy in Bengal
The Beginnings of Self-Government
The Division of Bengal

Nationalist Struggle

Timeline of India's Freedom Struggle
Key Landmarks in the Indian Freedom Struggle
Origins of the Congress and the Muslim League
     Loyalist Agents in the Indian aristocracy and the early Congress
The Indian National Movement (1905-1914 AD)
     "Moderates" and "Extremists" in the battle for swaraj and swadeshi
  Jabez T. Sunderland - The New Nationalist Movement in India,
          1908 AD.
     Bal Gangadhar Tilak (1856-1920 AD)
          Tilak's address to the Indian National Congress, 1907 AD.
The Gadar Party - a bibliography of an Indian Nationalist Organization
     based in the United States.
The Khilafat Movement (1919-1924 AD)
The Gandhian Movement (1917-1948 AD)
     Mahatma Gandhi and the Nationalist Movement
          Biography of Mahatma Gandhi (1869-1948 AD)
          Mahatma Gandhi Albumn
          Chronology and Links to Writings
          Indian Home Rule (1909)
          Mahatma Gandhi and his Myths
          Naryan Desai - growing up with Gandhi.
     Bhikaji Cama - an Indian woman's Struggle for Independence.
     Jawarhalal Nehru - chronology and links to his writings.
          Marxism, Capitalism and India's Future (1941 AD)
     Bhagat Singh - a profile.
The Government of India Act and After - In 1935 AD, the Government
     of India Act was passed in the British parliament. It provided for the
     establishment of an All-Indian Federation and new system of
     government on the basis of provincial autonomy.
The Quit India Movement (1942-1945 AD)
     Subhash Chandra Bose - a profile.
The Two Nation Theory and the Prelude to Partition - a historical overview.
     The Nationalist Movement and the Rise of Muslim Consciousness
     The Seeds of Muslim Nationalism
     The Development of the Muslim League
     The Muslim League heads for Partition
     Sir Muhammad Iqbal
     Muhammad Ali Jinnah (1876-1948 AD)


Timeline of Independence and After
A Political Impasse
Towards Independence
     For "Prime Minister Winston Churchill's Announcement to the
          House of Commons of Sir Stafford Cripps' Mission to India
          click here.
     For the "Statement and draft Declaration by His Majesty's           Government with correspondence and resolutions connected           therewith (Sir Stafford Cripps' Mission to India)", click here.
The Quit India Movement (1942 AD)
     Sir Stafford Cripps
          Review of Negotiations with the All-India Conference (1942 AD)
          Statement on India (1942 AD)
     Gandhi's Speech to the All-India Congress (1942 AD)
     Leopold S. Amery, British Secretary of State for India - Broadcast
          (1942 AD)
     Winston Churchill's Report to the House of Commons on the Policy
          of the British Government in India (1942 AD), click here.
    Gandhi's Latest Message to America, October 31, 1942.
British Government Statement - Policy in Burma (1945 AD)
British Government Statement - Policy in India (1946 AD)
The Partition of India
     Bibliography on the Partition of India
The Colonial Legacy - Myths and Popular Beliefs


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