- Baer, Marjorie. "Copyright and the Visual Arts." (making sure Web content is legal) (Industry Legal Issue) Macworld v13, n10 (Oct, 1996):163 (5 pages).
- Blumenstyk, Goldie. "Comics and Centerfolds on Web Pages Poses a Copyright Problem for Colleges." Chronicle of Higher Education v43, n5 (Sept 27, 1996):A29 (2 pages).
- Some copyright holders are threatening to hold universities responsiblewhen their materials are put on student Web pages. Whether to holduniversities liable for Web page transmissions when they are not liable forfax transmissions is a question being debated in Congress. Copyrightholders of "Calvin and Hobbes," "Dilbert," and other products popular withcollege students believe leniency with the students' usually non-commercial and innocent Web publications can jeopardize future copyright protection.
- Crawford, Tad. "The Multimedia Revolution." (evaluation of U.S. copyright laws affecting multimedia) (Legal Affairs) (Column) Communication Arts v36, n2 (May-June, 1994):34 (2 pages).
- D'Amico, Marie. "Copyrights are Fair Game If It's Fair Use." MacWEEK v9, n32 (August 14, 1995):28 (2 pages).
- `Fair use' is a legal doctrine that provides important exceptions tocopyright law that allow users to make copies when it is clear that no onewill be hurt. The criteria for fair use include whether the material is forcommercial or nonprofit use, the nature of the copyrighted work, how muchis used and how much the market for the original will be affected.Intellectual property lawyers and entertainment companies do not alwaysagree on exactly what constitutes fair use. Most warn that using even asmall amount of a highly valuable intellectual property could breach thebounds, and users who request permission from a copyright owner should be prepared for rejections even if the use is fair.
- DanThu Thi Phan. "Will Fair Use Function on the Internet?" Columbia Law Review v98, n1 (Jan, 1998):169-216.
- Copyright law's fair use doctrine should be liberally applied to Internetuses to enhance pecuniary incentives and thereby encourage creation andpublication of copyrighted works. The Internet provides new opportunitiesor education and access to created works which could weigh too heavily onhe scale which is meant to balance access with creation and publication.Some proposals would institute new fair use standards which would upset this historic balance.
Demac, Donna A. "Multimedia and Intellectual Property Rights." Media Studies Journal v8, n1 (Wntr, 1994):58 (6 pages).
There is a need to clarify details of intellectual property ownership inmultimedia products. The content consideration of a team-work product isvulnerable to several legal and contractual questions. The InteractiveMultimedia Association plans to provide details of legal issues ofintellectual property protection and the methodology of content acquisitionand licensing.
- Gibeaut, John. "Zapping Cyber Piracy: Copyright Protection in the Digital Age Has Turned Into a Battle Over Space Turf, Raising Constitutional Questions of Owners' Rights vs. Public Access." ABA Journal v83 (Feb, 1997):60 (4 pages).
Technological advances are challenging the ability of current copyrightaws to protect the rights of creators of motion pictures, audiorecordings, databases and computer software. The digital and academiccommunities stress that the free flow of information should be promoted,but the industries involved stress that effective protections are needed topromote innovation. The World Intellectual Property Organization is workingon treaties to protect copyright internationally, and Sen. Patrick J. Leahy is calling for the US Senate to revise copyright laws for the digital age.
Holcomb, Terry and Mortensen, Mark. "From Atoms to Bits: Suggested Readings on the Road from Traditional to Digital Copyright." TechTrends, April/May 1997, vol. 42, no. 3, pgs. 10-12.
- James, Farrel. "Understanding Fair use and the Fair Use Guidelines." TechTrends (Nov/Dec 1997): 11-13. (in UCB Media Resources Center)
Lichtenstein, Allen and Phil Eftychiadis. 1993. "Student Video Productions: Who Owns the Copyright?" Communication Education 4 (Janurary): 37-50.
- Martinez, Frank. "Fair Use Revisited. " (implications of fair use exception in copyright law)
Print v52, n2 (March-April, 1998):30 (3 pages).
- Fair use of a copyrighted work is approved for purposes of criticism, news reporting, scholarship or research. It is one of the most litigated areas of copyright law since most people are unaware of its conditions especially at a time when Internet use tolerates, if not encourages, 'borrowing' or outright use of copyrighted material. Validity of the fair use defense would depend on such factors as the nature of the copyrighted work as well as the amount and substantiality of the copied portion.
Mason, Sally. "Copyright or Wrong: The Public Performance Dilemma." Wilson Library Bulletin v66, n8 (April 1992):76
- Maxwell, Leigh; McCain, Thomas A. "Gateway or Gatekeeper: The Implications of Copyright and Digitalization on Education." Communication Education v46, n3 (July, 1997):141 (17 pages).
Milone, Michael N. "Fair Use Guidelines for Educational Multimedia. Technology & Learning 17 (Feb 1997):50.
- O'Steen, Kathleen. "Rights Face Fuzzy Future." (copyright for multimedia products) Variety v354, n8 (March 28, 1994):1 (2 pages).
- The question of who owns the copyright for multimedia software is a legal dilemma. Software or electronic publishing companies may not want to pay royalty fees to writers, actors and entertainment companies that produced part of the multimedia product.
Speere, Lance and Paul Parsons. "The Copyright Implications of Using Video in the Classroom." Journalism Educator 49 (Winter 1995): 11-21.
Sprague, R. D. 1994. "Multimedia: The Convergence of New Technologies and Traditional Copyright. Denver University Law Review 71: 635-669.
- Steinberg, Don. "Hey! We're Being Sued for Copyright Infringement." (ensuring that multimedia presentations are legal) (Enterprise Computing/Management)(includes related article on where to turn...) InfoWorld v16, n11 (March 14, 1994):54.
- The proliferation of multimedia technology and the ease of capturing video and audio information from any source has created complex intellectual property issues. Any computer user can now steal millions of dollars worth of copyrighted music, video and other images, a fact that is not lost on entertainment companies. Experts offer advice on how those creating multimedia presentations and performances can avoid copyright lawsuits. US copyright law permits 'fair use' of material, but what constitutes fair use is evaluated on a case-by-case basis; it generally means limited private, educational or non-commercial use that will not harm the copyright owner's market. Some material is public domain, but not as much as many users think. Nothing should be assumed to be free for presentation use unless it is labeled as royalty-free, according to legal experts. Some officially licensed audio and video clips are legal to use for personal entertainment but not in 'performances.' Users often do not know what to do even if they want to comply with the law.
- Talab, Rosemary. "Copyright and Multimedia: Part Two: Higher Education." TechTrends (Oct. 1997): 9-11
- Talab, Rosemary. "Copyright and Network Environments." TechTrends (Jan/Feb 1998): 9-11
- Wertz, Sandra. "Public Domain and Copyright: The Final Frontier." TechTrends (Jan/Feb 1995): 8-10
- Brinson, J. Dianne and Mark F. Radcliffe. "An Intellectual Property Law Primer For Multimedia And Web Developers." (1996)
- Coyle, Karen. "Copyright in the Digital Age" (talk given, San Francisco Public Library,1996)
- Crews, Kenneth D. "Copyright Law, Libraries, and Universities: Overview, Recent Developments, and Future Issues."
Elias, Steve. "Copyrights In Cyberspace."
"Fair Use of Copyrighted Works: A Crucial Element in Educating America"
- This home page contains the electronic version of Fair Use of Copyrighted Works, a pamphlet published by CETUS. It was put together by the Working Group on Ownership, Legal Rights of Use and Fair Use of the CSU-SUNY-CUNY Joint Committee. It also contains links to fair-use guidelines and other resources that are intended to promote a fuller understanding and appreciation of copyright laws.
Field, Thomas G., Jr. "Copyright in Visual Arts."
Fenton, Eileen Gifford. "Images and the World Wide Web: Copyright Issues."
Greguras, Fred; Michael R. Egger; Sandy J. Wong. "Multimedia Content And The Super Highway: Rapid Acceleration Or Foot On The Brake?"
Litman, Jessica. "Revising Copyright Law for the Information Age." (Twenty-third Annual Telecommunications Policy Research Conference, October 2, 1995)
Templeton, Brad. "10 Big Myths About Copyright Explained."
- Boorstyn, Neil.
- Copyright Law. Rochester, N.Y.: Lawyers Co-operative Pub. Co.; San Francisco, Calif.: Bancroft-Whitney, 1981--
Brinson, J. Dianne.
- Multimedia Law and Business Handbook / J. Dianne Brinson, Mark F. Radcliffe. Menlo Park, CA Ladera Press, c1996.
Crews, Kenneth D.
- Copyright, Fair Use, and the Challenge for Universities: Promoting the Progress of Higher Education. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993.
Griffiths, Jose-Marie and Donald W. King.
- Intellectual Property Rights in an Age of Electronics and Information. Washington, D.C. : (U.S.) Office of Technology Assessment: For sale by National Technical Information Service, 1986.
Lawrence, John Shelton and Bernard Timberg, eds.
- Fair Use and Free Inquiry: Copyright Law and the New Media. 2nd ed. Norwood, N.J. : Ablex Pub. Corp., 1989.
Miller, Arthur Raphael and Michael H. Davis.
- Intellectual Property: Patents, Trademarks, and Copyright in a Nutshell. 2nd ed. St. Paul, Minn.: West Pub. Co., 1990.
Miller, Jerome K.
- Video Copyright Permissions: A Guide to Securing Permission to Retain, Perform, and Transmit Television Programs Videotaped Off the Air. Friday Harbor, WA: Copyright Information Services, 1989.
- The Business of Multimedia. New York, NY: Allworth Press, c1995.
Sinofsky, Esther Rita.
- Off-air Videotaping in Education: Copyright Issues, Decisions, Implications. New York: R.R. Bowker Co., 1984.
Smedinghoff, Thomas J.
- Multimedia Legal Handbook: A Guide From the Software Publishers
Association. New York: Aspen Law & Business, c1998-
Strong, William S.
- The Copyright Book: A Practical Guide. 4th ed. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1993.
Talab, R. S.
- Copyright and Instructional Technologies: a Guide to Fair Use and Permissions Procedures. 2nd ed. Washington, D.C.: Association for Educational Communications and Technology, 1989.
Talbott, James N.
- New Media: Intellectual Property, Entertainment, and Technology Law. New York: Clark Boardman Callaghan, 1997.
Tannenbaum, Robert S.
- "Legal and Societal Issues Related to Multimedia." In: Theoretical Foundations of Multimedia. (Chapter 9). New York: Computer Science Press, c1998.
Vlcek, Charles W.
- Adoptable Copyright Policy: Copyright Policy and Manuals Designed or Adoption by Schools, Colleges & Universities. Friday Harbor, WA : Copyright Information Services, 1992.
Vlcek, Charles W.
- Copyright Policy Development: A Resource Book for Educators. Friday Harbor, WA: Copyright Information Services, 1987.
Weil, Vivian and John W. Snapper, eds.
- Owning Scientific and Technical Information: Value and Ethical Issues. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1989.
Crews, Kenneth D. 1994. Who Owns What?: Copyright Issues and Options for Distance Learning Developed and sponsored by California State University's Commission on the Extended University. 1994.
Multimedia Fair Use Guidelines: The Educational Gateway to the Information Age
Produced by the Consortium of College and University Media Centers in cooperation with the PBS Adult Learning Satellite Service and WETACOM, Inc.Washington, D.C.: PBS Adult Learning Satellite Service; [s.l.]: Consortium of College & University Media Centers, c1995. (120 min.) (UCB Media Center VIDEO/C 4001)
American Library Association, Washington Office, Intellectual Property and Telecommunications page
- American Library Association: LARC Fact Sheet 7: Video and Copyright
Coalition for Networked Information (CNI): "Fair Use in the Electronic Age: Serving the Public Interest" (1995)
Conference on Fair Use (CONFU) Report
Copyright and Fair Use Site (Stanford University Library)
- Excellent collection of links to primary and secondary source materials, law and legislation sites dealing with fair use and copyright as they pertain to print and electronic media.
- International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) Copyright and Intellectual Property site
- A tremendously useful metasite linking to online articles and texts and websites devoted to
evolving intellectual property issues and legislation.
Intellectual Property Site (General Counsel's Office, University of Texas)
- Excellent overviews of intellectual property law as it relates to academic uses. Includes many useful tutorials, concise fact sheets, and forms.
- Public performance rights and permissions information
- Report On The Final Meeting Of The Conference OnFair Use (CONFU)
- UCLA New Media Center: Copyright Issues for Academics
WWW Multimedia Law
A useful (if cluttered) business/industry site devoted to e-commerce, multimedia
World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)