Native Americans in the Movies:
A Bibliography of Materials in the UC Berkeley Library













Books/Videos
Journal Articles

Articles and Books on Individual films

Movies, Race & Ethnicity Videography for articles and reviews of individual films

Bibliography of books and articles about John Ford

Books/Videos

Adare, Sierra.
Indian" stereotypes in TV science fiction : First Nations' voices speak out / by Sierra S. Adare. 1st ed. University of Texas Press, c2005.
Full-text of this book available online via ebrary [UC Berkeley users only]
Main Stack PN1992.8.I64.A32 2005
Moffitt PN1992.8.I64.A32 2005
Table of contents http://www.loc.gov/catdir/toc/ecip0422/2004021223.html

Aleiss, Angela.
Making the white man's Indian : native Americans and Hollywood movies Westport, Conn. : Praeger, c2005.
Table of contents http://www.loc.gov/catdir/toc/ecip054/2004028188.html
MAIN: PN1995.9.I48 A44 2005
MOFF: PN1995.9.I48 A44 2005

Baird, Robert.
"Going Indian: Discovery, Adoption, and Renaming toward a 'True American,' from Deerslayer to Dances with Wolves." In: Dressing in Feathers: The Construction of the Indian in American Popular Culture / edited by S. Elizabeth Bird. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1996. pp: 195-209
Main Stack E98.P99.D72 1996

Bataille, Gretchen M.
Images of American Indians on Film: An Annotated Bibliography Gretchen M. Bataille, Charles L.P. Silet. New York: Garland, 1985. Series title: Garland reference library of social science; v. 307.
UCB Moffitt PN1995.9.I48 B3 Reference
UCB Ref/Bib PN1995.9.I48 A12 B381 1985

Bataille, Gretchen M.
"Jay Silverheels, Iron Eyes Cody, and Chief Dan George : native Americans and the imagined West." In: Voices of color / edited and with an introduction by Yolanda Alaniz & Nellie Wong. 1st ed. Seattle : Red Letter Press, 1999.
Main Stack E184.A1.V7 1999
Compar Ethn E184.A1.V7 1999
Also in:
The Hollywood West : lives of film legends who shaped it / edited by Richard W. Etulain & Glenda Riley. Golden, Colo. : Fulcrum Pub., c2001.
Bancroft PN1995.9.W4.H65 2001
PFA PN1995.9.W4.H65 2001

Bataille, Gretchen M. and Silet, Charles L. P.
"The entertaining anachronism: Indians in American film." In: The Kaleidoscopic lens : how Hollywood views ethnic groups / edited by Randall M. Miller Englewood, N.J. : Ozer, c1980
Main Stack PN1995.9.M56.K3
Moffitt PN1995.9.M56.K3
Chicano Stu P90.K2.M5

Buscombe, Edward.
'Injuns!' : Native Americans in the movies London : Reaktion, 2006.
MAIN: PN1995.9.I48 B87 2006
MOFF: PN1995.9.I48 B87 2006
NAS : PN1995.9.I48 B87 2006; Housed at Ethnic Studies Library

Churchill, Ward.
Fantasies of the Master Race: literature, cinema, and the colonization of American Indians / by Ward Churchill. San Francisco: City Lights Books, c1998.
UCB Main PN56.3.I6 C49 1998
UCB Main E98.E85 C48 1992 (earlier edition)
UCB Moffitt E98.E85 C48 1992(earlier edition)

Cody, Iron Eyes.
Iron Eyes: My life as a Hollywood Indian / by Iron Eyes Cody; as told to Collin Perry. London: Muller, 1982.
UCB Main PN2287.C555 .A34 1982
UCB NativAmer E90.C65 P4

Friar, Ralph E.
The Only Good Indian; The Hollywood Gospel, by Ralph E. Friar and Natasha A. Friar. New York, Drama Book Specialists [1972].
UCB Moffitt PN1995.9.I48 F7
UCB NativAmer PN1995.9 .I48

Gemynden, Gerd.
"Between Karl May and Karl Marx: The DEFA Indianerfilme." In: Germans and Indians : fantasies, encounters, projections / edited by Colin G. Calloway, Gerd Gemunden, and Susanne Zantop. pp: 243-56. Lincoln : University of Nebraska Press, c2002.
Main Stack F596.G47 2002

Griffiths, Alison.
"Science and Spectacle: Native American Representation in Early Cinema." In: Dressing in Feathers: The Construction of the Indian in American Popular Culture / edited by S. Elizabeth Bird. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1996. pp: 79-95.
Main Stack E98.P99.D72 1996

Herzberg, Bob
Savages and saints : the changing image of American Indians in Westerns Jefferson, N.C. : McFarland & Co., c2008.
MOFF: PN1995.9.I48 H47 2008

Hilger, Michael
The American Indian in Film / by Michael Hilger. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1986.
UCB Moffitt PN1995.9.I48 H54 1986 Reference
UCB NativAmer PN1995.9.I48 H54 Ref.
UCB Ref/Bib PN1995.9.I48 H541 1986

Hilger, Michael.
"Empathy Towards American Indians in Recent Films." Contemporary Native American Cultural Issues: Proceedings from the Native American Studies Conference at Lake Superior State University, October 16-17, 1987. pp: 57-62.
No Berkeley holdings
UCLA URL E 76.6 N38 1987
UCSB Main Lib E98.C9 N27 1988 Native American Studies
UCSD SSH E98.C9 N38 1987

Hilger, Michael
From Savage to Nobleman: Images of Native Americans in Film / Michael Hilger. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press, c1995.
UCB UCB Hum/Area PN1995.9.I48 H55 1995
UCB UCB Moffitt PN1995.9.I48 H55 1995

Hollywood's Indian: The Portrayal of the Native American in Film
Peter C. Rollins and John E. O'Connor, editors. Lexington, Ky.: University Press of Kentucky, c2003
Contents via Google books
MAIN: PN1995.9.I48 H66 2003
Moffitt: PN1995.9.I48 H66 2003
UCB Main PN1995.9.I48 H66 1998
UCB Moffitt PN1995.9.I48 H66 1998 [earlier edition]
UCB NativAmer PN1995.9.H57 H65 1993[earlier edition]

Images of Indians Series.

The Great Movie Massacre. Explores the beginning of the "savage Indian" myth in popular American literature which was perpetuated in the Wild West shows such as Buffalo Bill's, and on into the scripts written for the early motion pictures. The myth was used to advance the drama of the story without regard to historical fact in many cases. 28 min. DVD 9057; vhs Video/C 1840

How Hollywood Wins the West. Explores the concept of "manifest destiny" or the taking of Indian lands which "nobody owned" by the white man in the early nineteenth century. The film clips used point out the lack of historical facts found in Hollywood films concerning this era have helped perpetuate the concept through generations of viewers. 29 min. DVD 9057; vhs Video/C 1841

Warpaint and Wigs. Shows the sharp contrast between contemporary Native American actors and the policies of Hollywood. Emphasizes the treatment of American Indians in light of the stereotype perpetuated in the media. 29 min. DVD 9057; vhs Video/C 1842

Heathen Injuns and the Hollywood Gospel. Emphasizes the beliefs and culture of American Indians are seldom portrayed accurately in the Hollywood motion picture. 28 min. DVD 9057; vhs Video/C 1843

The Movie Reel Indians. Emphasizes the effect of the movies' image of the American Indian on Indians themselves and American society. 28 min. DVD 9057; vhs Video/C 1844

Kilpatrick, Jacquelyn.
Celluloid Indians: Native Americans and Film / Jacquelyn Kilpatrick. Lincoln, Neb.: University of Nebraska Press, 1999.
Contents via Google books
UCB Main PN1995.9.I48 K56 1999

Kilpatrick, Jacquelyn
"Native Americans." In" The Columbia Companion to American History on Film: How the Movies Have Portrayed the American Past. / edited by Peter C. Rollins. p. 277-87. New York : Columbia University Press, 2003.
Full-text of this book available online via ebrary [UC Berkeley users only]
Media Center PN1995.9.U64.C65 2003
Doe Refe PN1995.9.U64.C65 2003
Moffitt PN1995.9.U64.C65 2003
PFA PN1995.9.U64.C65 2003 Pacific Film Archive collection; non-circulating

Larson, Stephanie Greco
"Native Americans in film and television entertainment." In: Media & minorities : the politics of race in news and entertainment Lanham : Rowman & Littlefield, c2006.
Main Stack PN1995.9.M56.L37 2006
Moffitt PN1995.9.M56.L37 2006

Lee, C. J. P. (Charles Jason Peter)
The metaphysics of mass art : cultural ontology. Vol 2: Indigenous Peoples of the Americas and the Psychology of the Observer in U.S. Film. Lewiston : Edwin Mellen Press, c1999. Studies in art and religious interpretation ; v. 24A-B
UCB Main Stack PR6023.A93.P535 1999 Library has: v.1-2 (1999)

Maltby, Richard.
"A Better Sense of History: John Ford and the Indians." In: The Book of Westerns / edited by Ian Cameron and Douglas Pye. New York: Continuum, 1996. pp: 34-49.
Main Stack PN1995.9.W4.B66 1996
Moffitt PN1995.9.W4.B66 1996
Bancroft PN1995.9.W4.B66 1996

Marubbio, M. Elise
Killing the Indian maiden : images of Native American women in film Lexington, Ky. : University Press of Kentucky, c2006.
MAIN: PN1995.9.I48 M37 2006
MOFF: PN1995.9.I48 M37 2006
Table of contents http://www.loc.gov/catdir/toc/ecip0616/2006020629.html

Money, Mary-Alice.
"Broken Arrows: Images of Native Americans in the Popular Western." In: American Indian studies: an interdisciplinary approach to contemporary issues / Dane Morrison, editor. pp: 363-88 New York: P. Lang, c1997.
Main Stack E76.6.A44 1997

Native American representations: first encounters, distorted images, and literary appropriations
Edited by Gretchen M. Bataille. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, c2001.
Main Stack E98.P99.N38 2001

Native Americans on Film and Video
Edited by Elizabeth Weatherford with Emelia Seubert. New York: Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation, c1981-c1988.
UCB Media Ctr PN1995.9.I48 .N3
UCB NativAmer Z5140 .W4 1981 v. 2 (c1988)

Nolly, Ken.
"The Representation of Conquest" John Ford and the Hollywood Indian." In: Hollywood's Indian: The Portrayal of the Native American in Film / Peter C. Rollins and John E. O'Connor, editors. pp: 73-90. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, c1998.
Main Stack PN1995.9.I48.H66 1998
Moffitt PN1995.9.I48.H66 1998
Native Amer PN1995.9.I48.H66 1998 Housed at Ethnic Studies

Nottage, James H.
"Illusions and Deceptions: The Indian in Popular Culture." In: Powerful images: portrayals of Native America / Sarah E. Boehme ... [et al.]. 1st ed. pp: 75-110 Seattle: Museums West in association with the University of Washington Press, 1998.
Main Stack E98.A7.P68 1998
Native Amer E98.A7.P68 1998

O'Connor, John E.
The Hollywood Indian: Stereotypes of Native Americans in Films / John E. O'Connor; foreword by Lorraine E. Williams. Trenton, N.J.: New Jersey State Museum, c1980.
UCB Main PN1995.9.I48 O33
UCB NativAmer PN1995.9.I48 O33

Owens, Louis.
Mixedblood messages: literature, film, family, place / by Louis Owens. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, c1998. American Indian literature and critical studies series; v. 26
Main Stack E98.M63.O9 1998
Native Amer E98.M63.O9 1998

Pearson, Roberta E.
"Indianism? Classical Hollywood's representation of Native Americans." In: Classic Hollywood, classic whiteness / Daniel Bernardi, editor. Minneapolis : University of Minnesota Press, c2001.
Main Stack PN1995.9.M56.C59 2001

Plastic Warriors [videorecording]
Examines Native American stereotypes in the mass media and their harmful effects. Features interviews with Native Americans who discuss the misrepresentation of their culture by these images, and the need for increased awareness and sensitivity. 2004. 23 min.
Media Center Video/C MM456

Powerful images : portrayals of Native America
Sarah E. Boehme ... [et al.] ; foreword by Peter Hassrick ; introduction by Dave Warren. 1st ed. Seattle : Museums West in association with the University of Washington Press, 1998.
Main Stack E98.A7.P68 1998
Native Amer E98.A7.P68 1998 Housed at Ethnic Studies Library.

Prats, A. J.
Invisible natives : myth and identity in the American western / Armando Jose Prats. Ithaca, N.Y. : Cornell University Press, 2002.
Main Stack PN1995.9.I48.P69 2002
Bancroft PN1995.9.I48.P69 2002 Non-circulating; may be used only in The Bancroft Library.

The Pretend Indians: Images of Native Americans in the Movies
Edited by Gretchen M. Bataille, Charles L. P. Silet. 1st ed. Ames: Iowa State University Press, 1980.
GTU Library PN1995.9.I48 P7
UCB Anthropol PN1995.9.I48 P7
UCB Moffitt PN1995.9.I48 P7
UCB NativAmer PN1995.9.I48 P7
UCB Main PN1995.9.I48 P7 1980a

Prins, Harald E.L.
"American Indians and the ethnocinematic complex: from Native participation to production control" In: Eyes Across the Water: the Amsterdam Conference on Visual Anthropology and Sociology. pp. 80-90. [Robert M. Boonzajer Flaes, editor]. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Het Spinhuis, Oudezids Achterburgwal, 1989.
Anthropology GN347.A55 1989

Purdy, John.
"Tricksters of the Trade: 'Reimagining' the Filmic Image of Native Americans." In: Native American representations : first encounters, distorted images, and literary appropriations / edited by Gretchen M. Bataille. pp: 100-18. Lincoln : University of Nebraska Press, c2001.
Main Stack E98.P99.N38 2001

Rollins, Peter C. and John E. O'Connor, eds.
Hollywood's Indian: The Portrayal of the Native American in Film Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, c1998.
Main Stack PN1995.9.I48.H66 1998
Moffitt PN1995.9.I48.H66 1998
Native Amer PN1995.9.I48.H66 1998 Housed at Ethnic Studies

Screening culture : constructing image and identity
Edited by Heather Norris Nicholson. Lanham, Md. : Lexington Books, c2003.
Main Stack PN1995.9.I49.S38 2003
Part one. Framed by outsiders: North America's indigenous peoples in film and television. 1. Histories of convenience: images of Aboriginal Peoples in film, policy, and research / Ted Palys ; 2. "Dancing with wolves": how to repeat old tricks and look new at the same time / Margara Averbach ; 3. Reclaiming Indian identity: independent films as Hollywood alternatives / Carole Gerster ; 4. The CBC and its presentation of the native peoples of Canada in television drama / Mary Jane Miller ; 5. Moving through shadows and light: sharing thoughts and stories / Jackie Bissley and Heather Norris Nicholson -- Part two. Cultural representation and archival film footage introduction ; 6. Into the glorious dawn: from arctic home movie to missionary cinema / Peter Geller ; 7. Remembering our namesakes / Deanna Kingston -- Part three. Aboriginal filmmaking: perspectives and practice ; 8. Listen with the ear to your heart: a conversation about story, voice, and bearing witness / Christine Welsh and Sylvie Olsen ; 9. Making things happen through parody and visual irony: reflecting on the work of Shelley Niro / Heather Norris Nicholson ; 10. Tshishe Mishtikuashist, Le petit grand european, feasting on memories: reflections on the work of Josephine Bacon / Heather Norris Nicholson -- Part four. A continuing role for non-aboriginal filmmakers? ; 11. From documentary to social sciences: how the issue of representing the other emerges / Thibault Martin ; 12. "In whose honor?": reflections on a conversation with Charlene Teters and Jay Rosenstein / Heather Norris Nicholson ; 13. "Living within and between various worlds and identities": a conversation with Jorge Manzano / Heather Norris Nicholson.

Simmon, Scott
The Invention of the Western Film: A Cultural History of the Genre's First Half-Century. Cambridge, England: Cambridge UP, 2003.
Table of contents http://www.loc.gov/catdir/toc/cam031/2002035117.html
GRDS: PN1995.9.W4 S53 2003; Non-circulating; may be used only in Graduate Services.
MAIN: PN1995.9.W4 S53 2003
MOFF: PN1995.9.W4 S53 2003

Singer, Beverly R.
Wiping the war paint off the lens: Native American film and video Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, c2001.
Full-text of this book available online via ebrary [UC Berkeley users only]
MAIN: PN1995.9.I48 S56 2001

Smith, Andrew Brodie
Shooting cowboys and Indians : silent western films, American culture, and the birth of Hollywood Boulder : University Press of Colorado, c2003.
MAIN: PN1995.9.W4 S63 2003
BANC: PN1995.9.W4 S63 2003
Table of contents http://www.loc.gov/catdir/toc/ecip045/2003014272.html

Vickers, Scott B.
Native American identities : from stereotype to archetype in art and literature Albuquerque : University of New Mexico Press, c1998.
MAIN: E98.E85 V53 1998
NAS : E98.E85 V53 1998

Wilson, Pamela
"Confronting 'The Indian Problem': Media Discourses of Race, Ethnicity, Nation and Empire in 1950s America." In: Living color: race and television in the United States / edited by Sasha Torres. Durham [N.C.]: Duke University Press, 1998.
Main Stack PN1992.8.M54.L58 1998
Compar Ethn PN1992.8.M54.L58 1998 Housed at Ethnic Studies Library.

Walking a tightrope : aboriginal people and their representations
Ute Lischke and David T. McNab, editors. Waterloo, Ont. : Wilfrid Laurier University Press, c2005.
MAIN: E78.C2 W35 2005;
Seeing red: the stoic whiteman and non-native humour / Drew Hayden Taylor -- Permission and possession: the identity tightrope / Philip Bellfy -- Telling our story / David Newhouse -- A story untold: a community-based oral narrative of Mohawk women's voices from Point Anne, Ontario / Dawn T. Maracle -- Aboriginal representations of history and the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples / Mark Dockstator -- The many faces of Canada's history as it relates to aboriginal people / Olive Patricia Dickason -- The whirlwind of history: parallel nineteenth-century perspectives on "Are they savage?" / Karl Hele -- Reflections on the social relations of indigenous oral histories / Winona Wheeler -- Scientists and evolving perceptions of indigenous knowledge in northern Canada / Stephen Bocking -- Mi'gmaq lives: aboriginal identity in Newfoundland / Dennis Bartels and Alice Bartels -- "Show me the money": representation of aboriginal people in East-German Indian films / Ute Lischke and David T. McNab -- Kwakwaka-wakw on film / Kathryn Bunn-Marcuse -- A way of seeing the world: connecting text, context, and people / Bernie Harder -- Representation of aboriginal peoples in Rudy Wiebe's fiction: The temptations of Big Bear and A discovery of strangers / Janne Korkka.

Wallace, Karen
"The redskin and The paleface : comedy on the frontier." In: Classic Hollywood, classic whiteness / Daniel Bernardi, editor. Minneapolis : University of Minnesota Press, c2001.
Main Stack PN1995.9.M56.C59 2001

Weatherford, Elizabeth
"[Native American] Film and video arts." In: The Native American almanac : a portrait of native America today / Arlene Hirschfelder, Martha Kreipe de Montano. New York : Prentice Hall General Reference, c1993.
Doe Refe E77.H59 1993

Wilson, Terry.
"Celluloid Sovereignty: Hollywood's 'History' of Native Americans." In: Legal Reelism: Movies As Legal Texts. Edited by John Denvir. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, c1996. pp: 199-224.
Main Stack PN1995.9.J8.L45 1996
Moffitt PN1995.9.J8.L45 1996

Journal Articles

Aleiss, Angela.
"Native Americans: The Surprising Silents." Cineaste, vol. 21 no. 3. 1995. pp: 34-35.
UC users only
"The silent film era in Hollywood produced several films that attempted to provide a more realistic portrayal of Native Americans without resorting to stereotypes of savage Indians. These films were aimed at reforming the portrayal of American Indians by hiring them for roles and production and showing their culture in a more positive light. These films include James Young Deer's 'White Fawn's Devotion,' D.W. Griffith's 'The Redman and the Child' and George B. Seitz's 'The Vanishing American.'" [Expanded Academic Index]

Aleiss, Angela.
"Prelude to World War II: Racial Unity and the Hollywood Indian."Journal of American Culture, vol. 18 no. 2. 1995 Summer. pp: 25-34.
"Analyzes three popular films from the late 1930's and early 1940's to show that Hollywood's depiction of Native Americans became more positive as the threat of a European war became more real. In Susannah of the Mounties (1939), North West Mounted Police (1940), and They Died with Their Boots On (1941), Darryl F. Zanuck, Cecil B. DeMille, and Raoul Walsh joined those trying to counter commonly held prejudices against Indians, which studios had earlier fostered. Their goal was to promote American unity and ties with Britain, which they felt would become increasingly important in the struggle against fascism." [from ABC-CLIO America History and Life]

Aleiss, Angela.
"A Race Divided: The Indian Westerns of John Ford." American Indian Culture and Research Journal v18, n3 (Summer, 1994):167 (20 pages).

Aleiss, Angela.
"The Vanishing American: Hollywood's Compromise to Indian Reform."Journal of American Studies, vol. 25 no. 3. 1991 Dec. pp: 467-72.

Appleford, Robert
"Coming out from behind the rocks: constructs of the Indian in recent U.S. and Canadian cinema. American Indian Culture and Research Journal Wntr 1995 v19 n1 pp: 97-118.
"Recent US and Canadian films such as 'Dances With Wolves,' 'Black Robe,' 'Thunderheart' and 'Clearcut' promote public awareness and understanding of North American Indian views and culture. Unlike previous Western films which negatively stereotyped Indians as villains and savages, these films provide provocative insights on Indian life. Romanticized fictional films on Indians also direct public attention to critical issues concerning Indian communities. " [Expanded Academic Index]

Astor, G.
"Good guys wear war paint." Look v. 34 (December 1 1970) p. 56-61

Bataille, Gretchen M. and Silet, Charles L. P., Parezo, Nancy J
"Images of American Indians on Film: An Annotated Bibliography." American Anthropologist [n.s.]:89 (1987) 775

Bataille, Gretchen M. and Silet, Charles L. P.
"The Indian In American Film: A Checklist Of Published Materials On The Popular Images Of The Indian In The American Film." Journal of Popular Film 1976 5(2): 170-182.

Bataille, Gretchen M. and Silet, Charles L. P.
"Bibliography: Additions To "The Indian In American Film." Journal of Popular Film and Television 1980 8(1): 50-53.

Berndt, Christina Gish.
"Voices In The Era Of Silents: An American Indian Aesthetic In Early Silent Film." Native Studies Review 2005 16(2): 39-76 38p
UC users only

Bird, Elizabeth S.
"Gendered construction of the American Indian in popular media."Journal of Communication v49, n3 (Summer, 1999):61 (2 pages).
Images of Native Americans permeate contemporary popular culture. The changes in this imagery are traced, with a focus on the role of gender. It is important to consider how Native Americans have become sexualized and desexualized in relation to the White gaze. Stereotypes have become entrenched in White mythology, and where personal knowledge is lacking, media acts as an agent of enculturation. The representations are structured in predictable and gendered ways.

Bovey, Seth.
"Dances with Stereotypes: Western Films and the Myth of the Noble Red Man." South Dakota Review, vol. 31 no. 1. 1993 Spring. pp: 115-22.

Buken, Gulriz.
"Construction of the mythic Indian in mainstream media and the demystification of the stereotype by American Indian artists." American Studies International Oct 2002 v40 i3 p46(11) (3584 words)
UC users only

Churchill, Ward.
"Film Stereotyping of Native Americans." Book Forum: An International Transdisciplinary Quarterly, vol. 5 no. 3. 1981. pp: 370-375.

Churchill, Ward; Hill, Norbert; and Hill, Mary Ann.
"Media Stereotyping And Native Response: An Historical Overview." Indian Historian 1978 11(4): 45-56, 63.
' Examines the formation of cultural stereotypes through the entertainment industry, 1880's-1970's, including early wild west shows, films, professional music, and television."

Clifton, James A.
"Cultural Fictions." Society 1990 27(4): 19-28.
Postwar representations of American Indians - in film, television, theater, art, historical scholarship, and other media - never stray far from the contemporary accepted image of the Indians, and all its related myths.

Coleman, Cynthia-Lou.
"Framing Cinematic Indians within the Social Construction of Place." American Studies (00263079), Fall/Winter2005, Vol. 46 Issue 3/4, p275-293, 19p
"The article presents an overview of the significance of motion pictures in Western culture and how the West has been depicted in the 20th century films. The Western films described Indian tribes as community of uncivilized people. They continued to struggle against fair appropriations and the burdens of stereotyped imagery that invoked absurd caricatures." [EBSCO]

Dippie, Brian W.
"Popcorn and Indians: Custer on the screen." Cultures. {Paris, 1974.}vol. 2, no. 1 pp. 139-168.

Dowell, Pat
"The mythology of the Western: Hollywood perspectives on race and gender in the nineties." Cineaste v. 21 no. 1-2 (1995) p. 6-10
UC users only
"The writer discusses the revival of the Western in the 1990s. The genre has been adapted in 1993-94 for feminist, African-American, and Native-American revisionism, respectively, in The Ballad of Little Jo, Posse, and half a dozen Indian Westerns in theaters and on cable television. The 1990s began with the Western's rehabilitation with the release of such critically and financially successful films as Dances with Wolves and Unforgiven. There has been a change of emphasis, however, in the Westerns being made today. American hegemony is less an issue for films like Tombstone and Wyatt Earp than the boundaries of gender and, by extension, the bonds of family through which male hegemony is nurtured, maintained, and reproduced. The 1990s Western seems to indicate so far that the root language of the genre is gender and that the conflict over masculinity and what it will be in American culture will keep the Western revival going." [Art Index]

Edgerton, Gary.
"'A Breed Apart': Hollywood, Racial Stereotyping and the Promise of Revisionism in 'The Last of the Mohicans.'"Journal of American Culture v17, n2 (Summer, 1994):1 (20 pages).

Ellis, Kirk.
"On the Warpath: John Ford and the Indians." Journal of Popular Film and Television, vol. 8 no. 2. 1980. pp: 34-41.

Fitzgerald, Michael Ray
"Television Portrayals of Native Americans: From Tonto to Uncle Ray (1949-2006)." Left Curve. 2007. , Iss. 31; pg. 129, 11 pgs
UC users only

French, P.
"Indian in the western movie." Art in America v. 60 (July 1972) p. 32-9

Gallagher, Tag.
John Ford's Indians. (Native Americans in John Ford's Western films)Film Comment v29, n5 (Sept-Oct, 1993):68 (4 pages).
UC users only
In the films of John Ford, Indians are presented as mythic figures rather than as characters based on scholarly knowledge. In a film such as The Searchers, Indians are depicted as icons of savage beauty, even projections of white fantasy. His treatment of Indians is confessional rather than racist because he was conscious of the fact that his films were myths based on myths.

George, D. and Sanders, S.
"Reconstructing Tonto: Cultural Formations and American Indians in 1990's Television Fiction." Cultural Studies, 9: (3) 427-452 OCT 1995
UC users only

Georgakas, Dan
"They Have Not Spoken: American Indians in Film" Film Quarterly 25:3 (1972:Spring) 26
A discussion of some of the recent films which reflect the 'new sympathy' for American Indians.
UC users only

Griffiths, Alison.
"Playing At Being Indian: Spectatorship And The Early Western."
UC users only Journal of Popular Film and Television 2001 29(3): 100-111.
Explores spectatorship and early film Westerns, discussing Indians in actualities and early films from 1894 to 1914, as well as the ways white audiences understood the casting of whites as Indian characters.

Hanson, Jeffery R.; Rouse, Linda P.
"Dimensions of Native American Stereotyping." American Indian Culture and Research Journal Volume 11, Number 4 / 1987, pp> 35-58
UC users only

Harrington, John.
"Understanding Hollywood's Indian Rhetoric." Canadian Review of American Studies 1977 8(1): 77-88.
"Filmmaking economics and literary attitudes and traditions have most strongly influenced filmmakers' portrayal of Indians as either "noble red men" or "vicious savages." A few recent films, notably When the Legends Die (1972), based on Hal Borland's 1963 book of the same title, portray Indians with artistic taste and without gross historical misrepresentation." [from ABC-CLIO America History and Life]

Hearne, Joanna
""The cross-heart people": race and inheritance in the silent Western." Journal of Popular Film and Television, Wntr 2003 v30 i4 p181(16)
UC users only
"The author examines the visualization of Indianness in the context of cross-racial romance and in relation to the emergence of the Western genre in early silent film. Popular attitudes toward Indian assimilation and United States policy are traced through the cinematic versions of The Squaw Man and other "Indian dramas" from 1908 to 1916." [Expanded Academic Index]

Hersey, Eleanor
"Word-healers and code-talkers: Native Americans in The X-files: word-healers and code-talkers." Journal of Popular Film and Television; Vol.XXVI nr.3 (Fall 1998); p.109-119
UC users only
Discusses postmodernism in reference to three episodes of the tv series 'The X-files' - The Anasazi, The Blessing way, and Paper clip - which combine Native American mythology and alien abduction mythology.

Hoffman, Donald.
"Whose Home on the Range? Finding Room for Native Americans, African Americans, and Latino Americans in the Revisionist Western."(Popular Literature and Film) MELUS v22, n2 (Summer, 1997):45 (15 pages).
UC users only
"Attempts to reinsert authentic portrayals of Native Americans, African Americans, and Latino Americans into contemporary films have had varying degrees of success. Kevin Costner's 'Dances With Wolves' shows Indian civilization as threatened by barbaric whites, but portrays white perception of Indians rather than native culture. Mario Van Peebles's 'Posse' is more authentic, but often opts for gratuitous sex and violence. Edward James Olmos's 'The Ballad of Gregorio Cortez' examines cultural conflict believably." [Expanded Academic Index]

Jay, Gregory S.
"'White Man's Book No Good': D. W. Griffith and the American Indian." Cinema Journal, 2000 Summer, 39:4, 3-26.
UC users only
Explains how D.W. Griffith's apparent sympathetic representation of Native Americans in many films still shares the logic of white supremacy he showed "The Birth of a Nation".

Johnson, Brian D.
"Struggles: revealing the rage when natives meet whites."(Indians in motion pictures) . Maclean's Oct 7, 1991 v104 n40 p72(2)
Two films made in Canada explore the relationship of the natives with the whites. The production of the movies, 'Black Robe' and 'Clearcut,' and how the issues are presented are described.

Jojola, Ted.
"Absurd Reality: Hollywood Goes To The Indians." Film & History 1993 23(1-4): 7-16.
UC users only
"American Indians have figured more prominently in Hollywood films since the late 1960's, but their realistic portrayal has usually been undermined by cliched scenarios and non-native casting."

Keshena, Rita
"The Role of American Indians in Motion Pictures." American Indian Culture and Research Journal, 1, 2, 25-8, 1974

Kipp, Darryl Robes.
"Images Of Native People As Seen By The Eye Of The Blackbird." Wicazo Sa Review 2001 16(2): 29-34.
UC users only
"The author discusses his experiences in first encountering and then teaching about stereotypes of Native American people in motion pictures during 1960-2001, assessing the work of both Indian and white filmmakers." [America History and Life]

Knopf, Kerstin.
Decolonizing the lens of power : indigenous films in North America / Kerstin Knopf. Amsterdam ; New York : Rodopi, 2008
Full text available online (UCB users only)
Main (Gardner) Stacks PN1995.9.I48 K67 2008

Leuthold, Steven M.
"Native American documentary: an emerging genre?" Film Criticism Fall 1997 v22 n1 p74(16) (6093 words)
UC users only
"Documentary films made by and/or about Native Americans are beginning to form the symbolic and situational precedents for genre. Development of Native American documentaries is too recent to produce regional styles, but many such films are linked by their common considerations of cultural preservation, the relationships of Native Americans to Western institutions, and how one generation maintains continuity with another." [Expanded Academic Index]

Leuthold, Steven M.
"Native American Responses to the Western." (western films) American Indian Culture and Research Journal v19, n1 (Wntr, 1995):153 (37 pages).
"Examines the reactions of Indian commentators and college students to representations of Indians in various film Westerns of the 1970's, 1980's, and early 1990's, such as Jeremiah Johnson (1972), Soldier Blue (1974), Dances with Wolves (1990), Powwow Highway (1988), and Thunderheart (1991). Indians remain misrepresented in most films because they have no access to their content, direction, and control. Despite changes that have made Indians more human, they are still often treated as objects representing a dying, even if wonderful, culture." [from ABC-CLIO America History and Life]

Leuthold, S.
"Social-Accountability and the Production of Native American Film and Video" Wide Angle-A Quarterly Journal of Film History Theory and Criticism, 1994 AUG, V16 N1-2:41-59.

Lew, Julie
"Hollywood's war on Indians draws to a close." (representation of Native Americans in motion pictures) The New York Times Oct 7, 1990 v140 s2 pH15(N) pH15(L) col 1 (40 col in)

Lopez, Delano José
"The Heart of Lightness: Hollywood's Wild West Show Revisited." American Indian Culture & Research Journal; 2003, Vol. 27 Issue 2, p17-39, 23p
Focuses on motion pictures and television shows in the U.S. that depict Native American themes and the role played by the whites and the Native Americans. Examples of films that show white protagonists as an observer of the Native American culture; Theories regarding the need to make the whites the main character in a film; Classification of films with Native American themes, according to a film researcher.

Lutz, Hartmut
""Indians" and Native Americans in the movies: a history of stereotypes, distortions, and displacements." Visual Anthropology v. 3, no. 1, 1990. pp. 31-48.

McDonald, Christine.
"Native American Directors and Producers: In Their Own Words." MultiCultural Review 2000 Mar, 9:1, 42-48.

Merskin, Debra
"Sending up Signals: A Survey of Native American1 Media Use and Representation in the Mass Media." Howard Journal of Communications; Oct-Dec1998, Vol. 9 Issue 4, p333-345, 13p
UC users only

Mieder, Wolfgang.
"The Only Good Indian is a Dead Indian": History and Meaning of a Proverbial Stereotype.Journal of American Folklore v106, n419 (Wntr, 1993):38 (23 pages)

Moylan, Michele.
"Reading The Indians: The Ramona Myth In American Culture." Prospects 1993 18: 153-186.

Nolley, Ken.
"John Ford and the Hollywood Indian." Film & History, Feb-Dec1993, Vol. 23 Issue 1-4, p44-56, 13p
UC users only

Nolley, Ken.
"Printing the Legend in the Age of MX: Reconsidering Ford's Military Trilogy."Literature/ Film Quarterly, vol. 14 no. 2. 1986. pp: 82-88.

O'Connor. John J.
"Custer, call your spin doctor. (motion pictures depict differing views of merican history from that taught in schools; 'Son of the Morning Star'presents Indians' viewpoint of George Armstrong Custer's death at Little Bighorn in 1876) The New York Times Feb 3, 1991 v140 s2 pH29(N) pH29(L) col 1 (34 col in)

O'Connor. John J.
"The White Man's Indian." Film & History 1993 23(1-4): 17-26.
The depiction of American Indians in Hollywood films has been shaped by a combination of dramatic, commercial, and political considerations that often have superseded any concern for historical accuracy.

Pack, am.
"Indigenous Media Then and Now: Situating the Navajo Film Project." Quarterly Review of Film and Video 2000 Oct; 17(3: 273-86.
UC users only

Pack, Sam.
"Constructing "The Navajo": Visual And Literary Representation From Inside And Out." Wicazo Sa Review 2000 15(1): 137-156.

Pfitzer, Gregory M.
"The Only Good Alien Is a Dead Alien: Science Fiction and the Metaphysics of Indian-Hating on the High Frontier." Journal of American Culture, vol. 18 no. 1. 1995 Spring. pp: 51-67.

Prats, Armando Jose.
"His Master's Voice(Over): Revisionist Ethos and Narrative Dependence from Broken Arrow (1950) to Geronimo: An American Legend (1993)" ANQ: A Quarterly Journal of Short Articles, Notes, and Reviews, vol. 9 no. 3. 1996 Summer. pp: 15-29
"Western films perpetuate racist views of Native Americans, continuing a Hollywood tradition in spite of attempts to add a sympathetic Indian viewpoint. Revisionist Indian portrayals occur in the 1950 movie 'Broken Arrow' and proceed through other landmark films to the 1993 movie 'Geronimo: An American Legend.' The narrative style of these movies still places Indians in a position dependent upon the white man's viewpoint. This is exemplified by white voice-over narration about Indians." [Expanded Academic Index]

Price, John A.
"The Stereotyping of North American Indians in Motion Pictures." Ethnohistory 1973 20(2): 153-171.
UC users only
"The portrayal of Indians in motion pictures has been roughly 22 years in the formation of negative stereotypes in the days of silent films (1908-29), 18 years of the use of extremely negative stereotypes, especially in serials (1930-47), and then over 25 years of breaking down the stereotypes (after 1948). The popular image projected was that of a horse-riding tribal warrior of the Plains and Southwest in the late 1800's harassing the white settlers. There has been a turn toward a more sympathetic understanding of Indians, a greater use of Indian actors, and an increase in the production of documentary movies." [from ABC-CLIO America History and Life]

Prins, Herald E. L.
"American Indians and the ethnocinematic complex: from native participation to production control." Visual Sociology Review, 1989, Vol. 4, p80-90, 11p

Prins, Herald E. L.
"Paradox of primitivism: Native rights and the problem of imagery in cultural survival films." Visual Anthropology, v. 9, no. 3-4, 1997. pp. 243-266.

Reed, T.V.
"Old cowboys, new Indians: Hollywood frames the American Indian." (Special Issue on Film and Video)(Critical Essay) Wicazo Sa Review Fall 2001 v16 i2 p75(22)
UC users only
Political activity by the American Indian Movement (AIM) in the 1960s and 1970s affected the way this movement was portrayed in US motion pictures. 'Powwow Highway' gave AIM little context, 'Thunderheart' limits Indian activism to the recent past, while 'Lakota Woman: Siege at Wounded Knee' is the most accurate portrayal of AIM.

Rollins, Peter C.
"The Hollywood Indian: Still on a Scholarly Frontier?" Film & History 1993 23(1-4): 1-6.
UC users only
The discrepancy between Hollywood's portrayal of American Indians and the historical record merits scholarly investigation, which the ten articles in this issue begin to provide.

Rony, Fatimah Tobing
"Victor Masayesva, Jr., and the politics of Imagining Indians." Film Quarterly; Vol.XLVIII nr.2 (Winter 1994-95); p.20-33
UC users only
Details of the general lack of restraint or respect shown by filmmakers portraying American Indian life and customs: notes the opposed approach of director and photographer Victor Masayesva Jr., esp. in his film "Imagining Indians".

Rosenthal, Nicolas G.
"Representing Indians: Native American Actors on Hollywood's Frontier." The Western Historical Quarterly. Autumn 2005. Vol. 36, Iss. 3; p. 329

Seals, David.
"The New Custerism." (portrayals of Native Americans in the US cinema) Nation v252, n18 (May 13, 1991):634 (6 pages).

Shively, J. E.
"Cowboys and Indians: Perceptions of Western Films Among American Indians and Angelos."
UC users only American Sociological Review, 57: (6) 725-734 DEC 1992
"Examines sociological models of how people use and interpret cultural materials, focusing on how minorities participate in and rework the central myths of the dominant culture. After viewing a Western film, matched groups of American Indian and Anglo males answered written questionnaires and participated in focus-group interviews. American Indians and Anglos both liked the film, but for different reasons. Indians perceived Westerns as representing a set of values about the land, autonomy, and freedom, while Anglos linked the Western myth to their own history and turned it into an affirmation of the values their ancestors strove for and imposed on the West. These results imply that the meaning imputed to cultural works varies over social space." [from ABC-CLIO America History and Life]

Simmon, Scott
"Shooting Cowboys and Indians: Silent Western Films, American Culture, and the Birth of Hollywood." The Western Historical Quarterly. Autumn 2005. Vol. 36, Iss. 3; p. 370

Stanfield, P.
"The western 1909-14: a cast of villains." Film History; Vol.I nr.2 (1987); p.97-112
UC users only
Early history of the western with emphasis on the villain, esp. the Indian

Strickland, Rennard
"Coyote goes Hollywood." Native Peoples v. 11 (Fall/Winter 1997) p. 34-9
UC users only
"Throughout the United States, Native Americans are reshaping their cinematic image. White portrayals of Native Americans since the very beginning of the motion picture industry led to long-standing and deeply entrenched societal stereotypes, which were refined and reinforced by repetition. Today, however, talented and aggressive Native American filmmakers portray Native Americans in real-world situations in their movies, with "real Indians" playing realistic parts." [Art Index]

Stromberg, Ernest.
"Out of the Cupboard and Up with the Smoke Signals: Cinematic Representations of American Indians in the 'Nineties." Studies in Popular Culture. 24(1):33-46. 2001 Oct

Strong, Pauline Turner.
"Animated Indians: Critique and Contradiction in Commodified Children's Culture." (portrayal of Native Americans in films) Cultural Anthropology v11, n3 (August, 1996):405 (20 pages).
UC users only

Sturma, Michael.
"Aliens and Indians: A Comparison of Abduction and Captivity Narratives." Journal of Popular Culture. 36(2):318-34. 2002 Fall

Telotte, J. P.
"A Fate Worse Than Death: Racism, Transgression and Westerns." Journal of Popular Film and Television, 1998 Fall, 26:3, 120-27.
UC users only
"Drawing on the work of Michel Foucault, Edward Said, and Richard Slotkin, the article analyzes ideologies of race, culture, and violence revealed by the "fate worse than death" scenes, which depict the choice of killing a white woman to "save" her from rape or torture by "savage" Indians, in the Westerns Union Pacific (1939), Stagecoach (1939), and The Searchers (1956)." [America History and Life]

Tharp, Julie.
"'Fine Ponies': Cars in American Indian Film and Literature." American Indian Culture and Research Journal, 2000, 24:3, 77-91.
"Discusses the place of automobiles in Indian literature and film, concluding that cars are metaphors for the intercultural dissonance that affects the Indian experience with American culture. In the reservation context during the 1970's-90's, cars in disrepair became symbols of defiance while newer cars or sport-utility vehicles often symbolized affluence. The article then describes the place of "rez cars" in the works of Louise Erdrich, Sherman Alexie, David Seals, Adrian Louis, Thomas King, Susan Power, and Jim Northrup. Although the authors treat cars in diverse ways, the Indian car may be seen to have become "the ultimate trickster." [America History and Life]

Thoene, Bodie and Stuck, Rona.
"Navajo Nation Meets Hollywood." American West 1983 20(5): 38-44.

Tillotson,Kristin
"New Native Legends." (Native Americans and the mass media) (movie review) . Mother Jones Sept 1999 v24 i5 p77

Umland, Sam.
"The Representation of the Native American in the Hollywood Western." Platte Valley Review, vol. 19 no. 1. 1991 Winter. pp: 49-70.

Weatherford, Elizabeth
"Starting fire with gunpowder: Native Americans struggle to create their own television, film and video production." Film Comment v. 28 (May/June 1992) p. 64-7
UC users only
"Native Americans are struggling to create their own television, film, and video production. Since the early days of cinema, documentaries and fiction films dealing with Native Americans have typically presented an image framed by white understandings. Although there are some 600 separate tribes, bands, and nations in North America, the "American Indian" is a monolithic image in popular culture. Moreover, Hollywood production has not been notably receptive to Native producers. Twenty years ago, the independent media world started providing a venue for a multiplicity of visions of Native American reality. The article discusses the Inuit Broadcasting Corporation, the Institute of American Indian Arts, the Native Voices Public Television Workshop, the National Film Board of Canada's Studio II, and the Yukon-based Northern Native Broadcasting." [Art Index]

Weaver, Jace.
"Ethnic Cleansing, Homestyle." (misrepresentation of Native Americans in US films) Wicazo Sa Review v10, n1 (Spring, 1994):27 (13 pages).

Wilson, Pamela
"All Eyes on Montana: Television Audiences, Social Activism, and Native American Cultural Politics in the 1950s," Quarterly Review of Film and Video Vol. 16/3-4, pp. 325-356, 1999

Reviews and Articles About Individual Films in the MRC Collection

Bibliography on the films of John Ford

Billy Jack (Delmer Daves)

Braun, Eric
"Billy Jack." (review) Films & Filming; Vol.XIX nr.1 (Oct 1972); p.49

McCormick, R.
"Billy Jack." (review) Cineaste; Vol.VI nr.2 (1974); p.51

Rosenzweig, Sidney.
"The Dark Night of the Screen: Messages and Melodrama in the American Movie." American Quarterly 1975 27(1): 88-98.

Walker, Beverly
"Billy Jack vs. Hollywood: Tom Laughlin interviewed." Film Comment; Vol.XIII nr.4 (July-Aug 1977); p.24-30
Laughlin discusses psychology and religion and their relationship to his 'Billy Jack' films, also his current business problems relating to 'Billy Jack goes to Washington'.

Yacowar, Maurice
"Private and public visions: Zabriskie Point and Billy Jack."
Discusses differences and similarities in approach to revolutionary and other themes in "Billy Jack" and "Zabriskie Point". Journal of Popular Film and Television; Vol.I nr.3 (Summer 1972); p.197-207

Black Robe

Haavik, Kristof.
"In Defense of Black Robe: A Reply to Ward Churchill." American Indian Culture and Research Journal. 2007. Vol. 31, Iss. 4; p. 97
Ward Churchill.
"Reasserting "Consensus": A Somewhat Bitterly Amused Response to Kristof Haavik's "In Defense of Black Robe"." American Indian Culture and Research Journal. 2007. Vol. 31, Iss. 4; p. 121

Fast, Robin Riley.
"Resistant History: Revisiting the Captivy [Captivity] Narrative in 'Captivity' and Black Robe: Isaac Jogues." American Indian Culture & Research Journal. 23(1):69-86. 1999

Freebury, Jane.
"Black Robe: Ideological Cloak and Dagger?" Australian-Canadian Studies: a Journal for the Humanities & Social Sciences. 10(1):119-26. 1992

Johnson, Brian D.
"Epic struggles: revealing the rage when natives meet whites." (Indians in motion pictures) Maclean's Oct 7, 1991 v104 n40 p72(2)
Two films made in Canada explore the relationship of the natives with the whites. The production of the movies, 'Black Robe' and 'Clearcut,' and how the issues are presented are described.

Mota Santos, Paula.
"Good Indians and Bad Indians: The European Perspective of Native Americans as Depicted in 'The Mission' and 'Black Robe'." In: Native American women in literature and culture / Susan Castillo and Victor M.P. Da Rosa, eds. pp: 185-90. Porto : Fernando Pessoa University Press, 1997.
Anthropology PN56.5.W64.N375 1997

O'Donoghue, Jo.
"Historical Themes, Missionary Endeavour and Spiritual Colonialism in Brian Moore's Black Robe." Studies: an Irish Quarterly Review. 82(326):131-39. 1993 Summer

Martens, Klaus.
"'Black Robe Chief' and 'Ci-Devant Blacksmith': Two Instances of Literary Translation as Transcultural History." Amerikastudien/American Studies. 32(2):135-53. 1987

Romney, Jonathan
"Black Robe." (review) Sight & Sound Vol I nr 11 (Mar 1992); p 37-38.

Steinfels, Peter
"In search of the spirituality of conflicting cultures through motion pictures." ('Black Robe') (column) . The New York Times Oct 26, 1991 v141 p7(N) p25(L) col 5 (22 col in)

Broken Arrow (Delmer Daves)

Aleiss, Angela.
"Hollywood Addresses Postwar Assimilation: Indian/White Attitude In Broken Arrow." "American Indian Culture and Research Journal 1987 11(1): 67-79.
The release of Delmer Daves's Broken Arrow in 1950 marked an abandonment of the traditional racism that dominated American films from Stagecoach to Union Pacific. Although John Ford led Hollywood efforts to destroy stereotypes, Broken Arrow is the first to portray racial equality, humane Indians, the universal values of justice, friendship, and tolerance, and an Indian hero." [from ABC-CLIO America History and Life]

"Broken Arrow: (Review) New York Times, (July 21, 1950), p. 15

"Broken Arrow: (Review) New Yorker, 26 (July 22, 1950), p. 45

Ceplair, Larry.
"Who Wrote What??? A Tale of a Blacklisted Screenwriter and His Front." Cineaste, vol. 18 no. 2. 1991. pp: 18-21.
UC users only
On blacklisted screenwriter Albert Maltz and the history of his script for "Broken arrow", concluding with arguments on why the question of authorship by many blacklisted writers should be set straight.

Lenihan, John H.
"Classics and Social Commentary: Postwar Westerns, 1946-1960." Journal of the West 1983 22(4): 34-42.
"Western movies followed a standard model set by The Great Train Robbery (1903) until the precedent-setting The Outlaw (1943) and Duel in the Sun (1946). These movies were the first to offer a greater variety of story and character, and, together with films which had a psychological or social theme, became known as "adult Westerns." Red River (1948) dealt with postwar disillusionment, High Noon (1952) was a reaction to the McCarthy era, and Broken Arrow (1950) treated the subject of racial tolerance." [from ABC-CLIO America History and Life]

Magill's Survey of Cinema--English Language Films, first series
Edited by Frank N. Magill; associate editors, Patricia King Hanson, Stephen L. Hanson. pp: 248-51. Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Salem Press, c1980.
UCB Hum/Area PN1995 .M3 V.1-4 (C1980)
UCB Info Ctr PN1995 .M3 1-4)

Manchel, Frank.
"Cultural Confusion: Broken Arrow." In: Hollywood's Indian: The Portrayal of the Native American in Film / Peter C. Rollins and John E. O'Connor, editors. pp: 91-106. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, c1998.
Main Stack PN1995.9.I48.H66 1998
Moffitt PN1995.9.I48.H66 1998

Manchel, Frank.
"Cultural Confusion: Broken Arrow: A Look Back at Delmar Davis' Broken Arrow." Film & History 1993 23(1-4): 57-69.
UC users only
"Once heralded as a sympathetic and positive Hollywood portrayal of American Indians, the film Broken Arrow (1950) actually distorts many elements of the historical record, including Apache culture and relations between Indians and whites." [from ABC-CLIO America History and Life]

Peek, Wendy Chapman
"The Romance of Competence: Rethinking Masculinity in the Western." Journal of Popular Film & Television 30:4 (Winter 2003) p. 206-219
UC users only

Prats, Armando Jose.
"His Master's Voice(Over): Revisionist Ethos and Narrative Dependence from Broken Arrow (1950) to Geronimo: An American Legend (1993)" ANQ: A Quarterly Journal of Short Articles, Notes, and Reviews, vol. 9 no. 3. 1996 Summer. pp: 15-29

Tuska, Jon.
The Filming of the West. 1st ed. pp: 533-4. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1976.
UCB Main PN1995.9.W4 T81
UCB Moffitt PN1995.9.W4 T8

Umland, Sam.
"The Representation of the Native American in the Hollywood Western." Platte Valley Review, vol. 19 no. 1. 1991 Winter. pp: 49-70.

Buffalo Bill and the Indians (Robert Altman)

Cheyenne Autumn

Dances With Wolves

Reviews:

Alleva, Richard.
"Dances With Wolves." (movie reviews)Commonweal v118, n1 (Jan 11, 1991):18 (2 pages).

Ansen, David.
"How the West Was Lost." Newsweek, Nov 19 1990, Vol. 116, p67-68, 2p
UC users only

Baird, Robert.
"'Going Indian': In and Around Dances with Wolves." Film & History Feb-Dec1993, Vol. 23 Issue 1-4, p91-102, 12p
UC users only

Baird, Robert.
"'Going Indian': In and Around Dances with Wolves." Michigan Academician, vol. 25 no. 2, 1993 (Winter): 133-46

Blake, Richard A.
"Dances With Wolves." (movie reviews) America v164, n7 (Feb 23, 1991):210 (2 pages).

Bowden, Larry R..
"Dances With Wolves." Cross Currents, Fall91, Vol. 41 Issue 3, p391, 6p
UC users only

Bowman, James.
"Dances With Wolves." (movie reviews)American Spectator v24, n2 (Feb, 1991):34 (2 pages).

Cammarota, Julio.
"Blindsided by the Avatar: White Saviors and Allies Out of Hollywood and in Education." Review of Education, Pedagogy & Cultural Studies. Jul/Aug2011, Vol. 33 Issue 3, p242-259. 18p
UC users only

Canby, Vincent.
"Dances With Wolves." (Living Arts Pages) (movie reviews) New York Times v140 (Fri, Nov 9, 1990):B1(N), C1(L), col 1, 19 col in.

Castillo, Edward D.
"Dances With Wolves." (movie reviews) Film Quarterly v44, n4 (Summer, 1991):14 (10 pages).
UC users only

Combs, Richard
"Dances With Wolves." (movie reviews) Film Bulletin LVIII/685, Feb 91; p.41-43. illus., cred.

Georgakas, D.
"Dances With Wolves." (movie reviews) Cineaste , 1991, V18 N2:51-53.

Grenier, Richard.
"Indian love call." Commentary, Mar 1991, Vol. 91, p46-50, 5p
UC users only

Johnson, Brian D.
"Dances With Wolves." (movie reviews)Maclean's v103, n47 (Nov 19, 1990):58 (2 pages).

Kael, Pauline.
"Dances With Wolves." (movie reviews)New Yorker v66, n44 (Dec 17, 1990):115 (2 pages).

Kauffmann, Stanley.
"Dances With Wolves." (movie reviews)New Republic v203, n25 (Dec 10, 1990):28 (2 pages).

Keller, Alexandra.
"Historical Discourse and American Identity in Westerns since the Reagan Administration." Film & History, 2003, Vol. 33 Issue 1, p47-54, 8p
UC users only

Mason, M.S.
"Dances With Wolves." (movie reviews) Christian Science Monitor v83, n10 (Fri, Dec 7, 1990):12, col 2, 30 col in.

Muldoon, P.
"Dances With Wolves." (movie reviews) TLS-The Times Literary Supplement

Orr, Deborah.
"Dances With Wolves." (movie reviews) New Statesman & Society v4, n137 (Feb 8, 1991):27 (2 pages).

Park, Edwards.
"Dances With Wolves." (movie reviews)Smithsonian v21, n8 (Nov, 1990):25.

Prats, Armando Jose.
"The Image of the Other and the Other "Dances with Wolves": The Refigured Indian and the Textual Supplement." Journal of Film & Video, Spring98, Vol. 50 Issue 1, p3, 17p

Salamon, Julie.
"Dances With Wolves." (movie reviews) Wall Street Journal (Thu, Nov 8, 1990):A20(W), A22(E), col 1, 19 col in.

Shipman, David.
"Dances With Wolves." (movie reviews) Contemporary Review v259, n1507 (August, 1991):102.

Tatum, Stephen
"Dances With Wolves." (movie reviews) Montana: The Magazine of Western History, Vol. 41, No. 2 (Spring, 1991), pp. 89-91
UC users only

Wall, James M.
"Dances With Wolves." (movie reviews)Christian Century v108, n2 (Jan 16, 1991):36.

Zaleski, Philip.
"Dances With Wolves." (movie reviews) Parabola v16, n2 (Summer, 1991):89 (5 pages).

Articles/Essays:

Ahmed, Sara
"Phantasies of becoming (the Other)." European Journal of Cultural Studies; Jan1999, Vol. 2 Issue 1, p47, 17p
UC users only

Aleiss, Angela.
"Bon sauvage: Dances with Wolves and the romantic tradition." American Indian Culture and Research Journal {Los Angeles}v. 15, no. 4, 1991. pp. 91-95.

Anderson, Julie D.; Sellnow, Deanna D.
"Why the Gamble Worked: A Metaphorical Analysis of Dances With Wolves." North Dakota Journal of Speech & Theatre, Sep1994, Vol. 7 Issue 1, p42-56, 15p
UC users only

Appleford, Robert.
"Coming Out from Behind the Rocks: Constructs Of The Indian In Recent U.S. And Canadian Cinema." American Indian Culture & Research Journal, 1995, Vol. 19 Issue 1, p97-118, 22p

Baird, Robert.
"Going Indian: Discovery, Adoption, and Renaming toward a 'True American,' from Deerslayer to Dances with Wolves." In: Dressing in feathers : the construction of the Indian in American popular culture / edited by S. Elizabeth Bird. Boulder, Colo. : Westview Press, 1996.

Baird, Robert.
""Going Indian" Through Dances With Wolves." Film & History, Feb-Dec1993, Vol. 23 Issue 1-4, p91-102, 12p
UC users only

Baird, Robert.
"Going Indian: Discovery, Adoption, and Renaming Toward a 'True American,' from Deerslayer to Dances with Wolves." Dressing in Feathers: The Construction of the American Popular Culture. Edited by S. Elizabeth Bird, pp. 195-209. Boulder, CO.: Westview Press, 1996. (Main Stack E98.P99.D72 1996)

Bovey, Seth
"Dances with Stereotypes: Western Films and the Myth of the Noble Red Man." South Dakota Review, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 115-22, 1993 Spring

Bowden, Larry R.
"'Dances with Wolves.'" (the motion picture uncovers truths about the settlement of the old West) Cross Currents v41, n3 (Fall, 1991):391 (6 pages).

Bridger, Bobby.
"Dances with Wolves and Avatar." In: Where the tall grass grows : becoming indigenous and the mythological legacy of the American West / Bobby Bridger. Golden, CO : Fulcrum Pub., c2011.
Main (Gardner) Stacks New books E78.W5 B75 2011
Castillo, E.D.
"Dances with Wolves." Film Quarterly XLIV/4, Summer 91; p.14-23.
UC users only
Concentrates on the portrayal of the North American Indian culture in the film.

Coates, Peter.
"State of the art." Journal of American Studies, 1994, Vol. 28 Issue 2, p241-254, 14p
UC users only

Darling-Wolf, Fabienne.
"White bodies and feminist dilemmas: on the complexity of positionality." Journal of Communication Inquiry, 1998, Vol. 22 Issue 4, p410-425, 16p
UC users only

Dorris, Michael.
"Indians in Aspic." (the movie 'Dances With Wolves'; portrayal of American Indians in film) (column) New York Times v140, sec4 (Sun, Feb 24, 1991):E17(N), E17(L), col 1, 14 col in.

Dozier, Lynne.
"Dances with Wolves: Lessons from Loo Ten Tant's Journal." English Journal v83, n1 (Jan, 1994):34 (5 pages).
UC users only

Golub, Mark.
"History Died for Our Sins: Guilt and Responsibility in Hollywood Redemption Histories." Journal of American Culture , Fall98, Vol. 21 Issue 3, p23, 23p
UC users only

James, Caryn.
"Frugging with Wolves." (the popularity of the movie 'Dances With Wolves' and the film's director Kevin Costner) New York Times v140, sec2 (Sun, Jan 13, 1991):H13(N), H13(L), col 5, 13 col in.

Lake, Randall A.
"Argumentation and self: The enactment of identity in Dances With Wolves." Argumentation & Advocacy, Fall97, Vol. 34 Issue 2, p66, 24p

McQuillan, Gene
"'Extarminate the Varlets!': The Reconstruction of Captivity Narratives in Dances with Wolves" Popular Culture Review, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 71-82, 1995 Aug

Merskin, Debra
"Sending up Signals: A Survey of Native American1 Media Use and Representation in the Mass Media." Howard Journal of Communications; Oct-Dec1998, Vol. 9 Issue 4, p333-345, 13p
UC users only

Natali, Maurizia.
"The sublime excess of the American landscape: "Dances With Wolves" and "Sunchaser" as healing landscapes." Cinemas, 2001, Vol. 12 Issue 1, p105-125, 21p
UC users only

Newton, Judith; Stacey, Judith
"Learning not to curse, or, feminist predicaments in cultural criticism by men: our movie date with James Clifford and Stephen Greenblatt." Cultural Critique; Winter 1992/93, Issue 23, p51-82, 32p
UC users only

Ostwalt, Conrad.
"Dances With Wolves": An American "Heart of Darkness.". Literature-Film Quarterly v24, n2 (April, 1996):209 (8 pages).
UC users only
Relates Michael Blake's novel 'Dances with wolves' and the film version to Conrad's 'Heart of darkness' in their depictions of colonialism and self-discovery.

Padget, Martin.
"Film, Ethnography and the Scene Of History: 'Dances With Wolves' and Participant Observation." Vol. 3 Issue 4, p396-412, 17p Borderlines: Studies in American Culture, 1996, Vol. 3 Issue 4, p396-412, 17p

Prats, Armando Jose.
"The image of the other and the other Dances With Wolves: The refigured Indian and the textual Supplement. Journal of Film & Video, Spring98, Vol. 50 Issue 1, p3, 17p
UC users only

Prats, Armando Jose.
"'Outfirsting' the First American: 'History,' the American Adam, and the New Hollywood Indian in Dances with Wolves, The Last of the Mohicans, and Geronimo: An American Legend." In: The image of the American West in literature, the media, and society : selected papers / edited by Will Wright and Steven Kaplan. Pueblo, Co. : Society for the Interdisciplinary Study of Social Imagery, 1996.
Main (Gardner) Stacks F591 .S666 1996

Root, Deborah.
"Blood, vengeance & the anxious liberal." Cineaction; Fall 1993, Issue 32, p43-49, 7p

Russell, James
"'A Most Historic Period of Change': The Western, the Epic and Dances with Wolves." In: The shifting definitions of genre : essays on labeling films, television shows and media / edited by Lincoln Geraghty and Mark Jancovich. Jefferson, N.C. : McFarland, c2008.
Main (Gardner) Stacks PN1995 .S487 2008

Sarf, W.M..
"Oscar eaten by wolves." Film Comment; Vol.XXVII nr.6 (Nov-Dec 1991); p.62-64,67-70
UC users only
Criticizes the 'politically correct' image of American Indian culture popularized by "Dances with wolves".

Seixas, Peter.
"Confronting the Moral Frames of Popular Film: Young People Respond to Historical Revisionism." American Journal of Education, May1994, Vol. 102 Issue 3, p261-285, 25p
UC users only

Skerry, Philip J.
"Dances with Wolves and Unforgiven: Apocalyptic, Postrevisionist Westerns." In: Beyond the stars 5 : Themes and Ideologies in American popular film. Bowling Green, Ohio : Bowling Green University Popular Press, c1990-
Main Stacks PN1995.9.C36 B49 1990
Moffitt PN1995.9.C36 B49 1990

Smith, Amanda; Loe, Thomas.
"Mythic Descent in 'Dances with Wolves'". Literature/ Film Quarterly, vol. 20 no. 3, 1992: 199-204a
UC users only
Relates the narrative pattern of "Dances with wolves" to that of the epic journey undertaken in mythology.

Summerfield, Ellen
"Native American culture : Dances with wolves, Thunderheart." In: Seeing the big picture : exploring American cultures on film / Ellen Summerfield and Sandra Lee. Yarmouth, Me. : Intercultural Press, c2001.
Main Stack PN1995.9.M56.S86 2001

Tompkins, Jane
"Saving Our Lives: Dances with Wolves, Iron John, and the Search for a New Masculinity." In: Eloquent obsessions : writing cultural criticism / edited by Marianna Torgovnick. Durham : Duke University Press, 1994.
Main (Gardner) Stacks E169.04 .E46 1994
Moffitt E169.04 .E46 1994 c.11

Walker, Michael
"Dances with Wolves." In: The book of westerns / edited by Ian Cameron and Douglas Pye. New York : Continuum, 1996.
Main (Gardner) Stacks PN1995.9.W4 B66 1996
Moffitt PN1995.9.W4 B66 1996
Bancroft PN1995.9.W4 B66 1996

Dead Man

See Jim Jarmusch bibliography

Drums Along the Mohawk

Fort Apache

Harold of Orange

Blaeser, Kimberly M.
""The New 'Frontier' of Native American Literature: Dis-Arming History with Tribal Humor." In: Native American perspectives on literature and history / edited by Alan R. Velie. pp: 37-50. Norman : University of Oklahoma Press, 1995. American Indian literature and critical studies series ; v. 19
Main Stack E98.E85.N37 1995
Native Amer E98.E85.N37 1995

Purdy, John.
""Tricksters of the Trade: 'Reimagining' the Filmic Image of Native Americans." In: Native American representations: first encounters, distorted images, and literary appropriations / edited by Gretchen M. Bataille. pp: 100-18. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, c2001.
Main Stack E98.P99.N38 2001

Ruppert, James.
""'Imagination Is the Only Reality. All the Rest Is Bad Television': Harold of Orange and Indexical Representation." In: Loosening the seams : interpretations of Gerald Vizenor / edited by A. Robert Lee. pp: 225-32. Bowling Green, OH : Bowling Green State University Popular Press, 2000.
Main Stack PS3572.I9.Z76 2000
Moffitt PS3572.I9.Z76 2000

Silberman, Robert.
"Gerald Vizenor And Harold Of Orange: From Word Cinemas To Real Cinema." American Indian Quarterly 1985 9(1): 4-21.

Last of the Mohicans

Alleva, Richard.
"The Last of the Mohicans." (movie reviews)Commonweal v119, n22 (Dec 18, 1992):16 (2 pages).
UC users only

Ansen, David.
"The Last of the Mohicans." (movie reviews) Newsweek v120, n13 (Sept 28, 1992):48 (2 pages).

Barker, Martin.
"First and Last Mohicans." Sight and Sound v3, n8 (August, 1993):26 (4 pages).

Barker, Martin.
"First and Last Mohicans" In: Action/spectacle cinema : a Sight and sound reader / edited by Jose Arroyo. London : British Film Institute, 2000.
MAIN: PN1995 .A259 2000

Barker, Martin.
The Lasting of the Mohicans: History of an American Myth / Martin Barker and Roger Sabin. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, c1995. Series title: Studies in popular culture.
UCB Main PS1408 .B37 1995

Barker, Martin.
"A very American fable: the making of a Mohicans adaptation." In: Nineteenth-century American fiction on screen / edited by R. Barton Palmer. Cambridge ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 2007.
Main Stack PN1997.85.N54 2007

Barolone, A.
"First and last Mohicans." Sight & Sound; Vol.III nr.8 (Aug 1993); p.26-29
On changes in the narrative and presentation of the original novel in comic books, tv series and films; incl. a summary of the original story.

Blake, Richard A.
"The Last of the Mohicans." (movie reviews) America v167, n16 (Nov 21, 1992):407 (2 pages).

Bourassa, Alan.
"Tracking the Dialectic: Theodor Adorno and Michael Mann's The Last of the Mohicans." Canadian Review of Comparative Literature-Revue Canadienne de Litterature Comparee. 23(3):725-37. 1996 Sept

Carroll, Michael
"Agent Cooper's Errand in the Wilderness: Twin Peaks and American Mythology." Literature/Film Quarterly, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 287-94, 1993.

Denby, David.
"The Last of the Mohicans." (movie reviews) New York v25, n38 (Sept 28, 1992):59 (2 pages).

Edgerton, Gary.
"'A Breed Apart': Hollywood, Racial Stereotyping and the Promise of Revisionism in 'The Last of the Mohicans.'" Journal of American Culture v17, n2 (Summer, 1994):1 (20 pages)
UC users only

Johnson, Brian D.
"The Last of the Mohicans." (movie reviews) Maclean's v105, n40 (Oct 5, 1992):63.

Grenier, Richard.
"America's Moral Hermaphrodite." Quadrant. 37(5 (296)):46-52. 1993 May.

Fuller, Graham.
"The Last of the Mohicans." Sight & Sound, Aug2007, Vol. 17 Issue 8, p24-24
UC users only

Kilpatrick, Jacquelyn.
"Keeping the Carcass in Motion: Transmutations of the National in The Last Mohican." In: Literature and film : a guide to the theory and practice of film adaptation / edited by Robert Stam, Alessandra Raengo. Malden, MA : Blackwell, 2005.
Main Stack PN1997.85.L515 2005

Lee, C. J. P. (Charles Jason Peter)
"War as madness" The Last of the Mohicans (Michael Mann, 1992) and Geronimo: an American Legend (Walter Hill, 1994)." In: The metaphysics of mass art : cultural ontology. Vol 2: Indigenous Peoples of the Americas and the Psychology of the Observer in U.S. Film. Lewiston : Edwin Mellen Press, c1999. Studies in art and religious interpretation ; v. 24A-B
UCB Main Stack PR6023.A93.P535 1999 Library has: v.1-2 (1999)

Marubbio, M. Elise.
"Celebrating with the last of the Mohicans: The Columbus Quincentenary and Neocolonialism in Hollywood film." (Critical Essay) Journal of American & Comparative Cultures Spring-Summer 2002 p139(16) (12240 words)
UC users only

McWilliams, John P.
The Last of the Mohicans: Civil Savagery and Savage Civility / John McWilliams. New York: Twayne Publishers; Toronto: Maxwell Macmillan Canada; New York: Maxwell Macmillan International, c1995. Series title: Twayne's masterwork studies; no. 143.
Moffitt PS1408 .M37 1995

Muldoon, Paul.
"The Last of the Mohicans." (movie reviews) TLS. Times Literary Supplement, n4675 (Nov 6, 1992):17.

Pawelczak, Andy.
"The Last of the Mohicans." (movie reviews)Films in Review v43, n11-12 (Nov-Dec, 1992):403 (2 pages).

Prats, Armando José
"'Outfirsting' the First American: 'History,' the American Adam, and the New Hollywood Indian in Dances with Wolves, The Last of the Mohicans, and Geronimo: An American Legend." In: The image of the American West in literature, the media, and society Society for the Interdisciplinary Study of Social Imagery. 1996 : Conference Colorado Springs, Co.) Pueblo, Co. : The Society, 1996
MAIN: F591 .S666 1996

Rafferty, Terrence.
"The Last of the Mohicans." (movie reviews) New Yorker v68, n33 (Oct 5, 1992):160 (2 pages).

Rinne, Craig.
"White Romance and American Indian Action in Hollywood's The Last of The Mohicans (1992)." Studies in American Indian Literatures: the Journal of the Association for the Study of American Indian Literatures. 13(1):3-22. 2001 Spring

Romney, Jonathan.
"The Last of the Mohicans." (movie reviews) New Statesman & Society v5, n227 (Nov 6, 1992):41.

Root, Deborah.
"Blood, vengeance & the anxious liberal." Cineaction; Fall 1993, Issue 32, p43-49, 7p

Schickel, Richard.
"The Last of the Mohicans." (movie reviews)Time v140, n13 (Sept 28, 1992):72 (3 pages).

Sheehan, Henry.
"The Last of the Mohicans." (movie reviews) Sight and Sound v2, n7 (Nov, 1992):45 (2 pages).

Simon, John.
"The Last of the Mohicans." (movie reviews)National Review v44, n22 (Nov 16, 1992):61 (2 pages).

Smith, Gavin.
"Mann Hunters." (Michael Mann, director of 'Last of the Mohicans') Film Comment v28, n6 (Nov-Dec, 1992):72 (3 pages).
UC users only

Steele, Ian K.
"The Last of the Mohicans." (movie reviews) Journal of American History v80, n3 (Dec, 1993):1179 (3 pages).

Travers, Peter.
"The Last of the Mohicans." (movie reviews) Rolling Stone, n642 (Oct 29, 1992):76 (2 pages).

Walker, Jeffrey
"Deconstructing an American Myth: The Last of the Mohicans (1992). Film & History Feb-Dec1993, Vol. 23 Issue 1-4, p103-116, 14p
UC users only

Walker, Jeffrey
"Deconstructing an American Myth: The Last of the Mohicans (1992)." In: Hollywood's Indian: The Portrayal of the Native American in Film Peter C. Rollins and John E. O'Connor, editors. Lexington, Ky.: University Press of Kentucky, c2003<
MAIN: PN1995.9.I48 H66 2003
Moffitt: PN1995.9.I48 H66 2003
UCB Main PN1995.9.I48 H66 1998 [earlier edition]
UCB Moffitt PN1995.9.I48 H66 1998 [earlier edition]
UCB NativAmer PN1995.9.H57 H65 1993[earlier edition]

Wildermuth, Mark E.
"Translating Ritual Time and Symbolic Exchange: Colonialism and Nationalism in The Last of the Mohicans." In: Blood in the moonlight : Michael Mann and information age cinema Jefferson, N.C. : McFarland & Co. Inc., 2005.
MAIN: PN1998.3.M3645 W56 2005

Little Big Man

Dippie, Brian W.
"Jack Crabb And The Sole Survivors Of Custer's Last Stand." Western American Literature 1969 4(3): 189-202.

Kasdan, Margo and Tavernetti, Susan.
"The Hollywood Indian In Little Big Man: A Revisionist View." Film & History 1993 23(1-4): 70-80.
UC users only
"The film Little Big Man (1970) inverts the mythologies of American frontier history associated with the Western genre, offering a sensitive portrayal of an Indian culture whose values are clearly superior to those of white society." [from ABC-CLIO America History and Life]

Hutton, Paul A.
"The Celluloid Custer." Red River Valley Historical Review 1979 4(4): 20-43.
"Traces the evolution of the George A. Custer legend in American films since 1909, when William Selig's one-reeler, Custer's Last Stand, or On the Little Big Horn, was made, until Arthur Penn's 1970 release, Little Big Man, and Marco Ferrari's Touche pas la femme blanche, or Custer Had It Coming (1974)." [from ABC-CLIO America History and Life]

Kasdan, Margo
"Native Americans in a Revisionist Western: Little Big Man (1970)." In: Hollywood's Indian: The Portrayal of the Native American in Film Peter C. Rollins and John E. O'Connor, editors. Lexington, Ky.: University Press of Kentucky, c2003<
MAIN: PN1995.9.I48 H66 2003
Moffitt: PN1995.9.I48 H66 2003
UCB Main PN1995.9.I48 H66 1998 [earlier edition]
UCB Moffitt PN1995.9.I48 H66 1998 [earlier edition]
UCB NativAmer PN1995.9.H57 H65 1993[earlier edition]

Oliva, Leo E.
"Thomas Berger's Little Big Man As History." Western American Literature 1973 8(1/2): 33-54.

Sinowitz, Michael Leigh
"The western as postmodern satiric history: Thomas Berger's Little Big Man." CLIO: a journal of literature, history, and the philosophy of history (28:2) 1999, 129-48. (1999)

Pochahontas

Alleva, Richard.
"Pocahontas." (movie reviews) Commonweal v122, n14 (August 18, 1995):21 (2 pages).

Arthur, Nicole.
"A Modern Girl? Pocahontas is More old-fashioned Than You'd Think." (the evolution of Walt Disney Co.'s animated female characters)Washington Post v118 (Sun, June 25, 1995):G1, col 1, 41 col in.

Baker, Peter.
"As Disney Entertains, Jamestown Educates." (Walt Disney's "Pocahontas" a far cry from what archeologists exact from dig in Virginia) Washington Post v118 (Mon, August 7, 1995):B1, col 4, 27 col in.

Corliss, Richard.
"Pocahontas." (movie reviews)Time v145, n25 (June 19, 1995):59.

DeCroix, Rick.
"Pocahontas." (movie reviews) Journal of Popular Film and Television v24, n2 (Summer, 1996):101 (2 pages).

D'Entremont, John.
"Pocahontas." (movie reviews)Journal of American History v82, n3 (Dec, 1995):1302 (4 pages).

Edgerton, Gary; Jackson, Kathy Merlock.
"Redesigning Pocahontas: Disney, the "White Man's Indian," and the Marketing of Dreams." Journal of Popular Film and Television v24, n2 (Summer, 1996):90 (9 pages).
UC users only
The Walt Disney Company's animated feature Pocahontas (1995) offers a conflicted, historically inaccurate account of a famous Native American that nevertheless lends itself to a more substantive consideration of the subject and related issues.

Felperin, Leslie.
"Pocahontas." (movie reviews)Sight and Sound v5, n10 (Oct, 1995):57 (2 pages).

Galloway, Margaret E.
"Native American Women And The Pocahontas Complex." Journal of the American Studies Association of Texas 1991 22: 83-88.

Jackson, Kathy Merlock
"Walt Disney. Its persuasive products and cultural contexts." Journal of Popular Film and Television; Vol.XXIV nr.2 (Summer 1996); p.50-52
UC users only
"Introduces articles and cultural analyses covered in this theme issue. Other topics covered: attitudes towards hunting related to "Bambi"; anthropomorphism in Disney's nature films; the impact on young viewers of the company's westerns; accusations of subliminal sexual images in recent releases; the representation of Native Americans in "Pocahontas"; and a review of recent video releases of animation." [International Index to Film Periodicals]

Kershaw, Sarah.
"Teachers to Clarify Pocahontas Depiction." (attempts to correct misinformation in Disney animated film)(Education Pages)New York Times v144 (Wed, July 12, 1995):A16(N), B6(L), col 1, 24 col in.

Kilpatrick, Jacquelyn.
"Disney's 'Politically Correct' Pocahontas."(animated film)(Race in Contemporary American Cinema: Part 5) Cineaste v21, n4 (Fall, 1995):36
"Disney's 1995 animated feature Pocahontas is discussed. Based on a true story, the film centers on an Indian girl who meets, and falls in love with, English settler John Smith. However, the story not only eliminates much historical detail, such as Pocahontas's life after Smith, but also changes it, such as in the girl's age--she was not a voluptuous young woman but was 10 or 12 years old. The film is carefully glossed as "authentic" and "respectful" and will exist as "fact" in the minds of generations of children to come. However, instead of progress in depicting Native Americans, the film takes a dangerous step backward. The film's effect is one more misconception advertised in the guise of authenticity and respect for Native American values." [Art Index]

Klawans, Stuart.
"Pocahontas." (movie reviews) Nation v261, n4 (July 31, 1995):145.

Lepore, Jill.
"Pocahontas." (movie reviews) American Historical Review v101, n4 (Oct, 1996):1166 (3 pages).

Maslin, Janet.
"Pocahontas." (movie reviews) New York Times v144 (Fri, June 23, 1995):B10(N), C6(L), col 1, 22 col in.

Lind, Michael.
"Dishonest Injun: Pocahontas Exposed."(Virginia history vs. movie legends)New Republic v212, n26 (June 26, 1995):13.

Morgenstern, Joe.
"Pocahontas." (movie reviews)Wall Street Journal (Fri, June 16, 1995):A9(W), A11(E), col 1, 17 col in.

Maslin, Janet.
"Pocahontas." (movie reviews) New York Times v144 (Fri, June 23, 1995):B10(N), C6(L), col 1, 22 col in.

Maslin, Janet.
"Pocahontas." (movie reviews)New York Times v144 (Sun, June 11, 1995):19(N), 46(L), col 1, 26 col in.

Muldoon, Paul.
"Pocahontas." (movie reviews)TLS. Times Literary Supplement, n4828 (Oct 13, 1995):21.

Ono, Kent A.; Derek T. Buescher.
"Deciphering Pocahontas: unpackaging the commodification of a native American woman." Critical Studies in Media Communication March 2001 v18 i1 p23(20)
Author's Abstract: COPYRIGHT 2001 Speech Communication Association "This essay examines the commodification of Pocahontas surrounding the 1995 Disney film Pocahontas. Through an examination of Pocahontas products and popular cultural discourses about Pocahontas, the essay develops a theory of the "cipher" as a late-capitalist commodity form. Theorization of the cipher helps explain how companies market afield of goods in relationship to a single product, such as a film. Marketing campaigns draw on generic forms and figures that can be easily reproduced and identified. Furthermore, through the marketing of Pocahontas goods and popular discourses, Disney and the general mainstream commodity culture construct a market for children versus parents. And while the commodity world of Pocahontas uses utopic appeals to sell products, through their appropriation of feminism and Native American culture and history, Pocahontas products and discourses contribute to the material oppression of women and Native Americans, generally, and Native American women in particular." [Expanded Academic Index]

Parekh, Pushpa Naidu.
"Pocahontas: The Disney Imaginary." In: The emperor's old groove : decolonizing Disney's Magic Kingdom / edited by Brenda Ayres. pp: 167-78. New York : P. Lang, c2003.
Main Stack PN1999.W27.E48 2003
Bus & Econ PN1999.W27.E48 2003

Price, David Andrew.
"The Real Pocahontas." (historical facts about the Native American girl, and about her involvement with Captain John Smith, bear very little resemblance to the story presented in Walt Disney Co.'s new...Wall Street Journal (Tue, June 13, 1995):A18(W), A18(E), col 3, 21 col in.

Schama, Simon.
"The Princess of Eco-Kitsch." (myths that pervade the new motion picture 'Pocahontas')(Column) New York Times v144 (Wed, June 14, 1995):A19(N), A21(L), col 1, 22 col in.

Shapiro, Laura.
"Pocahontas." (movie reviews)Newsweek v125, n25 (June 19, 1995):77.

Sharkey, Betsy.
"Beyond Tepees and Totem Poles." (in 'Pocahontas,' a studio that once used ethnic stereotypes for laughs tries very hard not to offend. (Walt Disney Pictures depicts Native Americans in a sensitive manner in its in its new children's film).New York Times v144, sec2 (Sun, June 11, 1995):H1(N), H1(L), col 2, 44 col in.

Silver, Marc.
"Pocahontas, For Real."(how Walt Disney movie 'Pocahontas' compares to history)(includes related article)U.S. News & World Report v118, n24 (June 19, 1995):61 (4 pages).

Sterritt, David.
"Pocahontas." (movie reviews)Christian Science Monitor v87, n146 (Fri, June 23, 1995):12, col 3, 20 col in.

Strong, Pauline Turner.
"Animated Indians: Critique and Contradiction in Commodified Children's Culture." (portrayal of Native Americans in films) Cultural Anthropology v11, n3 (August, 1996):405 (20 pages).

Travers, Peter.
"Pocahontas." (movie reviews)Rolling Stone, n712-3 (July 13, 1995):115 (2 pages).

The New World

Boehm, D.
"Brave New World: Pocahontas Revisited." Native Peoples v. 19 no. 1 (January/February 2006) p. 74-7
UC users only
"Terrence Malick's lush, earthy-looking, star-studded film The New World is set to give the world yet another version of the legend of Pocahontas and Captain John Smith. In the early 17th century, Pocahontas supposedly saved colonist John Smith from execution by convincing her father to spare his life when Smith was captured, and she is said to be instrumental in creating a more harmonious union between the colonists and the indigenous residents of the New World. The film has an exquisitely dreamlike, painterly aura, and everyone who worked on it went to great lengths to achieve maximum authenticity and aesthetic effect in costuming, set design, body decoration, and other details." [Art Index]

Buscombe, Edward
"What's New in the New World?" Film Quarterly Mar 2009, Vol. 62, No. 3: 35–40.
UC users only

d'Entremont, John.
"The New World." The Journal of American History. Dec 2007. Vol. 94, Iss. 3; pg. 1023, 4 pgs

Jones, K.
"Acts of God" [T. Malick's The New World]. Film Comment v. 42 no. 2 (March/April 2006) p. 24-6, 28

Sterritt, David.
"Film, Philosophy, and Terrence Malick's 'The New World'.(Critical essay)." The Chronicle of Higher Education 52.18 (Jan 6, 2006)
UC users only

Taubin, Amy.
"Birth of a nation.(The New World)(Movie Review)." Sight and Sound 16.2 (Feb 2006): 44(4).
UC users only

Powwow Highway

Anderson, Eric Gary.
"Driving the Red Road: Powwow Highway (1989)." In: Hollywood's Indian: the portrayal of the Native American in film / Peter C. Rollins and John E. O'Connor, editors. pp: 137-52 Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, c1998.
Main Stack PN1995.9.I48.H66 1998
Moffitt PN1995.9.I48.H66 1998
Native Amer PN1995.9.I48.H66 1998

Ansen, David.
"Powwow Highway." (movie reviews) Newsweek v113, n14 (April 3, 1989):70 (1 page).

Arnold, Ellen-L.
"Reframing the Hollywood Indian: A Feminist Re-Reading of Powwo Highway and Thunderheart." In: American Indian studies: an interdisciplinary approach to contemporary issues / Dane Morrison, editor. pp: 347-62 New York: P. Lang, c1997.
Main Stack E76.6.A44 1997

Johnson, Brian D.
"Powwow Highway." (movie reviews) Maclean's v102, n17 (April 24, 1989):62 (2 pages).

Kauffmann, Stanley.
"Powwow Highway." (movie reviews) New Republic v200, n17 (April 24, 1989):24 (1 page).

Langen, Toby.
"Culture Isn't Buckskin Shoes: A Conversation Around Powwow Highway."Studies in American Indian Literatures: The Journal of the Association for the Study of American Indian Literatures, vol. 3 no. 3. 1991 Fall. pp: 23-29.

Maslin, Janet.
"Powwow Highway." (video recording reviews) New York Times v139, sec2 (Sun, Sept 24, 1989):H32(N), H32(L), col 4, 2 col in.

Simard, Rodney.
"Easin' on Down the Powwow Highway(s)." Studies in American Indian Literatures 1991 Fall, 3:3, 19-23.

Toman, Marshall; Gerster, Carole.
"Powwow Highway in a Ethnic Film and Literature Course." Studies in American Indian Literatures 1991 Fall, 3:3, 29-38.

The Searchers

Smoke Signals

"Alexie, Sherman." (poet, novelist and screenwriter)(includes bibliography)
Current Biography v59, n10 (Oct, 1998):3 (3 pages).

Alexie, Sherman.
"Making Smoke." (creators of the motion picture 'Smoke Signals') Whole Earth, n94 (Fall, 1998):102 (2 pages).
One of the creators of the motion picture 'Smoke Signals', which was the first movie written, directed and co-produced by Native Americans, came from a family that enjoyed movies. The experience of making movies has convinced the team of Chris Eyre and Sherman Alexie to continue making movies.
UC users only

Armbruster-Sandoval, Ralph.
"Teaching Smoke Signals: Fatherhood, Forgiveness, and "Freedom" Wicazo Sa Review, Spring2008, Vol. 23 Issue 1, p123-146, 24p;

Blewster, Kelley.
"Tribal Visions." (Sherman Alexie) Biblio v4, n3 (March, 1999):22.

Charles, Jim.
"Contemporary American Indian life in The Owl's Song and Smoke Signals." (using fiction and film as basis for discussing role of American Indians with high school students) English Journal Jan 2001 v90 i3 p54(6)
Suggestions on using the film Smoke Signals and the novel The Owl's Song as a basis for discussing American Indian society with students are presented. Ideas on how to teach and analyse the two works in an integrated way are offered.

Cunneen, Joseph.
"Smoke Signals." (movie review)National Catholic Reporter v34, n34 (July 17, 1998):22 (2 pages)

Egan, Timothy
"An Indian without reservation." (author/filmmaker Sherman Alexie) The New York Times Magazine, Jan 18, 1998 p16 col 1 (50 col in)
"Alexie, who has written 10 books, had a film at Sundance festival and is an excellent stand-up comic, presents a Native American in guises that even infuriates some of hs own people. He is highly successful at his work. His poetry, plays and fiction also attacks non-Indians who borrow Indian themes." [Expanded Academic Index]

Fielding, Julien R.
"Native American Religion and Film: Interviews with Chris Eyre and Sherman Alexie." Journal of Religion and Film, vol. 7, no. 1, Spring 2003.

Fraser, Joelle
"An interview with Sherman Alexie." (Interview) . Iowa Review Winter 2000 v30 i3 p59(12)
This article presents an interview with Native American fiction writer, filmmaker, and poet Sherman Alexie. Relevant topics include his feelings on affirmative action, his experiences as a minority writer, and societal reactions to some of his controversial works.
UC users only

Georgakas, Dan.
"Smoke Signals." (movie review) Cineaste v23, n4 (Fall, 1998):28 (5 pages).

Gilroy, Jhon Warren.
"Another fine example of the oral tradition?: identification and subversion in Sherman Alexie's Smoke signals." SAIL: studies in American Indian literatures (Series 2) Vol. 13, no. 1 (2001), p. 23-42

Hearne, Joanna
"John Wayne's Teeth: Speech, Sound and Representation in 'Smoke Signals' and 'Imagining Indians'. Western Folklore 2005 64(3-4): 189-208 20p.
UC users only

Insdorf, Annette.
"Smoke Signals." (movie review)Whole Earth, n93 (Summer, 1998):96.
UC users only

Keating, Nicole Marie.
"Mamas Boy: Counting on Ghosts, Sending Smoke Signals, and Finding Surrogate Fathers in Contemporary Film." In: Where the boys are : cinemas of masculinity and youth / edited by Murray Pomerance and Frances Gatew Detroit : Wayne State University Press, c2005.
Main (Gardner) Stacks PN1995.9.B7 W54 2005
PFA PN1995.9.B7 W54 2005

Kempley, Rita.
"Clear signals; no more playing dead for American Indian filmmaker Sherman Alexie." (director discusses his film 'Smoke Signals') Washington Post v121, n184 (Fri, July 3, 1998):D1, col 5, 34 col in.

Marx, Doug.
"Sherman Alexie: a reservation of the mind." (Interview) Publishers Weekly v243, n38 (Sept 16, 1996):39 (2 pages).

Maslin, Janet.
"Smoke Signals." (movie review) New York Times v147 (Fri, June 26, 1998):B14(N), E14(L), col 1, 16 col in.; v147 (Fri, March 27, 1998):B1(N), E1(L), col 1, 25 col in.

McCarthy, Todd.
"Smoke Signals." (movie reviews)Variety v369, n12 (Feb 2, 1998):29 (2 pages).

Mihelich, John
"Smoke or signals? American popular culture and the challenge of hegemonic images of American Indians in Native American film." (Special Issue on Film and Video)(Critical Essay) Wicazo Sa Review Fall 2001 v16 i2 p129(9)
UC users only
"'Smoke Signals,' the motion picture based on a Sherman Alexie novel, challenges stereotypical images of Native Americans with humanizing, complex, contemporary Indian characters. Native-controlled productions hold significant potential to oppose hegemonic representations of Native people." [Expanded Academic Index]
'Smoke Signals,' the motion picture based on a Sherman Alexie novel, challenges stereotypical images of Native Americans with humanizing, complex, contemporary Indian characters. Native-controlled productions hold significant potential to oppose hegemonic representations of Native people.

Morgenstern, Joe.
"Smoke Signals." (movie reviews) Wall Street Journal, n127 (Fri, June 26, 1998):W4(W), W4(E), col 5, 4 col in.

Ressner, Jeffrey
"They've gotta have it; what Spike Lee's film did for African Americans, Smoke Signals aims to do for Native Americans." (motion picture written, acted and directed by Native Americans)(Brief Article)Time v151, n25 (June 29, 1998):69 (2 pages).
UC users only

Slethaug, Gordon E.
"Hurricanes and Fires: Chaotics in Sherman Alexie's Smoke Signals and The Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven." Literature-Film Quarterly. 31(2):130-40. 2003
UC users only
The features of the films and literary works, which represent the life styles of Native Americans, are discussed. This theme is reviewed with the works of the Native American writer Sherman Alexie.

"The slow burn of a sweetgrass spell."(Smoke Signals) (movie reviews)Maclean's v111, n27 (July 6, 1998):55.
UC users only

Sterngold, James.
"Able to laugh at their people, not just cry for them." (film created by Native Americans Chris Eyre, Adam Beach and Evan Adams; 'Smoke Signals') New York Times v147, sec2 (Sun, June 21, 1998):AR13(N), AR13(L), col 1, 34 col in.

Sterngold, James.
"Indians by Indians." ('Smoke Signals' written, directed by and featuring Native Americans)(At the Movies) New York Times v147 (Fri, May 29, 1998):B10(N), E10(L), col 5, 11 col in.

Sterritt, David.
"Smoke Signals." (movie review) Christian Science Monitor v90, n158 (Fri, July 10, 1998):B2, col 4, 1 col in.

"Smoke Signals."
Mother Jones v24, n1 (Jan, 1999):76.

Travers, Peter.
"Smoke Signals." (movie reviews)Rolling Stone, n790 (July 9, 1998):146 (2 pages).

West, Dennis; West, Joan M.
"Sending cinematic smoke signals: an interview with Sherman Alexie." (Race in Contemporary American Cinema, part 9)(filmmaker)(Interview) Cineaste v23, n4 (Fall, 1998):28 (5 pages).
"An interview with Sherman Alexie, coproducer and scriptwriter of the film Smoke Signals, directed by Chris Eyre. This film about Native Americans decisively breaks with past stereotypes, a major part of its success being that it is the first such film to have been written, directed, and coproduced by Native Americans, also featuring Native Americans in all the lead roles. The story concerns Victor, an abandoned son who, with his companion Thomas, undertakes a journey to collect his father's ashes. Alexie subverts the two major Native American profiles recognized by American popular culture--the warrior and the shaman--with various images, songs, and stories, so that, although both characters are decidedly Native American, they are rooted in this time and place rather than in a fictionalized past. Several topics are discussed in the interview, including the nature of the film's groundbreaking portrayal of Indians; the screenplay's semiautobiographical elements; the cultural and artistic significance of dreams, storytelling, and visions; and the use of music in the film." [Art Index]

Thunderheart

Ansen, David
"Thunderheart." (movie reviews) Newsweek April 13, 1992 v119 n15 p68(1)

Appleford, Robert
"Coming out from behind the rocks: constructs of the Indian in recent U.S. and Canadian cinema. American Indian Culture and Research Journal Wntr 1995 v19 n1
" Recent US and Canadian films such as 'Dances With Wolves,' 'Black Robe,' 'Thunderheart' and 'Clearcut' promote public awareness and understanding of North American Indian views and culture. Unlike previous Western films which negatively stereotyped Indians as villains and savages, these films provide provocative insights on Indian life. Romanticized fictional films on Indians also direct public attention to critical issues concerning Indian communities. " [Expanded Academic Index]

Charity, Tom
"Thunderheart." (movie reviews) Sight and Sound Oct 1992 v2 n6 p57(1)

Edwards, Keith
"Thunderheart." (movie reviews) Films in Review May-June 1992 v43 n5-6 p186(1)

James, Caryn
"One director, two routes to American Indian travail." (Michael Apted directs 'Thunderheart' and documentary 'Incident at Oglala'; films use similar themes, techniques) The New York Times May 10, 1992 v141 s2 pH22(N) pH22(L) col 1 (23 col in)

Johnson, Brian D.
"Thunderheart." (movie reviews) Maclean's April 13, 1992 v105 n15 p71(1)
UC users only

Maslin, Janet
"Thunderheart." (Living Arts Pages)(movie reviews) The New York Times April 3, 1992 v141 pB1(N) pC12(L) col 1 (15 col in)

Pack, Sam
"The best of both worlds: otherness, appropriation, and identity in 'Thunderheart'." (Special Issue on Film and Video)(Critical Essay) Wicazo Sa Review Fall 2001 v16 i2 p97(18)
UC users only

Reed, T.V.
"Old cowboys, new Indians: Hollywood frames the American Indian." (Special Issue on Film and Video)(Critical Essay) Wicazo Sa Review Fall 2001 v16 i2 p75(22)
UC users only
Political activity by the American Indian Movement (AIM) in the 1960s and 1970s affected the way this movement was portrayed in US motion pictures. 'Powwow Highway' gave AIM little context, 'Thunderheart' limits Indian activism to the recent past, while 'Lakota Woman: Siege at Wounded Knee' is the most accurate portrayal of AIM.

Root, Deborah.
"Blood, vengeance & the anxious liberal." Cineaction; Fall 1993, Issue 32, p43-49, 7p

Schickel, Richard
"Thunderheart." (movie reviews) Time May 4, 1992 v139 n18 p77(2)
UC users only

Simon, John
"Thunderheart." (movie reviews) National Review June 8, 1992 v44 n11 p53(4)

Summerfield, Ellen
"Native American culture : Dances with wolves, Thunderheart." In: Seeing the big picture : exploring American cultures on film / Ellen Summerfield and Sandra Lee. Yarmouth, Me. : Intercultural Press, c2001.
Main Stack PN1995.9.M56.S86 2001

Travers, Peter
"Thunderheart." (movie reviews) Rolling Stone April 16, 1992 n628 p93(1)

Windtalkers

Doherty, T.
"Windtalkers." Cineaste v. 27 no. 4 (Fall 2002) p. 36-7
UC users only
"A review of John Woo's new movie, Windtalkers. The movie focuses on the contribution of Native American code talkers in helping the Marine Corps fight the Japanese in World War II. If its intent was to pay a tribute to this forgotten chapter of World War II history, however, far too little of it is devoted to the education and assimilation of the code talkers, who are also celebrated with condescension. Perhaps the worst observation about this failed combat movie is that despite its stunning and resonant location footage of Monument Valley, not for a single minute do viewers believe that they are in World War II territory." [Art Index]

Iglesias, D. C.
"Windtalkers." Native Peoples v. 15 no. 5 (July/August 2002) p. 90
UC users only
"A review of Windtalkers, a movie by John Woo. This awe-inspiring movie is a respectful portrayal of the Navajo Code Talkers who helped the United States beat Japan in World War II. The Japanese were unable to crack the Navajo code spoken by some 400 Navajo radio operators in the Pacific Theater. This movie is a breakthrough because it deals with the contribution of Native Americans to American life without lapsing into tiresome historical stereotyping." [Art Index]

O'Hehir, Andrew.
"Windtalkers.(motion picture)." Sight and Sound 12.9 (Sept 2002): 79(2).
UC users only

Price, S.
"American mentality? Trauma, imperialism and the authentic veteran in mainstream Hollywood narrative." Journal of Media Practice v. 6 no. 2 (2005) p. 83-91
UC users only
"This paper deals with one contemporary 'myth' circulated within mainstream cinema; the validation of masculine purpose through 'heroic' action. This is exemplified within Hollywood narratives by the recurrence of particular scenes, interludes which attempt to dramatise the experience of male characters (usually middle-ranking veteran officers) who are presented as traumatised and also, in some cases, apparently 'conscience-stricken'. The representation of these supposedly 'psychological' phenomena are the subject of controversy; quite apart from their uncertain status as references to a 'post-traumatic' and the concentration of emotional resource on male rather than female sufferers, they produce ambivalent accounts of American military power. Using reference to The Last Samurai (Zwick, 2003), Windtalkers (Woo, 2002), and Glory (Zwick, 1989), the work investigates the discursive purposes of such typification, asking to what degree it may represent a series of expressive or 'ideological' acts in the guise of a standard cinematic technique (the 'flashback'). The piece studies the retrospective attribution of 'modern' sensibilities to earlier periods, the narrative strategies which assign authenticity to the actions of protagonists whose 'word'/honour falls under scrutiny, and argues that the neurotic deployment of alibis is used to assist in the reconstruction of stable masculine hierarchies." [Art Index]

Wiener, D.
"Speaking in tongues." American Cinematographer v. 83 no. 6 (June 2002) p. 68-77
UC users only
"Cinematographer Jeffrey L. Kimball's work on Windtalkers, a film directed by John Woo, is discussed. This film is a fictionalized account of the relationship between Navajo "code talker" Ben Yahzee and Joe Enders, his bodyguard and fellow Marine, during World War II. Kimball opted to shoot in the Super 35mm widescreen format, using Kodak Vision 320T 5277 stock and Vision 500T 5279. The film's sizable camera package included Panavision's Platinum, Gold II, and Millennium bodies, and even hand-cranked Bell & Howell Eyemos; indeed, during large-scale action scenes, Kimball had over a dozen cameras running simultaneously. Night scenes were illuminated with a couple of custom-made lighting balloons that contained 6K globes gelled with 1/2 correction, as well as Maxi-Brutes and Brute Arc lights on Condor cranes. The lighting package also included two 50K Lighting Strikes SoftSuns that were also used to simulate daylight." [Art Index]

Windtalkers : the making of the film about the Navajo code talkers of World War II
Edited by Antonia Felix ; preface by John Woo ; introduction by Jeff Bingaman. New York : Newmarket Press, c2002.
Main (Gardner) Stacks PN1995.9.W3 W35 2002
Native American Studies PN1995.9.W3 W35 2002





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