UC Berkeley Library
Social Activism Sound Recording Project:
The Free Speech Movement and Its Legacy











Free Speech Movement video and audio holdings (includes FSM-related recordings from the UC Berkeley Speech Archives and the Bancroft Library)
The 1960's video and audio holdings
The Free Speech Movement Archives
Bancroft Library FSM Digital Archive

Introduction

The UC Berkeley Social Activism Sound Recording Project is a partnership between the UC Berkeley Library, the Pacifica Foundation, and other private and institutional sources. The intent of the project is to gather, catalog, and make accessible primary source media resources related to social activism and activist movements in California in the 1960's and 1970's. Some recordings have been slightly edited for purposes of sound quality and continuity.

Sound files in this collection require the RealAudio player:

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Overviews, Chronologies, Histories of the Movement

On-site Recordings of the Movement: Speeches, Events, Interviews, Songs

The Faculty and Administrative Response

After the FSM: Student Movements and Student Protest 1965--

Retrospective Looks at the FSM

Overviews, Chronologies, Histories of the Movement

The Free Speech Movement: A Chronology
© Pacifica Radio, 1979. All rights reserved.
(Pacifica Archives # E2AZ0260)

Documentary program produced for KPFA by Robin Steinhardt and Philip Maldari. 47 min.

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History of the Berkeley Movement
© Pacifica Radio, 1969. All rights reserved.
(Pacifica Archives # E2BB2276)

KPFA program featuring Art Goldberg, Jack Weinberg, Frank Bardacke, Buddy Jackson, and Randy Rappaport discuss activism on the Berkeley campus in the early 1960's. Recording of KPFA program.

Part I (approx. 63 min.): Listen to it

Part II (approx. 30 min.): Listen to it

Free Speech Movement: Sounds and Songs of the Demonstrations
© Pacifica Radio, 1965. All rights reserved.
(Pacifica Archives # E2BC2192)

KPFA documentary program. Produced by Stan Axelrod and Dustin Mark Miller. 50 min.

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Documentary on recent (Fall 1964)Student Demonstrations at UC Berkeley
© Pacifica Radio, 1965. All rights reserved.

A report on activities September - October 1964. Sound clips include September 30, 1964 statement from Chancellor E. Strong (read by Sanford Elberg, Dean of the Graduate Division) [4:59]regarding administrative policy against student advocacy on campus and indefinite suspension of eight students for violating this policy; Mario Savio response to this statement [8:19](includes comments on the "multiversity" as "factory" (see also Savio speech 2, December 1964); puts forward demands of student demonstrators (including dropping of disciplinary action against suspended students); Assistant Dean Barnes speaks to demonstrators: interpretation of rules against student advocacy [16:59]

For partial transcript of above, SEE Goines, David L. The Free Speech Movement: Coming of Age in the 1960s

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Report From Berkeley on the FSM Strike
© Pacifica Radio, 1966. All rights reserved.
(Pacifica Archives # E2BB1232)

Produced for KPFA by Scott Keech

NOTE: recording contains some gaps and poor sound quality.

Overview of events leading up to the FSM sit-in in Sproul Hall, December, 1964. On-site recordings of strike discussions and vote. Program and actuality of FSM student strike.

Part I (approx. 52 min.) Listen to it

Part II (approx. 44 min.) Listen to it

Part III: (approx. 44 min.) Listen to it

Is Freedom Academic: A Documentary on the Free Speech Movement at UC Berkeley
© Pacifica Radio, 1964. All rights reserved.
(Pacifica Archives # E2BB0503)

Listen to it (57 min.)

Mario Savio discusses the FSM and its roots

Source recording courtesy Lynne Hollander and Michael Rossman

Note: some portions of the recording are off-speed; some portions have slight background distortion.

In an informal oral history (date unknown), Savio discusses his involvement in Southern Civil Rights organizing in the early 1960's; his political activities after returning from the South, and the political scene on campus; campus policies on student advocacy and events leading to the development of the Free Speech Movement and activities of the FSM in Fall 1964; Savio discusses his perception of his role and the role of others in shaping and guiding FSM activities. At the end of part 1 and in part 2, Suzanne Goldberg comments on her involvement in student activism on campus.

Part 1: Listen to it
Part 2: Listen to it
Part 3: Listen to it
Part 4: Listen to it

Mario Savio interview with Jack Fincher, Life Magazine

Source recording courtesy Lynne Hollander and Michael Rossman

Mario Savio discusses his views on the governance of the University of California. Talks about the free speech on campus and the reaction of campus administration and faculty to student political advocacy and action.

Note: some segments are not accurate speed

Part 1 (1:04)
Part 2 (1:03)
Part 3 (1:02)
Part 4 (37:42

Television program on current FSM activities (Profile Bay Area, 1965?)

Source recording courtesy Lynne Hollander and Michael Rossman

Includes interviews with Bettina Aptheker (FSM); Michael Rossman (FSM); Charles Powell (President of Associated Students of UC); Professor Arthur Ross (Industrial Relations); Professor Alan Searcy (UCB Vice Chancellor). Issues involved include discussion of November 20, 1964 Regents meeting regarding disciplinary action against students involved in campus political advocacy; student role in campus governance; faculty stance on free speech and advocacy.

Listen to it (56:55)

NBC News feature on FSM activities (December 1964?)

Source recording courtesy Lynne Hollander and Michael Rossman

Listen to it (13.48 min.)

On-site Recordings of the Movement: Speeches, Events, Interviews, Songs

The Car Top Rally, October 1, 1964

© Pacifica Radio, 1964. All rights reserved.

Unedited tape recorded on-site by KPFA reporters. Edited 1999 by Gary Handman, UC Berkeley Media resources Center.

Draper, Hal. "The Police-car Blockade Begins." In: Berkeley: The New Student Revolt / by Hal Draper ; introduction by Mario Savio. New York: Grove Press, 1965. Series title: An Evergreen black cat book ; BC-103.

Available as online text at:via the FSM Archives

Print copies available at:
GTU Library LD760 .D7
UCB Bancroft 308h F85 D77 University Archives;
UCB Bancroft F870.E3 D99
UCB IGS 91 00039
UCB Main LD766 .D7
UCB Moffitt LD760 .D7

Photographs from the car top rally (from the FSM Archives)

NOTE: These recordings were made on-site at the events and have been only slightly edited for inclusion in this collection. Sound quality and continuity in some portions is uneven.

Recordings capture some of the following events:

Descriptions in part from ( the FSM Archives chronologies)

October 1, 1964:

Students set up tables on steps of Sproul Hall and plan noon rally to protest rules and to demand equal treatment for all students subject to these rules. At approximately 11:45 a.m. Deans George S. Murphy and Peter Van Houten, with University Police Lieutenant Merrill F. Chandler approached and spoke to a man who was soliciting funds at the Campus CORE table at the foot of Sproul Hall steps [Jack Weinberg]. The crowd chanted "Release him! Release him!" About 100 students promptly lay down in front of the police car, an other 80 or so sat behind it. Mario Savio removed his shoes and climbed on top of it, urging the gathering crowd to join in (See Part 1 below)

The protest is extended when students enter Sproul Hall for a second major sit-in. Meanwhile a group of faculty members attempts to mediate; however, the administration announces that the rules are not negotiable. The student protesters remain. (See Parts 4 and 5 below; also: Sept. 30/October 1 sit-in recordings)

At 11:15 p.m. small groups of anti-demonstration demonstrators began converging on the mall from all directions, swelling the crowd to about 2,500. At this point, the demonstration degenerated into a shouting, singing, swearing and egg throwing contest. The demonstrators sang "We Shall Overcome!" The anti-demonstration forces shouted "Mickey Mouse ! " (See Parts 7 and 8 below)

October 2:

At 1:30 a.m., as conflicts between demonstrators and anti-demonstration demonstrators threatened to erupt into a full- blown riot, Father James Fisher of Newman Hall mounted the police car. The crowd fell silent as he pleaded for peace -- and got it. Demonstrations around the stranded police car, still containing Jack Weinberg, continued throughout the day. Sproul Hall was locked, except for one police-guarded door at the South end through which those with legitimate business inside could pass. A pup tent was pitched on one of the lawns. The entire mall area was littered with sleeping bags, blankets, books, and the debris of the all-night vigil.

Speakers continued to harangue the crowd from the top of the sagging police car, gathering momentum as noon approached. At noon, lunch-time onlookers enlarged the crowd to close to 4,000 persons.

At 10:30 a.m., after President Kerr and Chancellor Strong agreed that the situation had to be brought under control, a high-level meeting of administrators, deans and representatives of at least four law enforcement agencies was held to formulate plans for handling the demonstrations. At 11:55 a.m., representatives of the Governor's Office and the President's Office joined the session.

At 4:45 p.m. police officers from Oakland, Alameda County, Berkeley and the California Highway Patrol began marching onto the campus, taking up positions at the north and south ends of Sproul Hall and on Barrows Lane, behind the Administration building. Some 500 officers, including over 100 motorcycle police, were on hand by 5:30 p.m., some armed with long riot sticks. As the police arrived, onlookers and protest sympathizers swelled the crowd between Sproul Hall and the Student Union to more than 7,000. Spectators lined the Student Union balcony and the roof of the Dining Commons. As six campus police officers penetrated the periphery of the crowd -- in an effort to reinforce the stranded police car -- the demonstrators packed themselves solidly around the car (see Parts 9 and 10 below)

At approximately 7:20 p.m., the crowd was informed that an agreement had been reached, and that the protest spokesmen were en route from University House to present it to the demonstrators. At 7:30 p.m., with President Kerr and Chancellor Strong watching from the steps of Sproul Hall (the crowd was unaware of their presence), Mario Savio mounted the flattened roof of the police car to read the agreement. The demonstrators surrounding the police car disperse. (See Part 12 below)

Car Top Rally, Part 1 (approx. 62 min.): recordings include reading of ASUC petition (by KPFA reporter Buron White) regarding student political activity on campus; sounds of student political tables in Sproul Plaza; arrest of Jack Weinberg; Mario Savio's first car top address; Charlie Powell (ASUC President), Hal Draper, and other speakers. (Pacifica Archives # BD0016.02E)

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Car Top Rally, Part 2 (approx. 63 min.): Recordings include car top speeches by Jackie Goldberg; Byron Turner (first student arrested); Mario Savio (reports on meeting with deans, FSM demands). Jack Weinberg speaks from the police car. Don Hacket, representative of the Young Republicans, speaks regarding conservative students' support of the FSM. (Pacifica Archives # BD0016.02D)

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Car Top Rally, Part 3 (approx. 63 min.): October 1: Speakers include Charles Power, ASUC President, regarding recent meeting with Chancellor Strong. Powell urges demonstrators to disband and to allow the ASUC Senate a week to negotiate a compromise with campus administration. Mario Savio reports on the same meeting with the Chancellor, recaps student demands and reports on the Chancellor's blanket rejection of these demands. Savio describes his case to Strong that University's regulations regarding political activity infringes on both 1st and 14th amendment rights. (Pacifica Archives # BD0016.03C)

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Car Top Rally, Part 4 (approx 32 min.): Recordings include: Mario Savio reads Daily Cal anti-FSM editorial by Chancellor E.W. Strong; advocates continued blocking of police car and broadening demonstration to general student walk-out on classes. Additional speeches: grad student James Burton speaks against current student actions; speeches by Dick Roman, Dusty Miller, et al.

Latter part of this segment records some of the following events:

At approximately 2:30 p.m., Savio suggested the demonstrators force their way into Sproul Hall, in order to hinder operations of the Administration there. Savio then led about 150 students into Sproul Hall, where they sat outside the Dean of Students Office. About 4:00 p.m., the demonstrators inside now numbered about 400, voted to pack solidly in front of the door to the Deans' office, and not allow anyone out. Deans Peter Van Houten and Arleigh Williams were trapped within the office by this maneuver. (SEE ALSO: October 1, 1964 sit-in recordings below) (Pacifica Archives # BD0016.02e)

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Car Top Rally, Part 5: (approx 39 min.) Recordings include events on car top (Sproul Plaza) and inside Sproul Hall: car top speakers speak for and against current student actions; discussions of civil disobedience as a means of obtaining civil rights; announcements regarding activities and police actions in Sproul Hall; discussions of police conduct in general; Professor Legget reports on faculty attempts at mediation with campus administration and student activists; crowd sings various songs ("We Shall Overcome/We Shall Have Free Speech"; "On My Way to the Freedom Land," Woody Guthrie's "What Did You Do In School Today?" and "This Land Is Your Land," "America The Beautiful"); police closure/lock-out of Sproul Hall (6:20pm); Mario Savio speaks about police closure of Sproul and strategies for the night and next day. (Pacifica Archives # BD0016.02f)

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Car Top Rally, Part 6 (approx 52 min.): October 1, approximately 6:30 pm: unidentified faculty representative reports on unsuccessful efforts to negotiate concessions by both administration and demonstrators. Mario Savio leads a lengthy discussion regarding proposals and counterproposals to abandon the Sproul Hall sit-in and to allow the police car to leave Sproul Plaza in return for concessions in regard to Jack Weinberg's arrest and the suspension of the eight students. Demonstrators finally vote in favor of an ammended proposal to unilaterally withdraw from Sproul Hall but not from surrounding the police car until all actions against Weinberg and the eight students are dropped. Demonstrators inside Sproul leave the building. Art Goldberg addresses the crowd regarding strategies for further demonstrations. A report of misconduct by Berkeley City police inside Sproul is made by an unidentified speaker. Several pro-administration speakers address the crowd. Hecklers on the periphery of the demonstrators throw tomatoes; Art Goldberg urges an avoidance of confrontation. Mention is made of trying to get Joan Baez and Bob Dylan to address the demonstators. (Pacifica Archives # BD0016.02g)

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Car Top Rally, Part 7 (approx 29 min.: October 1: A large group of hecklers (mainly fraternity men) surrounds the demonstators in Sproul Plaza at approximately 11:00pm and demands that the police car be released; fire trucks arrive in response to a false alarm (opponents shout "hose em!"); eggs and lighted cigarettes are thown into the center of the demonstrators; Savio urges the crowd to remain seated and quiet, attempts to explain to the opponents why the police car is being held; members of the opposing group speak; demonstrators sing "We Shall Overcome;" Dusty Miller and other speakers address the crowd. (Pacifica Archives # E2BD0016.02i and E2BD0016.02J)

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Car Top Rally, Part 8 (approx 28 min.): October 1, approximately 11:40pm: hecklers continue to demand that the police car be released; speakers mount the car to argue both for and against current demonstrations. Speakers include student Craig Burton, an aborted rebuttle to Burton by Mario Savio, and an unidentified fraternity man speaking against the demonstrators ("...it's always the same people with a cause, every week"). (Pacifica Archives # BD0016.02h )

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Car Top Rally, Part 9 (approx 14 min.): NOTE: very poor recording quality. October 2: Speakers continue to address the crowd from the car top. Recordings include: Mike Tiger, a law student, discusses the current demonstrations in historical context: discusses the university's continuing contribution to war technology and military economy; Clark Kerr's notion of "managerial society"--students as volatile and manipulatable elements in this society. An unidentified non-student speaker expresses his support of the demonstrations and offers to organize an effort to bring food, clothing and other necessities to the demonstrators. (Pacifica Archives # BD0016.03E

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Car Top Rally, Part 10 (approx 29 min.): NOTE: Recording quality of some latter portions of this segment is poor. October 2: Mario Savio reports on university administration's continuing unwillingness to negotiate ("...Strong and Kerr were 'not contactable.'"); Savio expresses concerns about further violence against the demonstrators and possible police actions to break the rally; urges solidarity: "Please be here tonight!" Folksinger Barbara Dane is introduced and leads the crowd in several songs ("Oh Freedom!," "This Little Light of Mine," "It Isn't Nice" (Phil Ochs), "I'm On My Way (To the Freedom Land).") Ex-Student Body President of Reed College and student representative from San Francisco State University speaks about the solidarity of students on their campuses with the FSM demonstrators. Jack Weinberg expresses fears about possible violence that evening and about complicity of university administation in these actions. Dick Roman makes an announcement about a possible "turning point" in negotions between FSM representatives and Clark Kerr; discusses strategies for preparing for possible massive arrests that evening. Unidentified professor urges that the demonstrators disband and "give faculty a chance to intervene," rather than face mass arrests. On-mike reporter announces deployment of Alameda County sheriffs and university police in various quadrants of Sproul Plaza. Dick Roman and others give instructions to crowd on how to deal with arrests and possible police violence. (Pacifica Archives # BD0016.0E)

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Car Top Rally, Part 11 (approx 29 min.): Oct 2: Demonstrators await outcome of negotiations between Savio and other student leaders, Berkeley chancellor Strong, and University President Clark Kerr. They prepare for possible confrontration with police. Among the events captured in this recording are discussions of strategies for passive resistence; demonstrators singing various Civil Rights Movement songs ("We Shall Overcome", "Freedom's Coming", "Woke Up This Morning (With My Mind Set On Freedom)," "I'm On My Way") and other songs ("Blowing in the Wind," "We Shall Not Be Moved", "America"). Campus police push their way toward the stranded police car in attempt to remove Jack Weinberg, but the crowd of demonstrators grows and prevents this action. An unidentified woman attorney speaks to the demonstrators about the historical role of education in a democratic society, the right to open discourse in a democracy, and the importance of academic freedom in a democracy ("Education is as broad as the human mind. ...it is the job of students to ask questions"). She provides brief information about legal rights in case of arrest. An annoucement is made about a bail fund started by students of Reed College. An annoucement is made regarding the influx of police on campus and the sealing off of campus at Bancroft and Telegraph Avenues. The crowd sings "Happy Birthday" to Mahatma Gandhi. (Pacifica Archives # BD0016.03G)

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Discussion of repercussions of resisting police. Art Goldberg (?) exhorts crowd to commit itself to the cause. More students join those sitting around the police car. Demonstrators sing "Which Side Are You On," We Shall Not Be Moved," and "America the Beautiful." Crowd chants "Clark Kerr Must Go!" Announcement regarding negotiations with Clark Kerr and campus administration. Savio speaks to crowd about "seriousness of the circumstances in which we find ourselves here and now." Calls for meeting on Sproul steps on the following Monday to discuss the statement developed by FSM and faculty negotiators with campus administration (see Part 12 below for final form of this statement). Savio discusses the negotiation process in developing this statement.

Interviews with Mario Savio and Clark Kerr following the decision to accept the statement. [Note: some overlap with above recordings and with Part 12 recording below]

Source recording courtesy of Lynne Hollander and Michael Rossman.

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Car Top Rally, Part 12 (approx 15 min.): October 2, recordings capture some of the following activities: approximately 7:25 pm, with President Kerr and Chancellor Strong watching from the steps of Sproul Hall (the crowd was unaware of their presence), Mario Savio reads the agreement forged by university administators and protest leaders and University officials:

1. The student demonstrators shall desist from all forms of their illegal protest against University regulations.
2. A committee representing students (including leaders of the demonstration), faculty, and administration will immediately be set up to conduct discussions and hearing into all aspects of political behavior on campus and its control, and to make recommendations to the administration. 3. The arrested man will be booked, released on his own recognizance, and the University (complainant) will not press charges.
4. The duration of the suspension of the suspended students will be submitted within one week to the Student Conduct Committee of the Academic Senate.
5. Activity may be continued by student organizations in accordance with existing University regulations.
6. The President of the University has already declared his willingness to support deeding certain University property at the end of Telegraph Avenue to the City of Berkeley or to the ASUC.

Savio puts acceptance of these conditions to a vote, and the group supports it. Savio requests that the demonstrators surrounding the police car "rise with dignity and walk home." Clark Kerr gives reporters a brief statement: "We feel that law and order has been preserved on the Berkeley campus," and the results of current action are "a great triumph for decency, good will, and reason." (Pacifica Archives # BD0016.03F)

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Mario Savio statement regarding student civil and political liberties and the university (Fall 1964?)

Source recording courtesy of Lynne Hollander and Michael Rossman

Listen to it (3:07)

Sproul Hall Sit-in, September 30/October 1, 1964

© Pacifica Radio, 1964. All rights reserved.

Raw tape recorded by KPFA reporters; edited 1999 by Gary Handman, UC Berkeley Media Resources Center.

NOTE: Sound quality and continuity in some portions is uneven.

Recordings capture some of the following events of September 30 and October 1: Discussions among students regarding sit-in strategies; discussions among Arleigh Williams (Dean of Men), Mario Savio, Nate Coleman, Michael Rossman, Jim Picket, and others about student demands and the occupation of Sproul Hall. Professor Nathan Glazer (Sociology) discusses faculty actions and opinions related to the demonstration and FSM demands. Songs and chants of demonstrators. Demonstrator vote on course of sit-in. (Pacifica Archives # BD0016.02a)

Part I (approx. 31 min.) Listen to it (mp3)

Part II (approx. 36 min.) Listen to it (mp3)

Part III: (approx. 74 min) (NOTE: there is little information available regarding this recording; presumably from the early morning of October 1, 1964.) A large part of the recording is off-speed, but understandable) Unidentified speakers (inside Sproul?) discuss events surrounding student demonstrations: discussions of pressures outside of the university to quell student unrest (the Oakland Tribune is mentioned); speakers urge standing behind the eight suspended students; reporter interviews student regarding entry into locked-down sproul by climbing up the front of the building. Professor [Assistant Dean] Barnes expounds on his views of the most effective means of affecting change within the university, the role and obligations of a public university, etc. Leaders of student demonstrations (including Art Goldberg, Mario Savio, and Brian Turner) hold a strategy session for the day: a discussion and vote on strategy is held, including the issue of disbanding the current sit-in, setting up tables in Sproul to collect money for the legal defense of suspended students. Reports on soliciting outside support for the FSM from unions and civil rights organizations. Professor Barnes talks about the historical and current legal and administrative history of free speech on campus; discusses strategies for affecting change within the university; the university's role in the cold war and its connection to other outside economic and political affairs. Mario Savio responds to Barnes' remarks. (Pacifica Archives # BD0016.01b )

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FSM Rally and Press Conference, November 9, 1964

© Pacifica Radio, 1964. All rights reserved.

November 7: The University administration declares itself unalterably opposed to the students' position on political advocacy. The University demands the right to discipline students and organizations advocating activities that "directly result" in "unlawful acts" off the campus. The students demand that the definition of legal speech be left solely to the courts, citing the stand of the American Civil Liberties Union and that of the American Association of University Professors: "In the area of the first amendment rights and civil liberties, the University may impose no disciplinary action against members of the university community and organizations in this area, members of the university community are subject only to the civil authorities."

November 9: The FSM decides to "exercise our constitutional rights" and resumes manning tables.

Among the events captured on the following recordings are: M. Savio discusses strategies for dealing with campus administration practice of requiring a showing of registration cards for those staffing poltical advocacy tables. Savio identifies Berkeley mayor Johnson in the crowd and unsuccessfully attempts to have him address the group. Dean Rice (Dean of Students) interrogates students staffing the C.O.R.E table in Sproul Plaza regarding their student status and their permit to set up the table. Savio discusses the possibility of using the registration card requirement as a constitutional test case.

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Brief press conference with Mario Savio, Jack Weinberg, and the Vice President of the ASUC (who attempts to clarify the ASUC's stand on the general principles being put forward by the FSM).

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Sproul Hall Sit-in, November 23, 1964

© Pacifica Radio, 1964. All rights reserved.

Photograph of Mario Savio and FSM participants, November 20, 1964 (Chris Kjobech photography, from the collection of the Oakland Museum of California)

November 21-22: The FSM Executive Committee and Steering Committee both split on tactics with a majority of each finally favoring a sit-in in Sproul Hall on Monday to express their feelings of despair over the Administration's refusal to meet with them or to permit students full Constitutional rights on campus.

November 23: Three hundred students sit in for three hours in Sproul Hall after hot debate during rally splits the FSM.

Among the events captured on the following recordings are: M. Savio: discussion of university vs civil authority to deal with issues related to civil liberties; discussion of university's policy and practice of "prior restraint" concerning political activity and speech on campus. Criticism of recent faculty report on political advocacy. Report on the Oakland Tribune Project and plans for picketing against discriminatory hiring practices. Intimations of another sit-in in the face of university refusal to meet FSM demands. Professor Reginald Zelnick (History) addresses the crowd: "The next 28 hours may be the most important in the the history of this university;" discusses his belief in the faculty's ability to best deal with issues related to civil and academic freedom. Michael Rossman and Art Goldberg address the crowd on the need for individuals to assess the political benefits and the liabilities of further action such as a sit-in (Goldberg: "Be honest with yourselves; think, then act..."). Jack Weinberg reports on the FSM Steering Committee's negotiations and decision to sit in. Savio discusses the strategies for the sit in (the passages will not be blocked; the demonstrators will sit against the walls). Jo Freedman criticizes the Steering Committee for its failure to allow wider student dialog; she advocates several alternative plans of action. Goldberg repudiates her statements.

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November 23 (most likely recorded inside Sproul Hall): Savio discusses the duration of the sit-in, and reports on his discussions with University Police Lieutenant Chandler. Unidentified speaker questions FSM "competence" and effectiveness in achieving its goals. Other speakers discuss the sit-in in the context of FSM's past activity and offer pros and cons of the action. A petition is offered protesting the forthcoming activities of the House Committee on UnAmerican Activies (HUAC) in San Francisco.

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Report from inside Sproul on the status of the sit-in (reporter unknown), around 2:00 pm. Much of the first part of this recording is low-keyed crowd milling, some brief background singing (including FSM song to the tune of the Beatles "I Should Have Known Better"). Annoucement by Mario Savio (around 20:29 Part 1)regarding meeting with Lieutenant Chandler of UC Police regarding consequences of not leaving Sproul at closing time; Savio reports about discussion with Professor Reginald Zelnick about Academic Senate meeting the following day. Savio polls the group on whether to have song and entertainment or to "keep it quiet." Discussions regarding strategy and arguments for and against staying in building after closing. Bettina Aptheker urges crowd to stay and abide by decisions of FSM Steering Committee (around 32:29 Part 1). Art Goldberg addresses crowd regarding FSM Steering Committee (Part 2); Savio addresses crowd (around 1:50 part 2) regarding decision making and FSM leadership [poor sound quality], urges group to abide by the decision of the FSM Steering Committee regarding whether to say or leave the building; FSM Christmas Carols sung (around 12:19 part 2)

Part 1: Listen to it
Part 2: Listen to it

Sproul Hall Sit-in, December 2, 1964

On December 2, 1964, eight hundred students moved into Sproul Hall after a rally. They regarded the action as a last resort in the face of the Administration's refusal to negotiate the student grievances and its "arbitrarily singling out students for punishment." The fourth floor became a quiet study hall, while movies are shown and classes are held on the second floor. Strict discipline was maintained; orders to stay out of offices was given and obeyed {from FSM Archives chronology)

Photos of the sit-in (December 3-4, 1964)taken by Richard A. Muller.

Charlie Powell (President ASUC), Michael Rossman, and Mario Savio address those assembled in Sproul Plaza before the sit-in. Savio presents his famous "you've got to put your bodies upon the gears" speech."

© Pacifica Radio, 1964. All rights reserved.

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See also:

Video clip of a portion of Mario Savio's speech before the FSM sit-in (December 3)

Transcript of speech (via AmericanRhetoric.com)

Following Savio's speech, above, Joan Baez sings: "All Your Trials Soon be Over," "Blowing in the Wind." Mario Savio leads crowd into Sproul, Baez leads the singing of "We Shall Overcome."

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The following recordings include the following events: Songs: "I'm On My Way (To the Freedom Land)", "Come and Go With Me To That Land," The Twelve Days of Semester (Twelve Days of Christmas)", "You Really Got Me" and "She's Not There" (The Kinks). Eric Vaughn, a philosophy student, presents a humorous, ad hoc evangelist sermon on the decline of American culture. Discussions regarding guarding the demonstrators' public address equipment against police tampering. Songs: "This Little Light of Mine" (with FSM words inserted), "Woke Up This Morning With My Mind Set on Freedom", "Freedom's Coming!" Unidentified student reads a pro-FSM editorial from a Ventura County newspaper. Songs: "We Shall Not Be Moved", "I'm On My Way (To the Freedom Land", "Joy To UC (Joy to the World)", "It's Be a Long Hard Fight (Hard Day's Night)". Brief interview with Mario Savio: discussion of the language used in recent FSM pamphlet ("We will stop the Machine..."); nature of support for FSM; possibilities of the university resorting to "police power." Brief interview with Joan Baez (who had joined students inside Sproul). Songs: "Talking Willie Nolan Blues" (Nolan was the conservative publisher of the Oakland Tribune), "Hail to IBM (Ode to Joy)", "The Times They Are a' Changin'", "Blowing in the Wind", "Follow the Drinking Gourd", "Song of My Hand".

(Approx. 55 min. 25 seconds)

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Mario Savio at Greek Theater, December 7, 1964

"Departmental chairmen call off all classes between 9:00 and noon and hold departmental meetings to discuss the Chairmen's agreement with the [UC] President [Clark Kerr]: complete campus amnesty for acts through today is granted. No position on the advocacy question is taken.

Professor Robert Scalapino, Chairman of the Political Science Department, and President Kerr address 18,000 students at an "extraordinary convocation" in the Hearst Greek Theatre. Many faculty members express their reluctance to support President Kerr by their cool reception of his speech.

Mr. Savio walks to the podium after the adjournment of the meeting, but is grabbed from behind by two policemen and.detained in a dressing room. Finally, he is brought out and allowed to speak. He says that he had only intended to announce a.rally at noon on the SprouI Hall steps.

At the rally, several departmental chairmen speak along with the FSM leaders, who explain that the strike will be called off so that the Academic Senate may deliberate in peace the proposals on political freedom of the two hundred professors. Meanwhile President Kerr meets with the professors who drafted these resolutions; word is spread that he has endorsed the resolutions. Later that afternoon, the Academic Freedom Committee and.the Chairmen's Council endorses the proposals with little change. The students call off the strike." [From FSM Archives chronology]

The following is a live recording of Savio's removal from the stage. Following this segment is a report on the incident from radio station KFRC (approximately 10:19)

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Sentencing of Free Speech Movement Defendants

© Pacifica Radio, 1967. All rights reserved.
(Pacifica Archives # E2BB1303)

Recording of KPFA broadcast.52 min.

Discussion of the trial and Supreme Court appeal of the Free Speech Movement defendants (in arrests made during Sproul Hall sit-in, Dec. 1964). Mario Savio and Bettina Aptheker interviewed by Elsa Knight Thompson. Includes on-site recording of a rally in support of the defendants.

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Joy to UC (FSM Carols, 1964)

Contents: Oski Dolls -- We Three Deans -- UC Administration -- Jail to IBM -- It Belongs to the University -- Silent Night -- Call Out the Deans -- Masters of Sproul Hall -- God Rest Ye Free Speech -- Come All Ye Mindless -- Joy to UC.

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Short radio news item regarding the FSM and student activism at UCB (1964?)

Source recording courtesy Lynne Hollander and Michael Rossman

Includes voices of Art Goldberg (SLATE and FSM), and Robert Dussault of the University Students for Law and Order (an anti-FSM group). Dussault characterizes the FSM as representing "anarchy chaos, rebellion and fanatacism."

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Mario Savio and other FSM members debate University Students for Law and Order, Les Crane television show (ABC, 1964?)

Source recording courtesy Lynne Hollander and Michael Rossman

Participants: Mario Savio, Suzanne Goldberg, Steve Wiseman (live), and Charles Powell (President, ASUC), Robert Dussault and Bill Story(University Students for Law and Order), via phone from California; students from Columbia University also participate.

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The Faculty and Administrative Response

UC Berkeley Faculty Senate debate on resolutions of Senate Academic Freedom Committee concerning free speech and political advocacy on campus, December 8, 1964.

© Pacifica Radio, 1964. All rights reserved.

Information and transcripts concerning the UCB Faculty Senate debate (via FSM Archives)

Part I (approx. 45:03 min.) Listen to it

Part II: (approx. 44:54 min.) Listen to it

Short Statements from Faculty and FSM regarding the December 8, 1964 Academic Senate vote.

Comments by Jack Weinberg (FSM); Professor Richard W. Jennings, Chair of Berkeley Division of the Academic Senate; Professor Joseph Garbarino, Chair of Senate Committee on Academic Freedom; Professor Lewis Feuer; Professor Joseph Tussman, and others.

Source recording courtesy Lynne Hollander and Michael Rossman

Listen to it (31:19)

California State Assemblyman William Stanton comments on outcome of December 1964 Regents meeting

© Pacifica Radio, 1965. All rights reserved.

Stanton comments on a meeting of the Regents following the December 8, 1964 vote of support for the FSM by the UCB Faculty Senate.

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Paul Goodman on University Reform

© Pacifica Radio, 1965. All rights reserved.
(Pacifica Archives # E2BB0488)

Recording of KPFA broadcast. approx. 79:15 min.

Paul Goodman speaks on the changes in the university system made necessary by the Free Speech Movement

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Mario Savio (portion) talk to California Federation Teachers (AFT), January 3, 1965, Fresno, CA.

Source recording courtesy of Lynne Hollander and Michael Rossman

Savio discusses current FSM activities and provides a brief history of the movement.

Listen to it (35:25)

FSM Rally, January 4, 1965

Source recording courtesy of Lynne Hollander and Michael Rossman

Part 1: Mario Savio and other speakers discuss independent investigation of the UC Regents; policies of UC Berkeley and UC Regents' concerning student advocacy on campus; proposal for establishment of Free University. Part 2 includes debate/vote concerning holding mass silent vigil before Academic Senate meeting. Joan Baez sings several songs (approx. 10:12) Unidentified speaker discusses current status and aims of FSM and student movements at UCB. Discussion of principles supported by Academic Senate vote of December 8, 1964. Professor David Freedman (Mathematics)discusses and offers his impressions of report of Academic Freedom Committee. Mario Savio reports on discussions with faculty member; critically assesses outcome of December 18, 1964 UC Regents meeting [speech ends abruptly].

Part 1: Listen to it
Part 2: Listen to it

After the FSM: Student Movements and Student Protest 1965--

The "Filthy Speech" Episode

"Notwithstanding its superficial triviality, the so-called "filthy speech" episode of March 1965 put the faculty-student alliance of December 8 [i.e. 1964] to a severe and rather unhappy test. The crisis was brought on by the prominent and provocative display of the work FUCK on a sign carried on campus by a nonstudent and his subsequent arrest by campus police folled by a series of "Obscenity Rallies" and several more arrests (including those of prominent FSMer Arthur Goldberg, who was soon expelled). These events precipitated the first rally on Sproul Steps that was called and organized specifically by faculty. The rally had as its primary purpose the efforts of liberal faculty to distance themselves from some FSMers' defense of the provocative, "obscene" contents of Spider, a new countercultural campus literary magazine, and of the right to freely shout or display "four letter" obscenities within the "time, place, and matter" rules, an issue that had never been seriously discussed by any of the contending parties in the fall.

[from Zelnik, Reginald. "On the side of the Angels.: The Berkeley Faculty and the FSM." In: The Free Speech Movement: Reflections on Berkeley in the 1960's. Edited by Robert Cohen and Reginald Zelnik. pp. 320-21. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002]

Staff of SPIDER Magazine, FSM Executive Committee (?), UCB Faculty, and Others discuss Academic Sentate Meeting, further infringements on students rights to distribute political literature (i.e. SPIDER Magazine) (March 18, 1965?)

Source recording courtesy of Lynne Hollander and Michael Rossman

NOTE: Some portions edited for continuity and to eliminate crowd noise.

Part 1
Part 2

FSM Executive Committee Meeting, March 20-21, 1965

Source recording courtesy of Lynne Hollander and Michael Rossman

Discussions regarding legal defense funds and other support for students arrested on obscenity charges, January 1965; discussions of nature and future role of FSM and FSM leadership; future strategies for the movement, and future of student activism on campus.

Part 1
Part 2
Part 3
Part 4
Part 5

Student Rally concerning the Banning of Spider Magazine

Source recording courtesy of Lynne Hollander and Michael Rossman

Speakers include Jim Fricket(?) of Spider staff, Professor Morrish Hirsch (Mathematics), Elija Turner (Oakland C.O.R.E.)

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Debate related to student arrests for campus obscenity, Spider Magazine, and the FSM (1965): Professor Thomas Parkinson, Bob Kaufman, Professor Reginald Zelnick, Mario Savio

Source recording courtesy of Lynne Hollander and Michael Rossman

Max Heirich's The Beginning: Berkeley 1964 for an account of student obscenity arrests

Listen to it: Parkinson and Kaufman (40:12)

Listen to it: Zelnick and Savio (51:35)

Student Rally, April 23, 1965 concerning student suspensions/campus obscenity issue

Source recording courtesy of Lynne Hollander and Michael Rossman

Speakers include Mario Savio, Brad Cleaveland, Jackie Goldberg, Art Goldberg, Professor Thomas Parkinson, Nicholas Zvegintzov, and others.

Part 1: Savio, Cleaveland, J. Goldberg, Charles Flynn (student speaking against obscenity), Nicholas Zvegintzov (suspended student) (33:45)

Part 2: Art Goldberg, Richard Romanoff, Thomas Parkinson, Mario Savio, and others (33:45)

Part 3: Savio, Civil Rights singers (29:42)

Part 4: Savio, Brad Cleaveland, other speakers(29:41)

Mario Savio: May 21, 1965 address to Vietnam War Teach-In

© Pacifica Radio, 1965. All rights reserved.

Transcripts of the Savio's address to Teach-in (via FSM web site)

Contents: 1. Introduction by Professor John Searle (4 min.) 2. Talk by Mario Savio (28 min.) Produced by KPFA, Berkeley, 28 June 1965

Note:First several minutes of program are poorly recorded.

Listen to it

UCB Chancellor Edward Strong on the Impact of the Free Speech Movement (radio interview) (September 10, 1965)
Source recording courtesy of Lynne Hollander and Michael Rossman

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News broadcasts related to UCB Student Protests and Strikes Concerning Military and Military Industry Recruiting on Campus (1966?)

Source recording courtesy of Lynne Hollander and Michael Rossman

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Discussion of the future of UC Berekeley student movements (September 16, 1966)

Recording courtesy of Lynne Hollander and Michael Rossman.
Note: Question and answer portion in part 4 is poorly recorded

Part 1
Part 2
Part 3
Part 4

Student Strike 1966

A recording of the meeting held in Pauley Ballroom on the campus of UC Berkeley following a sit-in and arrests of students for blocking the Navy recruiting table outside the student store. The Strike Committee along with the audience decided to initiate a formal, all-out strike. This recording is a portion of the 6 hour deliberations related to this action.

"Just as in 1964 the Free Speech Movement was incited by the power structure's attempt to crack down on the Civil Rights Movement, the present conflict stems from the continuing attempt to crush the anti-war movement in this country. The right of dissent is imperative to the continuance of opposition to American suppression of self-determination in Vietnam, and it is a fundamental right upon which any democratic enterprise must be based." (Vietnam Day Committee statement in support of strike)

Part 1 speakers include Joel Gire (?), Karen Lieberman and Ira Ruskin (re campus administration's refusal to negotiate with groups supporting the strike) Mario Savio, Al Jacobs and Karl Davidson (Students for a Democratic Society), David Harris (student body president, Stanford University), and others.

Part 2 speakers include Professor Robert Moore (Mathematics), Professor Bernard Diamond (Law; Psychiatry), and student speakers.

Part 1
Part 2

Report on University Governance

Mario Savio, Bettina Aptheker, and Reese Erlich discuss the report of a student-faculty commission on University governance. Moderated by Elsa Knight Thompson. 31 January 1968.

Listen to it (85 min.)

© Pacifica Radio, 1968. All rights reserved.
(Pacifica Archives # E2BB1634)

Retrospective Looks at the FSM
Suzanne Goldberg and Brad Cleaveland discuss their participation in the FSM.

Comments on FSM leadership; sit-in (December 1964); faculty reactions and participation to FSM; FSM activities related to student obscenity arrests (1965); other student political activities.

Date of recording unknown

Source recording courtesy of Lynne Hollander and Michael Rossman

Part 1: Goldberg (57:17)
Part 2: Cleaveland (61 min)
Part 3: Cleaveland (39:44)
Part 4: Cleaveland (27:19)
Part 5: Goldberg (15:49)
Part 6: Cleaveland (46:32)

20th Anniversary Noon Rally, October 1984
Recorded by the University of California Berkeley Language Laboratory.
Berkeley Language Center -- Speech Archive SA 1533

Transcripts of the noon rally (via FSM web site)

Contents:
Introduction (3:46)
Freedom Song Network (3:07)
Gus Newport (3:07)
Jack Weinberg (14:11)
Jackie Goldberg (12:17)
Barbara Dane (1:21)
Mario Savio (21:10)
Conclusion (3:20)

Listen to it

20th Anniversary -- Panel Discussion: The Story of the Free Speech Movement, October 1984
Recorded by the University of California Berkeley Language Laboratory.
Berkeley Language Center -- Speech Archive SA 1537

Contents:

Introduction (3:20)
Michael Rossman ( 23:07)
Suzanne Goldberg (18:03)
Art Goldberg (23:03)

Listen to it

Contents:

Bettina Aptheker (33:45)
Mario Savio (33:45)

Listen to it

Contents:

Discussion (33:45)

Listen to it

Contents:

Discussion (continued) (33:45)

Listen to it

30th Anniversary, December 1-4, 1994.

The Current Political Situation. Key participants in the Free Speech Movement which occurred at the University of California, Berkeley in 1964 address students on the 30th anniversary of the student movement at the International House concerning their views on the current political situation in the United States. Taped at the University of California, Berkeley during the Free Speech Movement 30th Anniversary Celebration & Reunion, December 1-4, 1994. Videographer, Harold Adler. 150 min. DVD 9649 [preservation copy]; vhs Video/C 3647

Part I: View this video online
UC Berkeley users only - Requires Windows Media Player or Flip4Mac

Part II: View this video online
UC Berkeley users only - Requires Windows Media Player or Flip4Mac

Noon Rally, Sproul Plaza.

Key participants in the Free Speech Movement which occurred at the University of California, Berkeley in 1964 address students thirty years later in Sproul Plaza, the sight of the student strike and current sight of the "open forum" for ideological debate at UCB which resulted from the Free Speech Movement. Taped at the University of California, Berkeley during the Free Speech Movement 30th Anniversary Celebration & Reunion, December 1-4, 1994. Speakers: Margot Adler, Jackie Goldberg, Maureen Karpan, Mario Savio, Jack Weinberg. Videographer, Harold Adler. 90 min. DVD 9648 [preservation copy]; vhs Video/C 3646.

View this video online
Requires Windows Media Player or Flip4Mac

What Happened in the FSM? The Issues, the Events, the Spirit.

A panel of participants in the Free Speech Movement which occured at the University of California, Berkeley in 1964 engage in a historical retrospective on the movement's impact and debate current political situations and philosophies. Panel: Gentri Anders, Ken Cloke, Troy Duster, Barbara Garson, David Goines. Taped at the University of California, Berkeley during the Free Speech Movement 30th Anniversary Celebration & Reunion, December 1-4, 1994. Videographer, Harold Adler. 135 min. DVD 9647; vhs Video/C 3645

View this video online
UC Berkeley users only - Requires Windows Media Player or Flip4Mac

Mario Savio Speech to Sidwell Friends School Graduating Class, 1988

View this video online
UC Berkeley users only - Requires Windows Media Player or Flip4Mac

Mario Savio Speech to the ACLU, 1995

View this video online
UC Berkeley users only - Requires Windows Media Player or Flip4Mac

Mario Savio Memorial

© Pacifica Radio, 1996. All rights reserved.

approx. 35 min.

Notes on the Mario Savio memorial, 12/8/96 by Julia Stein
Mario Savio Memorial (from the FSM Archives)
Bettina Aptheker eulogy

From the Paccifica Radio national program, Democracy Now! Includes excerpts from Savio speeches, and excerpts from memorials by Jack Weinberger and Bettina Aptheker.

Listen to it

Copyright Information

All materials in this collection are copyrighted and may not be downloaded, reproduced, or incorporated into other works without permission.

All Pacifica Radio Archives recordings are copyright by Pacifica Radio. These materials may not be downloaded, recorded, reproduced, transcribed, or otherwise used, all or in parts, in any form or format, without express written permission from Pacifica Radio. Contact the Pacifica Radio Archives, 3729 Cahuenga Blvd. West, North Hollywood, CA 91604, (800) 735-0230, Fax (818) 506-1084; email: pacarchive@aol.com


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All recordings (C) by Pacifica Radio All rights reserved.
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Gary Handman, Head, Media Resources Center.
Last update 11/29/10 (gh)

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