Free Speech Movement, UC Berkeley - Online Audio Recordings












Chronology adapted from Revolution at Berkeley: The Crisis in American Education, edited by Michael V. Miller and Susan Gilmore; Dial Press, N.Y., 1965.

For a more detailed chronology, SEE California Monthly, February 1965 "Three Months of Crisis: Chronology of Events"


September 16: Dean of Students, Katherine Towle, sends a letter to all student organizations to inform them that the sidewalk area in front of the campus at Bancroft and Telegraph will no longer be available for setting up tables, raising funds, recruiting members, and giving speeches for off-campus political and social action. Previously, this property was thought to belong to the city of Berkeley. It is now revealed, however, that the property belonged to the University, and henceforth all University rules restricting political activities would apply to this area.

September 17: The leadership of student organizations, including political groups ranging from the far left to the far right, form a united front to request that the administration restore the area to its traditional role as a center of student political activity and expression.

September 21: The first day of classes. Dean Towle, after meeting with representatives from the united front, modifies the previous ruling. Students would be allowed to set up tables and distribute informational material, but they would still not be allowed to engage in the essential stuff of politics. After the students' request to resume traditional political activities is turned down, the united front holds its first rally on the steps of Sproul Hall (Berkeley Administration Building).

September 18: The 18 student organizations affected by the Bancroft-Telegraph controversy petitioned the Dean of Students for the use of the Bancroft-Telegraph area, under the following conditions:

1. Tables for student organizations at Bancroft and Telegraph will be manned at all times.
2. The organizations shall provide their own tables and chairs; no University property shall be borrowed.
3. There shall be no more than one table in front of each pillar and one at each side of the entrance way. No tables shall be placed in front of the entrance posts.
4. No posters shall be attached to posts or pillars. Posters shall be attached to tables only.
5. We (students) shall make every effort to see that provisions 1-4 are carried out and shall publish such rules and distribute them to the various student organizations.
6. The tables at Bancroft and Telegraph may be used to distribute literature advocating action on current issues with the understanding that the student organizations do not represent the University of California--thus these organizations will not use the name of the University and will dissociate themselves from the University as an institution.
7. Donations may be accepted at the tables.

September 20: At an evening meeting, most of the groups affected by the new University policy agreed to picket, conduct vigils, rallies and touch off civil disobedience, if the University stands firm on the Bancroft-Telegraph politics ban after a meeting with Dean Towle, scheduled for 10:30 a.m. the next morning.

September 21: Dean Towle met with representatives of student groups affected by the new University rules for the Bancroft-Telegraph area. She accepted most of the proposals submitted by the students on Sept. 18: she would allow groups to set up a regulated number of tables with posters attached in the area, and she would allow distribution of informative--as opposed to advocative--literature from them. Dean Towle also announced the establishment "on an experimental basis" of a second "Hyde Park" free-speech area at the entrance to Sproul Hall. Dean Towle refused permission to advocate specific action and to recruit individuals for specific causes. Also prohibited was solicitation of funds and donations "to aid projects not directly connected with some authorized activity of the University..."

September 25: University President Clark Kerr condemned the student demonstrations, and disagreed with the protestors that you must have action in order to learn: "I don't think you have to have action to have intellectual opportunity. Their actions--collecting money and picketing--aren't high intellectual activity... These actions are not necessary for the intellectual development of the students. If that were so, why teach history? We can't live in ancient Greece...
The University is an educational institution that has been given to the Regents as a trust to administer for educational reasons, and not to be used for direct political action. It wouldn't be proper. It is not right to use the University as a basis from which people organize and undertake direct action in the surrounding community."

September 28: Chancellor Edward Strong modifies the ban to permit campaigning for candidates and propositions on ballots. Dean Arleigh Williams warns that students persisting in what has now been defined as "illegal politics" may be expelled. Meanwhile, several political organizations continue setting up tables and engaging in pre-ban activities.

September 30:At noon, University Friends of the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) and Campus Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) set up tables at Sather Gate. Neither has permits from the Dean of Students Office. According to Mario Savio, SNCC spokesman, the student groups were denied permits because it was suspected that they would attempt to collect funds for off-campus political or social action. According to Brian Turner, who set up the SNCC table, funds were being collected, in direct violation of University regulations. University administration representatives approach each table, and take the names of those manning the tables. Five students--Mark Bravo, Brian Turner, Donald Hatch, Elizabeth Gardiner Stapleton, and David Goines--are requested to appear before Dean of Men Arleigh Williams at 3:00 p.m. for disciplinary action.

Over 400 students sign statements that they are equally responsible for manning the tables and appear in Sproul Hall requesting that they too be given disciplinary hearings. ("We the undersigned have jointly manned tables at Sather Gate, realizing that we were in violation of University edicts to the contrary. We realize we may be subject to expulsion.") All are refused access to the deans except the original five students and the three leaders of this protest group who are now scheduled to meet with Dean Williams at 4:00 PM. The general student protest continues and continues to be ignored; finally even the meeting with the eight students' leaders is cancelled. As evening approaches, the hundreds of students remain outside the dean's offices; at 11:45 Chancellor Strong announces the indefinite suspension of the eight students; the assembly of students remains at Sproul Hall until the following morning.

Sproul Hall Sit-in, September 30/October 1, 1964

NOTE: Sound quality and continuity in some portions is uneven.

Recordings capture some of the following events of September 30 and October 1: Discussions among students regarding sit-in strategies; discussions among Arleigh Williams (Dean of Men), Mario Savio, Nate Coleman, Michael Rossman, Jim Picket, and others about student demands and the occupation of Sproul Hall. Professor Nathan Glazer (Sociology) discusses faculty actions and opinions related to the demonstration and FSM demands. Songs and chants of demonstrators. Demonstrator vote on course of sit-in. (Pacifica Archives # BD0016.02a)

Part I (approx. 31 min.) Listen to it

Part II (approx. 36 min.) Listen to it

Part III: (approx. 74 min) (NOTE: there is little information available regarding this recording; presumably from the early morning of October 1, 1964.) A large part of the recording is off-speed, but understandable) Unidentified speakers (inside Sproul?) discuss events surrounding student demonstrations: discussions of pressures outside of the university to quell student unrest (the Oakland Tribune is mentioned); speakers urge standing behind the eight suspended students; reporter interviews student regarding entry into locked-down Sproul by climbing up the front of the building. Professor [Assistant Dean] Barnes expounds on his views of the most effective means of affecting change within the university, the role and obligations of a public university, etc. Leaders of student demonstrations (including Art Goldberg, Mario Savio, and Brian Turner) hold a strategy session for the day: a discussion and vote on strategy is held, including the issue of disbanding the current sit-in, setting up tables in Sproul to collect money for the legal defense of suspended students. Reports on soliciting outside support for the FSM from unions and civil rights organizations. Professor Barnes talks about the historical and current legal and administrative history of free speech on campus; discusses strategies for affecting change within the university; the university's role in the cold war and its connection to other outside economic and political affairs. Mario Savio responds to Barnes' remarks. (Pacifica Archives # BD0016.01b )

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October 1:

The first Sproul Hall sit-in broke up at approximately 2:40 a.m., when demonstrators vote to leave the premises. Before leaving, they announce a rally to be held at noon on Sproul Hall steps.

At 11:15 p.m. small groups of anti-demonstration demonstrators began converging on the mall from all directions, swelling the crowd to about 2,500. At this point, the demonstration degenerated into a shouting, singing, swearing and egg throwing contest. The demonstrators sang "We Shall Overcome!" The anti-demonstration forces shouted "Mickey Mouse ! " (See Parts 7 and 8 below)

At approximately 11:45 a.m. Deans George S. Murphy and Peter Van Houten, with University Police Lieutenant Merrill F. Chandler approached and spoke to a man who was soliciting funds at the Campus CORE table at the foot of Sproul Hall steps [Jack Weinberg]. The crowd chanted "Release him! Release him!" About 100 students promptly lay down in front of the police car, an other 80 or so sat behind it. Mario Savio removed his shoes and climbed on top of it, urging the gathering crowd to join in (See Part 1 below)

By noon, about 300 demonstrators surrounded the immobile police car; by 12:30 p.m., several thousand students were crowded around the car--which became the focal point and rostrum for the next 32 hours of student demonstrations.

The protest is extended when students enter Sproul Hall for a second major sit-in. Meanwhile a group of faculty members attempts to mediate; however, the administration announces that the rules are not negotiable. The student protesters remain. (See Parts 4 and 5 below; also: Sept. 30/October 1 sit-in recordings)

October 2: At 1:30 a.m., as conflicts between demonstrators and anti-demonstration demonstrators threatened to erupt into a full- blown riot, Father James Fisher of Newman Hall mounted the police car. The crowd fell silent as he pleaded for peace -- and got it. Demonstrations around the stranded police car, still containing Jack Weinberg, continued throughout the day. Sproul Hall was locked, except for one police-guarded door at the South end through which those with legitimate business inside could pass. A pup tent was pitched on one of the lawns. The entire mall area was littered with sleeping bags, blankets, books, and the debris of the all-night vigil.

Speakers continued to harangue the crowd from the top of the sagging police car, gathering momentum as noon approached. At noon, lunch-time onlookers enlarged the crowd to close to 4,000 persons.

At 10:30 a.m., after President Kerr and Chancellor Strong agreed that the situation had to be brought under control, a high-level meeting of administrators, deans and representatives of at least four law enforcement agencies was held to formulate plans for handling the demonstrations. At 11:55 a.m., representatives of the Governor's Office and the President's Office joined the session.

At 4:45 p.m. police officers from Oakland, Alameda County, Berkeley and the California Highway Patrol begin marching onto the campus, taking up positions at the north and south ends of Sproul Hall and on Barrows Lane, behind the Administration building. Some 500 officers, including over 100 motorcycle police, are on hand by 5:30 p.m., some armed with long riot sticks. As the police arrived, onlookers and protest sympathizers swelled the crowd between Sproul Hall and the Student Union to more than 7,000. Spectators line the Student Union balcony and the roof of the Dining Commons. As six campus police officers penetrate the periphery of the crowd -- in an effort to reinforce the stranded police car -- the demonstrators pack themselves solidly around the car (see Parts 9 and 10 below)

At approximately 7:20 p.m., the crowd is informed that an agreement has been reached, and that the protest spokesmen are en route from University House to present it to the demonstrators. At 7:30 p.m., with President Kerr and Chancellor Strong watching from the steps of Sproul Hall (the crowd was unaware of their presence), Mario Savio mounts the flattened roof of the police car to read the agreement. The demonstrators surrounding the police car disperse. (See Part 12 below)

Car Top Rally, Part 1 (approx. 62 min.): recordings include reading of ASUC petition (by KPFA reporter Burton White) regarding student political activity on campus; sounds of student political tables in Sproul Plaza; arrest of Jack Weinberg; Jamie Burton (graduate student) reports on meeting with Dean Arleigh Williams; Mario Savio's first car top address; Charlie Powell (ASUC President), Hal Draper, and other speakers. (Pacifica Archives # BD0016.02B)

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Partial transcript of this recording

Car Top Rally, Part 2 (approx. 63 min.): Part I: Recordings include car top speeches by Jackie Goldberg; Brian Turner (first student arrested); Mario Savio (reports on meeting with deans, FSM demands). Jack Weinberg speaks from the police car. Don Hacket, representative of the Young Republicans, speaks regarding conservative students' support of the FSM. Art Goldberg about table incident. Part II: Art Goldberg (cont.); Preisdent of Young Democrats on administration's interferance with campus activities; anti-demonstration demonstration; James Vitris (student) on freedom of thought at Berkeley; Clark Taylor on campus as sanctuary; Don Jessup on how campus should have same freedom as community; Brad Cleveland on free speech. (Pacifica Archives # BD0016.02D)

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Car Top Rally, Part 3 (approx. 63 min.): October 1: Speakers include Charlie Power, ASUC President, regarding recent meeting with Chancellor Strong. Powell urges demonstrators to disband and to allow the ASUC Senate a week to negotiate a compromise with campus administration. Mario Savio reports on the same meeting with the Chancellor, recaps student demands and reports on the Chancellor's blanket rejection of these demands. Savio describes his case to Strong that University's regulations regarding political activity infringes on both 1st and 14th amendment rights. (Pacifica Archives # BD0016.03C)

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Car Top Rally, Part 4 (approx 32 min.): Recordings include: Mario Savio reads Daily Cal anti-FSM editorial by Chancellor E.W. Strong; advocates continued blocking of police car and broadening demonstration to general student walk-out on classes. Additional speeches: grad student James Burton speaks against current student actions; speeches by Dick Roman, Dusty Miller, et al.

Latter part of this segment records some of the following events:

At approximately 2:30 p.m., Savio suggested the demonstrators force their way into Sproul Hall, in order to hinder operations of the Administration there. Savio then led about 150 students into Sproul Hall, where they sat outside the Dean of Students Office. About 4:00 p.m., the demonstrators inside now numbered about 400, voted to pack solidly in front of the door to the Deans' office, and not allow anyone out. Deans Peter Van Houten and Arleigh Williams were trapped within the office by this maneuver. (SEE ALSO: October 1, 1964 sit-in recordings below) (Pacifica Archives # BD0016.02E)

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Car Top Rally, Part 5: (approx 39 min.) Recordings include events on car top (Sproul Plaza) and inside Sproul Hall: car top speakers speak for and against current student actions; discussions of civil disobedience as a means of obtaining civil rights; announcements regarding activities and police actions in Sproul Hall; discussions of police conduct in general; Professor John Legget reports on faculty attempts at mediation with campus administration and student activists; crowd sings various songs ("We Shall Overcome/We Shall Have Free Speech"; "On My Way to the Freedom Land," Woody Guthrie's "What Did You Do In School Today?" and "This Land Is Your Land," "America The Beautiful"); police closure/lock-out of Sproul Hall (6:20pm); Mario Savio speaks about police closure of Sproul and strategies for the night and next day. (Pacifica Archives # BD0016.02F)

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Car Top Rally, Part 6 (approx 52 min.): October 1, approximately 6:30 pm: unidentified faculty representative reports on unsuccessful efforts to negotiate concessions by both administration and demonstrators. Mario Savio leads a lengthy discussion regarding proposals and counterproposals to abandon the Sproul Hall sit-in and to allow the police car to leave Sproul Plaza in return for concessions in regard to Jack Weinberg's arrest and the suspension of the eight students. Demonstrators finally vote in favor of an amended proposal to unilaterally withdraw from Sproul Hall but not from surrounding the police car until all actions against Weinberg and the eight students are dropped. Demonstrators inside Sproul leave the building. Art Goldberg addresses the crowd regarding strategies for further demonstrations. A report of misconduct by Berkeley City police inside Sproul is made by an unidentified speaker. Several pro-administration speakers address the crowd. Hecklers on the periphery of the demonstrators throw tomatoes; Art Goldberg urges an avoidance of confrontation. Mention is made of trying to get Joan Baez and Bob Dylan to address the demonstrators. (Pacifica Archives # BD0016.02G)

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Car Top Rally, Part 7 (approx 29 min.: October 1: A large group of hecklers (mainly fraternity men) surrounds the demonstrators in Sproul Plaza at approximately 11:00pm and demands that the police car be released; fire trucks arrive in response to a false alarm (opponents shout "hose em!"); eggs and lighted cigarettes are thrown into the center of the demonstrators; Savio urges the crowd to remain seated and quiet, attempts to explain to the opponents why the police car is being held; members of the opposing group speak; demonstrators sing "We Shall Overcome;" Dusty Miller and other speakers address the crowd. (Pacifica Archives # E2BD0016.02I and E2BD0016.02J)

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Car Top Rally, Part 8 (approx 28 min.): October 1, approximately 11:40pm: hecklers continue to demand that the police car be released; speakers mount the car to argue both for and against current demonstrations. Speakers include student Craig Burton, an aborted rebuttal to Burton by Mario Savio, and an unidentified fraternity man speaking against the demonstrators ("...it's always the same people with a cause, every week"). (Pacifica Archives # BD0016.02H )

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Car Top Rally, Part 9 (approx 14 min.): NOTE: very poor recording quality. October 2: Speakers continue to address the crowd from the car top. Recordings include: Mike Tiger, a law student, discusses the current demonstrations in historical context: discusses the university's continuing contribution to war technology and military economy; Clark Kerr's notion of "managerial society"--students as volatile and manipulatable elements in this society. An unidentified non-student speaker expresses his support of the demonstrations and offers to organize an effort to bring food, clothing and other necessities to the demonstrators. (Pacifica Archives # BD0016.03D)

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Car Top Rally, Part 10 (approx 29 min.): NOTE: Recording quality of some latter portions of this segment is poor.

Part I: Mario Savio reports on university administration's continuing unwillingness to negotiate ("...Strong and Kerr were 'not contactable.'"); Savio expresses concerns about further violence against the demonstrators and possible police actions to break the rally; urges solidarity: "Please be here tonight!"

Part II: Folksinger Barbara Dane is introduced and leads the crowd in several songs ("Oh Freedom!," "This Little Light of Mine," "It Isn't Nice" (Phil Ochs), "I'm On My Way (To the Freedom Land).") Ex-Student Body President of Reed College and student representative from San Francisco State University speaks about the solidarity of students on their campuses with the FSM demonstrators. Jack Weinberg expresses fears about possible violence that evening and about complicity of university administration in these actions. Dick Roman makes an announcement about a possible "turning point" in negations between FSM representatives and Clark Kerr; discusses strategies for preparing for possible massive arrests that evening. Unidentified professor urges that the demonstrators disband and "give faculty a chance to intervene," rather than face mass arrests. On-mike reporter announces deployment of Alameda County sheriffs and university police in various quadrants of Sproul Plaza. Dick Roman and others give instructions to crowd on how to deal with arrests and possible police violence. (Pacifica Archives # BD0016.03E)

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Car Top Rally, Part 11 (approx 29 min.): Oct 2: Demonstrators await outcome of negotiations between Savio and other student leaders, Berkeley Chancellor Strong, and University President Clark Kerr. They prepare for possible confrontation with police. Among the events captured in this recording are discussions of strategies for passive resistance; demonstrators singing various Civil Rights Movement songs ("We Shall Overcome", "Freedom's Coming", "Woke Up This Morning (With My Mind Set On Freedom)," "I'm On My Way") and other songs ("Blowing in the Wind," "We Shall Not Be Moved", "America"). Campus police push their way toward the stranded police car in attempt to remove Jack Weinberg, but the crowd of demonstrators grows and prevents this action. An unidentified woman attorney speaks to the demonstrators about the historical role of education in a democratic society, the right to open discourse in a democracy, and the importance of academic freedom in a democracy ("Education is as broad as the human mind. ...it is the job of students to ask questions"). She provides brief information about legal rights in case of arrest. An announcement is made about a bail fund started by students of Reed College. An announcement is made regarding the influx of police on campus and the sealing off of campus at Bancroft and Telegraph Avenues. The crowd sings "Happy Birthday" to Mahatma Gandhi. (Pacifica Archives # BD0016.03G)

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Discussion of repercussions of resisting police. Art Goldberg (?) exhorts crowd to commit itself to the cause. More students join those sitting around the police car. Demonstrators sing "Which Side Are You On," We Shall Not Be Moved," and "America the Beautiful." Crowd chants "Clark Kerr Must Go!" Announcement regarding negotiations with Clark Kerr and campus administration. Savio speaks to crowd about "seriousness of the circumstances in which we find ourselves here and now." Calls for meeting on Sproul steps on the following Monday to discuss the statement developed by FSM and faculty negotiators with campus administration (see Part 12 below for final form of this statement). Savio discusses the negotiation process in developing this statement.

Interviews with Mario Savio and Clark Kerr following the decision to accept the statement. [Note: some overlap with above recordings and with Part 12 recording below]

Source recording courtesy of Lynne Hollander and Michael Rossman.

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Car Top Rally, Part 12 (approx 15 min.): October 2, recordings capture some of the following activities: approximately 7:25 pm, with President Kerr and Chancellor Strong watching from the steps of Sproul Hall (the crowd was unaware of their presence), Mario Savio reads the agreement forged by university administrators and protest leaders and University officials:

1. The student demonstrators shall desist from all forms of their illegal protest against University regulations.
2. A committee representing students (including leaders of the demonstration), faculty, and administration will immediately be set up to conduct discussions and hearing into all aspects of political behavior on campus and its control, and to make recommendations to the administration. 3. The arrested man will be booked, released on his own recognizance, and the University (complainant) will not press charges.
4. The duration of the suspension of the suspended students will be submitted within one week to the Student Conduct Committee of the Academic Senate.
5. Activity may be continued by student organizations in accordance with existing University regulations.
6. The President of the University has already declared his willingness to support deeding certain University property at the end of Telegraph Avenue to the City of Berkeley or to the ASUC.

Savio puts acceptance of these conditions to a vote, and the group supports it. Savio requests that the demonstrators surrounding the police car "rise with dignity and walk home." Clark Kerr gives reporters a brief statement: "We feel that law and order has been preserved on the Berkeley campus," and the results of current action are "a great triumph for decency, good will, and reason." (Pacifica Archives # BD0016.03F)

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October 3-4: The Free Speech Movement is formed out of the united front and subsequently an executive committee representing the various political and religious organizations is established, as well as a twelve-man steering committee to plan interim policy and to choose students to serve on the student-faculty-administration study committee.

October 5: Chancellor Strong, pursuant to the agreement of October 2, appoints ten members to the Campus Committee on Political Activity (CCPA) to investigate and suggest solutions to the campus political problems. The FSM is first given two delegates to the committee; it is later granted two more.

October 13: The Academic Senate passes a motion for "maximum freedom for student political activity" and agrees to participate actively in the faculty-student-administration committee. The CCPA holds its first meeting at which fifty of the approximate 300 students in attendance testify against the illegal formation of that committee. Meanwhile graduate students meet to select seven members to the FSM Executive Committee.

October 15: President Kerr agrees to reconstitute the CCPA, adding six more members to the original twelve. He also requests the Academic Senate to establish an ad hoc committee to advise on the September 30 suspension of eight students.

November 7: The University administration declares itself unalterably opposed to the students' position on political advocacy. The University demands the right to discipline students and organizations advocating activities that "directly result" in "unlawful acts" off the campus. The students demand that the definition of legal speech be left solely to the courts, citing the stand of the American Civil Liberties Union and that of the American Association of University Professors: "In the area of the first amendment rights and civil liberties, the University may impose no disciplinary action against members of the university community and organizations in this area, members of the university community are subject only to the civil authorities."

November 9: The FSM decides to "exercise our constitutional rights" and resumes manning tables.

Among the events captured on the following recordings are: Mario Savio discusses strategies for dealing with campus administration practice of requiring a showing of registration cards for those staffing political advocacy tables. Savio identifies Berkeley mayor Johnson in the crowd and unsuccessfully attempts to have him address the group. Dean Rice (Dean of Students) interrogates students staffing the C.O.R.E table in Sproul Plaza regarding their student status and their permit to set up the table. Savio discusses the possibility of using the registration card requirement as a constitutional test case.

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Brief press conference with Mario Savio, Jack Weinberg, and the Vice President of the ASUC (who attempts to clarify the ASUC's stand on the general principles being put forward by the FSM).

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November 10: Seventy students receive letters from the Dean's office citing them for violating the rules in manning tables. Hundreds of graduate students sign statements declaring that they are equally responsible for manning tables.

November 12: Faculty ad hoc committee (The Heyman Committee) recommends that six of the eight students -- all of whom had been out of school since September 30 -- be immediately re-instated and charges expunged from their records and that Mario Savio and Art Goldberg be officially suspended for six weeks, beginning September 30. Chancellor Strong refuses to act on the findings of the committee before the meeting of the Academic Senate on December 8.

November 20: Regents meet and approve suggestions made by President Kerr and Chancellor Strong concerning the suspension to date of the eight students and the one semester probation of Savio and Goldberg. They also agree to modify their policy on political activity; however they maintain that organizations and individuals be disciplined for what they called "illegal advocacy." Meanwhile a rally of over 3,000 students that had assembled at Sproul Hall marches first to the west gate of the campus to hear Joan Baez and then across the street to University Hall where the regents were meeting, to await the results.

Report on campus activities related to the UC Regents Meeting. Report from student delegation to the Regents meeting. Mario Savio statement regarding the faculty proposal submitted to the Regents.

(Pacifica AZ1381)

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Partial transcript of this recording

November 21-22: The FSM Executive Committee and Steering Committee both split on tactics with a majority of each finally favoring a sit-in in Sproul Hall on Monday to express their feelings of despair over the Administration's refusal to meet with them or to permit students full Constitutional rights on campus.

November 23: FSM holds mass rally after which three hundred students sit in for three hours in Sproul Hall over issue of University discipline for off-campus activities. Hot debate during rally splits the FSM.

Photograph of Mario Savio and FSM participants, November 20, 1964 (Chris Kjobech photography, from the collection of the Oakland Museum of California)

Among the events captured on the following recordings are: Mario Savio: discussion of university vs civil authority to deal with issues related to civil liberties; discussion of university's policy and practice of "prior restraint" concerning political activity and speech on campus. Criticism of recent faculty report on political advocacy. Report on the Oakland Tribune Project and plans for picketing against discriminatory hiring practices. Intimations of another sit-in in the face of university refusal to meet FSM demands. Professor Reginald Zelnick (History) addresses the crowd: "The next 28 hours may be the most important in the history of this university;" discusses his belief in the faculty's ability to best deal with issues related to civil and academic freedom. Michael Rossman and Art Goldberg address the crowd on the need for individuals to assess the political benefits and the liabilities of further action such as a sit-in (Goldberg: "Be honest with yourselves; think, then act..."). Jack Weinberg reports on the FSM Steering Committee's negotiations and decision to sit in. Savio discusses the strategies for the sit in (the passages will not be blocked; the demonstrators will sit against the walls). Jo Freedman criticizes the Steering Committee for its failure to allow wider student dialog; she advocates several alternative plans of action. Goldberg repudiates her statements.

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November 23 (most likely recorded inside Sproul Hall): Savio discusses the duration of the sit-in, and reports on his discussions with University Police Lieutenant Chandler. Unidentified speaker questions FSM "competence" and effectiveness in achieving its goals. Other speakers discuss the sit-in in the context of FSM's past activity and offer pros and cons of the action. A petition is offered protesting the forthcoming activities of the House Committee on Un-American Actives (HUAC) in San Francisco.

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Report from inside Sproul on the status of the sit-in (reporter unknown), around 2:00 pm. Much of the first part of this recording is low-keyed crowd milling, some brief background singing (including FSM song to the tune of the Beatles "I Should Have Known Better"). Announcement by Mario Savio (around 20:29 Part 1)regarding meeting with Lieutenant Chandler of UC Police regarding consequences of not leaving Sproul at closing time; Savio reports about discussion with Professor Reginald Zelnick about Academic Senate meeting the following day. Savio polls the group on whether to have song and entertainment or to "keep it quiet." Discussions regarding strategy and arguments for and against staying in building after closing. Bettina Aptheker urges crowd to stay and abide by decisions of FSM Steering Committee (around 32:29 Part 1). Art Goldberg addresses crowd regarding FSM Steering Committee (Part 2); Savio addresses crowd (around 1:50 part 2) regarding decision making and FSM leadership [poor sound quality], urges group to abide by the decision of the FSM Steering Committee regarding whether to say or leave the building; FSM Christmas Carols sung (around 12:19 part 2)

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November 24: Chancellor Strong issues a statement of new rules following the decisions of the regents in their November 20 meeting. FSM resumes setting up tables; and a welcome Thanksgiving recess intervenes.

November 28: Mario Savio and Art Goldberg receive letters from Chancellor Strong initiating new disciplinary action against them for acts allegedly committed October I and 2.

November 30: Chancellor Strong rejects FSM demands that charges against Savio and Goldberg be dropped.

December 1: FSM issues ultimatum. Teaching assistants and Graduate Coordinating Council agree to strike on December 4 "if conditions warrant."

December 2-3: Eight hundred students moved into Sproul Hall after a rally. They regarded the action as a last resort in the face of the Administration's refusal to negotiate the student grievances and its "arbitrarily singling out students for punishment." The fourth floor became a quiet study hall, while movies are shown and classes are held on the second floor. Strict discipline was maintained; orders to stay out of offices was given and obeyed {from FSM Archives chronology)

At 3:05 a.m. on December 3, Chancellor Strong urges students to leave Sproul Hall (SEE Sproul Sit-in III recordings below); at 3:45 AM, Governor Edmund G. Brown announces that he has dispatched police (about 635 of them) to arrest the students. The arrest of about 814 students continues for twelve hours, during which time graduate students picket University buildings in protest of police action.

On December 3, faculty members meet to consider the crisis, to protest the regents' policy of November 20 and the governor's summoning police, and to establish an Academic Senate Committee to which students could appeal regarding the penalties imposed by the administration for political action. (SEE report on this meeting below) Faculty members raise bail for the arrested students. During the day a strike is called and many classes are cancelled.

Photos of the sit-in (December 3-4, 1964)taken by Richard A. Muller.

Rally Before Sproul Hall Sit-in, December 2, 1964

Steve Weissman, Marty Roysher, Michael Rossman, Charlie Powell (ASUC President); and Mario Savio address those assembled in Sproul Plaza before the sit-in. Comments on the friction between ASUC and FSM. Weissman comments on Powell, "He'll make a fine university administrator some day."

Savio presents his famous "you've got to put your bodies upon the gears" speech."

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See also:

Video clip of a portion of Mario Savio's speech before the FSM sit-in (December 3)

Transcript of speech (via AmericanRhetoric.com)

Following Savio's speech, above, Joan Baez sings: "All Your Trials Soon be Over," "Blowing in the Wind." Mario Savio leads crowd into Sproul, Baez leads the singing of "We Shall Overcome."

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The following recordings include the following events: Songs: "I'm On My Way (To the Freedom Land)", "Come and Go With Me To That Land," The Twelve Days of Semester (Twelve Days of Christmas)", "You Really Got Me" and "She's Not There" (The Kinks). Eric Vaughn, a philosophy student, presents a humorous, ad hoc evangelist sermon on the decline of American culture. Discussions regarding guarding the demonstrators' public address equipment against police tampering. Songs: "This Little Light of Mine" (with FSM words inserted), "Woke Up This Morning With My Mind Set on Freedom", "Freedom's Coming!" Unidentified student reads a pro-FSM editorial from a Ventura County newspaper. Songs: "We Shall Not Be Moved", "I'm On My Way (To the Freedom Land", "Joy To UC (Joy to the World)", "It's Be a Long Hard Fight (Hard Day's Night)". Brief interview with Mario Savio: discussion of the language used in recent FSM pamphlet ("We will stop the Machine..."); nature of support for FSM; possibilities of the university resorting to "police power." Brief interview with Joan Baez (who had joined students inside Sproul). Songs: "Talking Willie Nolan Blues" (Nolan was the conservative publisher of the Oakland Tribune), "Hail to IBM (Ode to Joy)", "The Times They Are a' Changin'", "Blowing in the Wind", "Follow the Drinking Gourd", "Song of My Hand".

(Approx. 55 min. 25 seconds)

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Sproul Sit-In (I)

Discussion of police activities, student attitudes and actions; Mario Savio discusses UC Regents' policies on political advocacy; report on student arrests. (Pacifica AZ1379)

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Partial transcript of this recording

Sproul Sit-In (II)

Interviewees: Josiah Beeman, State Presidment of the California Young Democrats; Gary Goodrow (member of the San Francisco improv group, The Committee); Clark Kerr; Assemblyman William Stanton; Assemblyman Willie Brown; Professor Henry May (Chair, History Dept.); Professor Robert Scalapino reads faculty proposal of December 3 at Greek Theater (December 7) (Pacifica AZ1380)

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Partial transcript of this recording

Sproul Sit-In (III)

Includes announcements made by Chancellor Strong and Lt. M.F. Chandler of the Berkeley police declaring sit-in an illegal assembly. (Pacifica AZ1382.1)

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Partial transcript of this recording

Sproul Sit-In (IV)

Includes comments by Art Goldberg, Brian Turner. Capt. Beal (Berkeley police) advises students: "The governor of the State of California, this morning at 12:45 am, ordered the law enforcement agencies of Alameda County to move in and take over this portion of the California campus. We have taken over the building and we will remain in the building until the last person is removed from the building, this I can assure you." (Pacifica AZ1382.2)

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Partial transcript of this recording

Sproul Sit-In (V)

Brief discussion by Mario Savio regarding what to do if arrested; description of atmosphere in Sproul; description of police action in Sproul. Track 1 duplicates recording of Chancellor Strong's announcement of illegal assembly (SEE Part III above) (Pacifica AZ1383)

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Joy to UC (FSM Carols, 1964)

Contents: Oski Dolls -- We Three Deans -- UC Administration -- Jail to IBM -- It Belongs to the University -- Silent Night -- Call Out the Deans -- Masters of Sproul Hall -- God Rest Ye Free Speech -- Come All Ye Mindless -- Joy to UC.

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Noon Rally Following Sproul Hall Sit-in and Arrests; Report from Emergency Faculty Meeting (Wheeler Hall)

Speakers at the rally include Professor John Leggett (Sociology); statements from the provisional leadership of FSM; activist Paul Jacobs; Mike Miller (Bay Area Friends of S.N.C.C. Faculty meeting speakers include Professor Robert Scalapino (Chair, Political Science); Professor Leo Lowenthal (Sociology Dept.); and Professor Henry May (Chair, History Department) (Pacifica AZ1386)

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Partial transcript of this recording

Report from Emergency Faculty Meeting (Wheeler Hall)

Report from KPFA reporters Burton White and Jerry Jenkins. Report on actions and resolutions. (Pacifica AZ1384)

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Partial transcript of this recording

December 4: Students released on bail, and the strike continues.

FSM Press Conference Regarding the December 2-3 Sproul Hall Sit-in

Participants include Steve Weissman, Mario Savio, Marty Roysher, Hal Draper, Professor John Leggett, and Nina Spitzer. (Pacifica AZ1387)

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Partial transcript of this recording

December 5-6: Council of Department Chairmen meet during the weekend to work out agreements to be presented at a student/faculty-administration convocation at the Greek theater Monday, December 7. On Sunday, Professor Robert A. Scalapino, chairman of the Council meets with President Kerr to work out agreement. Two hundred faculty members meet to consider the resolutions made at impromptu faculty meeting of December 3.

December 7: Departmental chairmen call off all classes between 9:00 and noon and hold departmental meetings to discuss the Chairmen's agreement with the UC President Clark Kerr : complete campus amnesty for acts through today is granted. No position on the advocacy question is taken.

At 11:00 a.m., approximately 16,000 students, faculty members and staff gathered in the Greek Theatre for the "extraordinary convocation" ceremonies. University President Clark Kerr was introduced by Professor Robert A. Scalapino, chairman of the political science department and of the Council of Department Chairmen, who announced "our maximum effort to attain peace and decency."

President Kerr, flanked by all the Berkeley campus department heads on the Greek Theatre stage, publicly accepted the proposal presented to him by the Council of Department Chairmen and announced the terms:

1. The University Community shall be governed by orderly and lawful procedures in the settlement of issues; and the full and free pursuit of educational activities on this campus shall be maintained.
2. The University Community shall abide by the new and liberalized political action rules and await the report of the Senate Committee on Academic Freedom.
3. The Departmental Chairmen believe that the acts of civil disobedience on December 2 and 3 were unwarranted and that they obstruct rational and fair consideration of the grievances brought forward by the students.
4. The cases of all students arrested in connection with the sit-in in Sproul Hall on December 2 and 3 are now before the Courts. The University will accept the Court's judgment in these cases as the full discipline for those offenses.
In the light of the cases now and prospectively before the courts, the University will not prosecute charges against any students for actions prior to December 2 and 3; but the University will invoke disciplinary actions for any violations henceforth.
5. All classes shall be conducted as scheduled."

Prior to the Greek Theatre meeting, Mario Savio, FSM leader, conduct a heated argument backstage with Professor Scalapino. Both Assistant Professor of Sociology John Leggett and Savio charge the department chairmen has "usurped" the Academic Senate's authority by presenting their proposal in advance of the Academic Senate meeting scheduled for tomorrow afternoon (Dec. 8). Savio demands an opportunity to address the Greek Theatre meeting. Scalapino, who served as meeting chairman, tells Savio that the meeting is "structured" and, as such, is not an "open forum." He refuses Savio's request to speak.

During the meeting, Savio sits approximately 15 feet from the edge of the stage. As President Kerr speaks, he shakes his head and mutters "Hypocrite!" A reporter asks Savio if he is going to speak. Savio nods and says, "I'm going to speak."

As President Kerr nears the end of his remarks, Savio rises and walks to the far left (south) end of the Greek Theatre stage, mounts the stage, and stands there for two or three minutes while President Kerr completes his remarks. At the conclusion of the President's address, Chairman Scalapino moves to the rostrum and announces the meeting's adjournment.

Simultaneously, Savio moves rapidly across the front of the stage to the rostrum, clutching a scroll of paper in his hand. As he reaches the rostrum, two University police officers grab him and pull him away from the rostrum. Savio is dragged through the center rear stage entrance and into a small room at the south end of the backstage area used by performers. Several of Savio's supporters attempt to assist Savio; they are pushed aside or knocked down and held in place. No arrests are made.

Scores of people--faculty and staff, newsmen, students and police--gather in front of the building where Savio is being held. At first, no one is allowed to enter. Alex Hoffman, an attorney defending some of the arrested students, shouts through the door: "Demand to see your lawyer, Mario." Attorney Hoffman and several departmental chairmen are eventually admitted to the room where Savio is being held.

As Savio is being held at the south end of the Greek Theatre, Arthur Goldberg pleads with President Kerr to release him at the north end. Kerr agrees, and, it is announced that Savio is not under arrest, that he will be allowed to speak. Surrounded by well-wishers, Savio tells the crowd he merely wanted to announce an FSM rally at noon in front of Sproul Hall

December 7, 1964: Report from Campus

KPFA report on the general atmosphere of campus, events related to the FSM; Report from the Greek Theater; Savio's removal from the stage and events following; brief interview with Clark Kerr regarding the incident. (Pacifica AZ1375)

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Noon Rally - December 7, 1964 (Coverage of convocation from radio station KFRC)

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Noon Rally - December 7, 1964 Part I

Speakers: Bettina Aptheker; Professor Robert Beloof (Chair, Speech Dept.); Jack Weinberg (FSM)(Pacifica AZ1394)

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Partial transcript of this recording

Noon Rally - December 7, 1964 Part II

Speakers: Professor Joseph Tussman (Chair, Philosophy Dept.); Professor Morris Hirsch (Mathematics Dept.)reads faculty resolution formulated for presentation to Berkeley Division of the Academic Senate; Steve Weissman (FSM); Professor Harlan Jones (Chair, Biophysics); Professor John Leggett (Sociology) (Pacifica AZ1393)

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Partial transcript of this recording

Noon Rally - December 7, 1964 Part III

Speakers: Art Goldberg (FSM); Mario Savio; Professor Aaron Wildavsky (Political Science) (Pacifica AZ1395)

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Partial transcript of this recording

December 7: The University Students for Law and Order (USLO), founded on December 6 by undergraduate student, Robert Dussault) to counter the FSM platform and to attempt to break the FSM campus strike, holds a noon rally. In preparation, the USLO had sent teams of two faculty members and one student to talk to the living groups, telling the students that the legislature was going to take over the University and that they should return to classes. The organization fell apart shortly thereafter, when its founder, Robert Dussault, resigned.

USLO Noon Rally (Part I)

(Pacifica AZ1390)

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Partial transcript of this recording

USLO Noon Rally (Part II)

Participants include Robert Dussualt; Professor Robley Williams (Chair, Molecular Biology Dept.); Professor Henry May (Chair, History Dept.); Professor Milton Chernin (Dean, Social Welfare)(Pacifica AZ1391)

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USLO Press Conference

Participant: Robert Dussualt. (Pacifica AZ1392)

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December 8: Academic Senate meets and votes 824 to 115 for the five-point proposal made by the Committee on Academic Freedom against control of student speech and political advocacy. FSM states full support for the faculty position.

UC Berkeley Faculty Senate debate on resolutions of Senate Academic Freedom Committee concerning free speech and political advocacy on campus, December 8, 1964.

Partial transcript of these recording

Part I: Listen to it (approx. 45:03 min.) (mp3)

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Part II: Listen to it (approx. 44:54 min.) (mp3)

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Short Statements from Faculty and FSM regarding the December 8, 1964 Academic Senate vote.

Comments by Jack Weinberg (FSM); Professor Richard W. Jennings, Chair of Berkeley Division of the Academic Senate; Professor Joseph Garbarino, Chair of Senate Committee on Academic Freedom; Professor Lewis Feuer; Professor Joseph Tussman, and others.

Source recording courtesy Lynne Hollander and Michael Rossman

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California State Assemblyman William Stanton comments on outcome of December 1964 Regents meeting

Stanton comments on a meeting of the Regents following the December 8, 1964 vote of support for the FSM by the UCB Faculty Senate.

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December 15: The Associated Students of the University of California (ASUC, the students' government) approves motion that the regents accept the five-point Academic Senate proposal to end the "free speech" controversy.

December 17: Interim Report from the Academic Senate Emergency Executive Committee is presented to the Board of Regents

Reading of two UCB Faculty Senate reports

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Partial transcript of this recording

December 18: The University Board of Regents does not accept the proposal made by the Academic Senate. They appoint a committee of regents to examine the issues and consult with students faculty and "other interested persons" in order to make recommendations to the board.

January 2: At an emergency meeting, the board of regents names Martin Meyerson, Dean of the College of Environmental Design, as acting chancellor, replacing Edward W.

January 3: The new acting chancellor delivers his first address to the campus community in which he set down provisional rules for political activity on the Berkeley campus: the Sproul Hall steps are designated as an open discussion area during certain hours of the day; tables are permitted.

January 4: FSM Rally, January 4, 1965

Part 1: Mario Savio and other speakers discuss independent investigation of the UC Regents; policies of UC Berkeley and UC Regents' concerning student advocacy on campus; proposal for establishment of Free University. Part 2 includes debate/vote concerning holding mass silent vigil before Academic Senate meeting. Joan Baez sings several songs (approx. 10:12) Unidentified speaker discusses current status and aims of FSM and student movements at UCB. Discussion of principles supported by Academic Senate vote of December 8, 1964. Professor David Freedman (Mathematics)discusses and offers his impressions of report of Academic Freedom Committee. Mario Savio reports on discussions with faculty member; critically assesses outcome of December 18, 1964 UC Regents meeting [speech ends abruptly].

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Source recording courtesy of Lynne Hollander and Michael Rossman

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