African Americans in the Movies:
A Bibliography of Materials in the UC Berkeley Library












Reference Works

The Image of African Americans in Film and TV

Books

Journal articles

The Image of African Americans in Animated Cartoons

Blaxploitation films

African American Films, Acting, and Film Making

Books

Journal articles

Articles and Books About Individual Filmmakers and Film Stars

Articles and Books on Individual films

Movies, Race & Ethnicity Videography for articles and reviews of individual films

Reference Works

Berry, Torriano.
Historical dictionary of African American cinema Published: Lanham, Md. : Scarecrow Press, 2007.
Media Resources Center: PN1995.9.N4 B433 2007

Bogle, Donald.
Blacks in American Films and Television: An Encyclopedia / Donald Bogle. New York: Garland Pub., 1988.
Series title: Garland reference library of the humanities; vol. 604.
UCB Moffitt PN1995.9.N4 B58 1988 Reference
UCB Ref/Bib PN1995.9.N4 B58 1988

Gray, John
Blacks in Film and Television: A Pan-African Bibliography of Films, Filmmakers, and Performers / compiled by John Gray. New York: Greenwood Press, 1990.
Series title: Bibliographies and indexes in Afro-American and African studies no. 27.
UCB Moffitt PN1993.5.A35 A12 G72, 1990 Reference
UCB Ref/Bib PN1993.5.A35 A12 G72, 1990

Frame by frame III : a filmography of the African diasporan image, 1994-2004
Edited and with an introduction by Audrey Thomas McCluskey ; foreword by Edward Mapp. Bloomington : Indiana University Press, c2007.
Main Stack PN1995.9.N4.F73 2007

Hill, George H.
Black Women in Television: An Illustrated History and Bibliography / George Hill, Lorraine Raglin, Chas Floyd Johnson. New York: Garland Pub., 1990. Series title: Garland reference library of the humanities; vol. 1228.
Main Library Reference PN1992.8.A34 H55 1990

Hill, George H.
Blacks on Television: A Selectively Annotated Bibliography / by George H. Hill and Sylvia Saverson Hill. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1985.
Main Library Reference PN1992.8.A34A12 H541 1985

Hyatt, Marshall.
The Afro-American Cinematic Experience: An Annotated Bibliography & Filmography / compiled and edited by Marshall Hyatt. Wilmington, Del.: Scholarly Resources Inc., 1983.
UCB Moffitt PN1995.9.N4 H9 1983 Reference
UCB Ref/Bib PN1995.9.N4 H9 1983

Images of Blacks in American Culture: A Reference Guide to Information Sources
Edited by Jessie Carney Smith; foreword by Nikki Giovanni. New York: Greenwood Press, 1988.
Doe Reference E185.A12 I43 1988
Moffitt Reference E185.A12 I43 1988

Klotman, Phyllis Rauch.
Frame by Frame: A Black Filmography / Phyllis Rauch Klotman. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, c1979.
UCB Moffitt PN1995.9.N4 .K57 Reference
UCB Ref/Bib PN1995.9.N4 .K57

Klotman, Phyllis Rauch.
Frame by Frame II: A Filmography of the African American Image, 1978-1994 / Phyllis R. Klotman and Gloria J. Gibson. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, c1997.
Main Library Reference: PN1995.9.N4 .K57; Non-circulating.
PFA : PN1995.9.N4 K57 1979 ref

Klotman, Phyllis Rauch.
Frame by Frame II: A Filmography of the African American Image, 1978-1994 / Phyllis R. Klotman and Gloria J. Gibson. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, c1997.
Main Library Reference: PN1995.9.N4 .K57; Non-circulating.
PFA : PN1995.9.N4 K57 1979 ref

Moon, Spencer.
Reel Black Talk: A Sourcebook of 50 American Filmmakers / Spencer Moon. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1997
Main Stack PN1998.2 .M66 1997

Parish, James Robert.
Black Action Films: Plots, Critiques, Casts, and Credits for 235 Theatrical and Made-for-Television Releases / James Robert Parish, George H. Hill; foreword by Richard Roundtree. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, c1989.
UCB Main PN1995.9.N4 P37 1989
UCB Moffitt PN1995.9.N4 P37 1989

Powers, Anne
Blacks in American Movies; A Selected Bibliography, compiled and edited by Anne Powers. Metuchen, N.J., The Scarecrow Press, 1974.
MOFF: PN1995.9.N4.A12 .P5
MAIN: PN1995.9.N4 A12 P6
PFA : PN1995.9.N4 P6 1974 ref

Richards, Larry
African American Films Through 1959: A Comprehensive, Illustrated Filmography. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, c1998.
Main Stack PN1995.9.N4 R54 1998

Rome, Dennis.
Black demons : media's depiction of the African American male criminal stereotype Westport, Conn. : Praeger, 2004.
MAIN: P94.5.A37 R66 2004
Contents: Brief historical overview of African Americans -- Theory : UCR, racial bias, public policy, and the mass media -- Bad boys : cop-u-dramas and other crime reality-based television programs -- Bamboozled : criminal stereotypes of African Americans in cinema -- Modern-day "Blaxploitation" : gangsta rap and its perpetuation of the Black demon stereotype -- Conclusion and suggestions for moving forward.

Sampson, Henry T.
Blacks in Black and White: A Source Book on Black Films / by Henry T. Sampson.,. 2nd ed. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow press, 1993.
MAIN: PN1995.9.N4 S2 1995
DREF: PN1995.9.N4 S2 1995; Non-circulating.
PFA : PN1995.9.N4 S2 1995; MOFF: PN1995.9.N4 S21

The Image of African Americans
in Film and TV

Books/Other Media

African Americans in cinema the first half century
Published: Urbana: University of Illinois Press, c2003.
Media Resources Center: COMPU/D 564

Anderson, Lisa M.
Mammies No More: The Changing Image of Black Women on Stage and Screen / Lisa M. Anderson. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, c1997.
UCB Main PS338.W6 A53 1997

Appiah, K. Anthony.
"'No Bad Nigger': Blacks as the Ethical Principle in the Movies." In: Media Spectacles / edited by Marjorie Garber, Jann Matlock & Rebecca L. Walkowitz. New York: Routledge, 1993. pp: 77-90.
Main Stack P92.U5.M444 1993
Moffitt P92.U5.M444 1993

Ashton, Charlotte Ruby.
The Changing Image of Blacks in American Film: 1944-1973 [DISSERTATION 1981].
UCB NewsMicro MICROFICHE.6030.Unit.258

Baker, Aaron
"From second string to solo star: classic Hollywood and the Black athlete." In: Classic Hollywood, classic whiteness / Daniel Bernardi, editor. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, c2001.
Main Stack PN1995.9.M56.C59 2001

Baldwin, James
The Devil Finds Work: An Essay. New York: Dial Press, 1976.
UCB Grad Svcs XMAC.B181.D4 Modern Authors Collection
UCB Main PS3552.Ba6 Z515
UCB Moffitt PS3552.A45 Z515

The Birth of Whiteness: Race and the Emergence of U.S. Cinema.
Edited by Daniel Bernardi. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, c1996.
UCB Main PN1995.9.M56 B57 1996

Black Women Film and Video Artists
Edited by Jacqueline Bobo. New York: Routledge, 1998. AFI Film Readers.
Main Stack PN1998.2.B57 1998

VIDEORECORDING
Blaxploitation Cartoon Festival.
1 videocassette (50 min. approx.): sd., b&w; 1/2 in. Series title: Black artists of the silver screen.
UCB Media Ctr VIDEO/C.999:425

Bogle, Donald.
Bright boulevards, bold dreams : the story of Black Hollywood New York : One World Ballantine Books, 2005.
MAIN: PN1995.9.N4 B59 2005
MOFF: PN1995.9.N4 B59 2005

Bogle, Donald.
Toms, Coons, Mulattoes, Mammies, and Bucks: An Interpretive History of Blacks in American Films / Donald Bogle. New expanded ed. New York: Continuum, 2001
MAIN: PN1995.9.N4 B6 2001.
UCB Main PN1995.9.N4 B6 1989 (earlier edition)
UCB Moffitt PN1995.9.N4 B6 1989 (earlier edition)

Chadwick, Bruce.
The reel Civil War: mythmaking in American film New York: Alfred A. Knopf, c2001.
Moffitt: E656 .C48 2001

Cinemas of the Black Diaspora: Diversity, Dependence, and Oppositionality
Edited by Michael T. Martin. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, c1995. Series title: Contemporary film and television series.
UCB Main PN1995.9.N4 C58 1995

Cosby, Camille O. (Camille Olivia)
Television's Imageable Influences: The Self-perceptions of Young African-Americans / Camille O. Cosby. Lanham: University Press of America, c1994.
UCB Main E185.86 .C58215 1994
UCB Moffitt E185.86 .C58215 1994

Courtney, Susan
Hollywood fantasies of miscegenation : spectacular narratives of gender and race, 1903-1967 Princeton, N.J. : Princeton University Press, c2005.
MAIN: PN1995.9.M57 C38 2005
MOFF: PN1995.9.M57 C38 2005

Crane, David.
"In Medias Race: Filmic Representation, Networked Communication, and Racial Intermediation." In: Race in cyberspace / edited by Beth E. Kolko, Lisa Nakamura, Gilbert B. Rodman. pp: 87-115. New York: Routledge, 2000.
Main Stack HT1523.R252 2000

Cripps, Thomas.
Making Movies Black: The Hollywood Message Movie from World War II to the Civil Rights Era / Thomas Cripps. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.
UCB Main PN1995.9.N4 C687 1993
UCB Moffitt PN1995.9.N4 C687 1993

Cripps, Thomas.
"The Negro Soldier (1944): Film Propaganda in Black and White." In: Hollywood as Historian: American Film in a Cultural Context / edited by Peter C. Rollins. Lexington, Ky.: University Press of Kentucky, c1983. pp: 109-133.
UCB Main PN1995.9.H5.H64 1983
Moffitt PN1995.9.H5.H64 1983

Cripps, Thomas.
Slow Fade to Black: The Negro in American Film, 1900-1942 / Thomas Cripps. New York: Oxford University Press, 1977.
UCB Main PN1995.9 .N4C7
UCB Moffitt PN1995.9 .N4C7

Donalson, Melvin Burke
The Representation of Afro-American Women in the Hollywood Feature Film, 1915-1949 [DISSERTATION]/ by Melvin Burke Donalson. [Providence, R.I.: s.n.], 1981, c1982.
UCB NewsMicro MICROFICHE.6030.Unit.277

Desser, David.
"Race, Space and Class: The Politics of Cityscapes in Science-Fiction Films." In: Alien zone II : the spaces of science-fiction cinema / edited by Annette Kuhn. London ; New York : Verso, 1999.
Main Stack PN1995.9.S26.A8184 1999

Ely, Melvin Patrick.
The Adventures of Amos 'n' Andy: A Social History of an American Phenomenon / Melvin Patrick Ely. New York: Free Press; Toronto: Maxwell Macmillan Canada; New York: Maxwell Macmillan International, c1991.
UCB Main PN1991.77.A6 E49 1991
UCB Moffitt PN1991.77.A6 E49 1991

Fisher, Celeste A.
Black on black : urban youth films and the multicultural audience. Lanham, Md. : Scarecrow Press, 2006.
ED-P: PN1995.9.N4 F57 2006
Table of contents http://www.loc.gov/catdir/toc/ecip064/2005035444.html

Gabbard, Krin.
Black magic : White Hollywood and African American culture New Brunswick, N.J. : Rutgers University Press, c2004.
MAIN: PN1995.9.N4 G33 2004
MOFF: PN1995.9.N4 G33 2004
Table of contents http://www.loc.gov/catdir/toc/ecip048/2003020083.html

Gaines, Jane M.
Fire and desire: mixed-race movies in the silent era Chicago: University of Chicago Press, c2001.
MAIN: PN1995.9.N4 G35 2001

George, Nelson.
Blackface: reflections on African-Americans and the movies / New York, N.Y.: Cooper Square Press, c2002
MAIN: PN1995.9.N4 G46 2002

George, Nelson.
Blackface: Reflections on African Americans and the Movies New York, N.Y.: Cooper Square Press, c2002
UCB MAIN: PN1995.9.N4 G46 2002

George, Nelson.
Blackface: Reflections on African Americans and the Movies / Nelson George. 1st ed. New York: HarperCollins, c1994.
UCB Morrison PN1995.9.N4 G46 1994

Gormley, Paul.
The new-brutality film : race and affect in contemporary Hollywood cinema Bristol, UK ; Portland, OR, USA : Intellect, 2005.
MAIN: PN1995.9.V5 G67 2005
PFA : PN1995.9.V5 G67 2005

Graham, Allison.
Framing the South: Hollywood, television, and race during the Civil Rights struggle Published: Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001.
MAIN: PN1995.9.S66 G73 2001

Gray, Herman.
Watching Race: Television and the Struggle for "Blackness" / Herman Gray. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, c1995.
UCB Main PN1992.8.A34 G73 1995
UCB Moffitt PN1992.8.A34 G73 1995

Guerrero, Ed.
"Black Violence as Cinema: From Cheap Thrills to Historical Agonies." In: Violence and American cinema / edited by J. David Slocum. pp: 212-25. New York: Routledge, 2001. AFI film readers.
Main Stack PN1995.9.V5.V56 2001

Guerrero, Ed.
Framing Blackness: the African American Image in Film / Ed Guerrero. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1993. Series title: Culture and the moving image.
UCB Main PN1995.9.N4 G84 1993
UCB Moffitt PN1995.9.N4 G84 1993

Hansberry, Lorraine
"The Case of the Invisible Force: Images of the Negro in Hollywood Film." In Celluloid Power: Social Film Criticism From 'The Birth of a Nation' to 'Judgment at Nuremberg." Edited by David Platt, pp. 457-466. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1992.
Main Stack PN1995.9.P6.C44 1992

Harris, Keith M.
Boys, boyz, bois : an ethics of Black masculinity in film and popular media New York : Routledge, 2006.
MAIN: PN1995.9.N4 H37 2006
Table of contents http://www.loc.gov/catdir/toc/ecip0518/2005025830.html

Hill, George H.
Blacks in Hollywood: Five Favorable Years in Film & Television 1987-1991 / George Hill, Spencer Moon. Los Angeles: Daystar Publishing, c1992.
NRLF W 138 075 Request item at UCB Bancroft Library.

Hill, George H.
Ebony Images: Black Americans and Television / George H. Hill. Carson, Calif.: Daystar Pub. Co., c1986.
UCB Main PN1992.8.A34 H54 1986
UCB Moffitt PN1992.8.A34 H54 1986

hooks, bell.
"Selling Hot Pussy: Representations of Black Female Sexuality in the Cultural Marketplace." In: Writing on the Body: Female Embodiment and Feminist Theory. Edited by Katie Conboy, Nadia Medina, and Sarah Stanbury. pp: 113-28. New York: Columbia University Press, c1997. Gender and culture reader
Main Stack PN98.W64.W687 1997

Hull, Stephanie; Viano, Maurizio-Sanzio
"The image of blacks in the work of Coppola, De Palma, and Scorsese." In: Beyond the margin: readings in Italian Americana / edited by Paolo A. Giordano and Anthony Julian Tamburri.p. 169-97. Madison, N.J.: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press; London: Associated University Presses, c1998.
Main Stack PS153.I8.B495 1998

Images of the Black Male in Literature and Film: Essays in Criticism /
Edited by Ralph Reckley, Sr. ... [et al.]. [Baltimore?]: Middle Atlantic Writers Association Press, c1994.
UCB Main PS173.N4 I58 1994

Iverem, Esther
We gotta have it : twenty years of seeing Black at the movies, 1986-2006 Published: New York : Thunder's Mouth Press, c2007.
MAIN: PN1995.9.N4 I94 2007

Jhally, Sut.
Enlightened Racism: The Cosby Show, Audiences, and the Myth of the American Dream / Sut Jhally and Justin Lewis. Boulder: Westview Press, 1992. Series title: Cultural studies.
UCB Main PN1992.77.C68 J4 1992
UCB Moffitt PN1992.77.C68 J4 1992

Johnson, Albert
"Beige, brown, or black." In: Film quarterly: forty years--a selection / edited by Brian Henderson and Ann Martin, with Lee Amazonas.p. 16-25. Berkeley: University of California Press, c1999.
Main Stack PN1994.F439135 1999
Morrison Rm PN1994.F439135 1999

Keeling, Kara
The witch's flight : the cinematic, the Black femme, and the image of common sense Durham : Duke University Press, 2007. DD>MAIN: PN1995.9.L48 K44 2007 DD>Table of contents http://www.loc.gov/catdir/toc/ecip0715/2007014053.html

Keyser, Lester J.
The Cinema of Sidney Poitier: The Black Man's Changing Role on the American Screen / Lester J. Keyser, Andre H. Ruszkowski. 1st ed. San Diego: A.S. Barnes, c1980.
UCB Main PN2287.P57 .K4

Knight, Arthur.
Disintegrating the musical: Black performance and American musical film / Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2002.
UCB Main MAIN: PN1995.9.N4 K59 2002

Knight, Arthur.
"Star dances: African-American constructions of stardom, 1925-1960." In: Classic Hollywood, classic whiteness / Daniel Bernardi, editor. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, c2001.
Main Stack PN1995.9.M56.C59 2001

Leab, Daniel J.
From Sambo to Superspade: the Black Experience in Motion Pictures / by Daniel J. Leab. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1975.
UCB Main PN1995.9.N4 L41 *c2 copies
UCB Moffitt PN1995.9.N4 .L4

Lipsitz, George
"Genre anxiety and racial representation in 1970s cinema." In: Refiguring American film genres: history and theory / Nick Browne, editor. p. 208-32. Berkeley: University of California Press, c1998.
Main Stack PN1993.5.U6.R443 1998
Moffitt PN1993.5.U6.R443 1998

Mapp, Edward.
Blacks in American Films: Today and Yesterday. Metuchen, N.J., Scarecrow Press, 1972 [c1971].
UCB Main PN1995.9.N4 M3
UCB Moffitt PN1995.9.N4 M3

Martinez, Gerald
What It Is-- What It Was!: The Black Film Explosion of the '70s in Words and Pictures. New York: Hyperion, c1998.
UCB Main PN1995.9.N4 M32 1998

Massood, Paula J.
Black city cinema: African American urban experiences in film Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2003.
UCB Main PN1995.9.N4 M33 2003

Maynard, Richard A.
The Black Man on Film: Racial Stereotyping [edited by] Richard A. Maynard. Rochelle Park, N.J., Hayden Book Co. [1974].
Series title: Hayden film attitudes and issues series.
UCB Moffitt PN1995.9.N4 .M34

MacDonald, J. Fred.
Blacks and White TV: African Americans in Television Since 1948 / J. Fred MacDonald. 2nd ed. Chicago: Nelson-Hall Publishers, c1992.
UCB Main PN1992.8.A34 M3 1992
UCB Moffitt PN1992.8.A34 M3 1992

Massood, Paula J.
Black city cinema: African American urban experiences in film Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2003.
MAIN: PN1995.9.N4 M33 2003

McPherson, Tara.
Reconstructing Dixie: race, gender, and nostalgia in the imagined South / Tara McPherson. Durham: Duke University Press, 2003.
UCB Main Stack F209.M37 2003

Mediated Messages and African-American Culture: Contemporary Issues
Venise T. Berry, Carmen L. Manning-Miller, editors. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, c1996.
UCB Main PN1995.9.N4 M44 1996
UCB Moffitt PN1995.9.N4 M44 1996

Miller, Randall M., ed.
The Kaleideoscopic Lens: How Hollywood Views Ethnic Groups. Englewood, NJ.: Jerome S. Ozer, 1980.
Main PN1995.9.M56.K3
Moffitt PN1995.9.M56.K3
Chicano Stu P90.K2.M5

Murray, James P.
To Find an Image: Black Films from Uncle Tom to Super Fly, by James P. Murray. Indianapolis, Bobbs-Merrill [c1973].
UCB Moffitt PN1995.9.N4 M8
UCB Main PN1995.9.N4 M81

Nama, Adilifu
Black space : imagining race in science fiction film Austin : University of Texas Press, 2008.
Full text available online (UCB users only)
MAIN: PN1995.9.S26 N36 2008

Negra, Diane
Off-white Hollywood : American culture and ethnic female stardom London ; New York : Routledge, 2001.
MAIN: PN1995.9.M56 N44 2001

Nesteby, James R.
Black Images in American Films, 1896-1954: The Interplay Between Civil Rights and Film Culture / James R. Nesteby. Washington, D.C.: University Press of America, c1982.
UCB Main PN1995.9.N4 .N4
UCB Moffitt PN1995.9.N4 .N4

Null, Gary.
Black Hollywood: the Negro in Motion Pictures / by Gary Null. 1st ed. Secaucus, N.J.: Citadel Press, c1975.
UCB Bancroft F869.H7N8
UCB Main PN1995.9.N4 N81
UCB Moffitt PN1995.9.N4 N8

Noble, Peter
The Negro in Films. New York, Arno Press, 1970. Series title: The Literature of cinema.
UCB Main PN1995.9.N4 .N6 1970
UCB Moffitt PN1995.9.N4 N6 1970

Petty, Sheila.
Contact zones : memory, origin, and discourses in Black diasporic cinema Detroit : Wayne State University Press, c2008.
MAIN: PN1995.9.N4 P43 2008

Pines, Jim.
Blacks in Films: A Survey of Racial Themes and Images in the American Film / by Jim Pines. London: Studio Vista, 1975.
UCB Main PN1995.9.N4 P481

Pines, Jim.
Blacks in the Cinema: The Changing Image. London, British Film Institute (Education Department), 1971.
UCB Main PN1995.9.N4 P5

Pough, Gwendolyn D.
"Girls in the hood and other ghetto dramas : representing Black womanhood in hip hop cinema and novels." Check it while I wreck it : Black womanhood, hip hop culture, and the public sphere / Gwendolyn D. Pough. Boston : Northeastern University Press, c2004.
Main Stack E185.86.P666 2004
Moffitt E185.86.P666 2004

Pramaggiore, Maria
Irish and African American cinema : identifying others and performing identities, 1980-2000 Albany : State University of New York Press, c2007.
MAIN: PN1993.5.I85 P73 2007; View current status of this item
Table of contents http://www.loc.gov/catdir/toc/ecip0616/2006020755.html

Reid, Mark A.
"The Black Gangster Film." In: Film Genre Reader II / edited by Barry Keith Grant. 1st ed. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1995. pp: 456-73.
Main PN1995.F45792 1995

Reid, Mark A.
Black lenses, Black voices : African American film now / Mark A. Reid. Lanham, MD : Rowman & Littlefield, c2005.
Main (Gardner) Stacks PN1995.9.N4 R43 2005

Remus, Rastus, revolution.
Edited by Marshall Fishwick. Bowling Green, Ohio. Bowling Green University Popular Press [1971?]
Main Stack E185.82.R43 1971 NRLF #: B 2 854 861

Representing Blackness: Issues in Film and Video
Edited and with an introduction by Valerie Smith. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, c1997. Series title: Rutgers depth of field series.
UCB Main PN1995.9.N4 R47 1997
UCB Moffitt PN1995.9.N4 R47 1997

Richardson, Riche
Black masculinity and the U.S. South : from Uncle Tom to gangsta Athens : University of Georgia Press, c2007.
MAIN: E185.86 .R537 2007
Table of contents http://www.loc.gov/catdir/toc/ecip0617/2006023814.html

Robinson, Cedric J.
Forgeries of memory and meaning : Blacks and the regimes of race in American theater and film before World War II Chapel Hill : University of North Carolina Press, c2007.
MAIN: PN1995.9.N4 R58 2007; View current status of this item
Table of contents http://www.loc.gov/catdir/toc/ecip0719/2007022091.html

Rocchio, Vincent F.
Reel racism: confronting Hollywood's construction of Afro-American culture Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 2000.
MAIN: PN1995.9.N4 R59 2000

Rogin, Michael
Blackface, White Noise: Jewish Immigrants in the Hollywood Melting Pot / Michael Rogin. Berkeley: University of California Press, c1996.
UC users only
UCB Main PN1995.9.N4 R64 1996
UCB Moffitt PN1995.9.N4 R64 1996

Rogin, Michael Paul
"Democracy and burnt cork": the end of blackface, the beginning of civil rights." In: Refiguring American film genres: history and theory / Nick Browne, editor. p. 171-207. Berkeley: University of California Press, c1998.
Main Stack PN1993.5.U6.R443 1998
Moffitt PN1993.5.U6.R443 1998

Ross, Karen.
Black and White Media: Black Images in Popular Film and Television / Karen Ross. Cambridge, Mass.: Polity Press, 1996.
UCB Main PN1995.9.N4 R67 1996

Sampson, Henry T.
That's Enough, Folks: Black Images in Animated Cartoons, 1900-1960 Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press, 1998.
UCB Main NC1766.5.A35 S26 1997

Say it loud!: African-American audiences, media, and identity
Edited by Robin R. Means Coleman. New York: Routledge, 2002.
UCB Main P94.5.A37.S28 2002

Silk, Catherine
Racism and Anti-racism in American Popular Culture: Portrayals of African-Americans in Fiction and Film / Catherine Silk ...Manchester; New York: Manchester University Press; New York, NY, USA: Distributed exclusively in the USA and Canada by St. Martin's Press, c1990.
UCB Main P94.5.A372 U57 1990
UCB Moffitt P94.5.A372 U57 1990

Smith, Susan
The musical: race, gender and performance London : Wallflower, 2005.
MUSI: ML2054 .S65 2005
PFA : ML2054 .S65 2005

Smith, Valerie
Not Just Race, Not Just Gender: Black Feminist Readings New York: Routledge, 1998.
UCB Main PN1995.9.N4 S62 1998

Smith, Valerie, ed.
Representing Blackness: Issues in Film and Video New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1997.
Main Stack PN1995.9.N4.R47 1997
Moffitt PN1995.9.N4.R47 1997

Snead, James A.
White Screens, Black Images: Hollywood From the Dark Side / James Snead, edited by Colin MacCabe and Cornel West. New York: Routledge, c1994.
UCB Main PN1995.9.N4 S64 1994

Springer, Kimberly.
"Waiting to Set It Off: African American Women and the Sapphire Fixation." In: Reel knockouts: violent women in the movies / edited by Martha McCaughey and Neal King. 1st ed. pp: 172-99. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2001.
Main Stack PN1995.9.W6.R454 2001

Stanfield, Peter
Body and soul : jazz and blues in American film, 1927-63 / Peter Stanfield. Urbana : University of Illinois Press, 2005.
Main (Gardner) Stacks PN1995.9.J37 S72 2005

Taylor, Clyde.
The mask of art: breaking the aesthetic contract--film and literature / Clyde R. Taylor. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, c1998.
UCB Main PN1995.9.N4 T38 1998

Tudor, Deborah V.
Hollywood's Vision of Team Sports: Heroes, Race, and Gender New York: Garland Pub., 1997. Garland studies in American popular history and culture
Main Stack PN1995.9.S67 T84 1997

Van Deburg, William L.
"A Popular Culture Prophecy: Black American Slavery in Film." In Hollywood as Mirror: Changing Views of "Outsiders" and "Enemies" in American Movies. Edited by Robert Brent Toplin, pp. 19-39.. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1993.
UCB Moffitt PN1995.9.M56H65 1993

Van Deburg, William L.
Slavery & Race in American Popular Culture / William L. Van Deburg. Madison, Wis.: University of Wisconsin Press, 1984.
UCB Main E441 .V23 1984
UCB Moffitt E441 .V23 1984

Vera, Hernan
Screen saviors: Hollywood fictions of whiteness Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, c2003.
UCB Main PN1995.9.W45 V47 2003

Wallace, Michele.
"Uncle Tom's Cabin." (the portrayal of African Americans in the silent film era) TDR v44, n1 (Spring, 2000):136.

Watkins, S. Craig (Samuel Craig)
Representing: Hip Hop Culture and the Production of Black Cinema. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998.
UCB Main PN1995.9.N4 W38 1998;

Weisenfeld, Judith.
Hollywood be thy name : African American religion in American film, 1929-1949 Berkeley : University of California Press, c2007.
MAIN: PN1995.9.N4 W45 2007
Table of contents http://www.loc.gov/catdir/toc/ecip074/2006037488.html

Wilderson, Frank B.
Red, white & black : cinema and the structure of U.S. antagonisms / Frank B. Wilderson III. Durham [NC] : Duke University Press, 2010.
Main (Gardner) Stacks PN1995.9.M56 W55 2010
Contents: The ruse of analogy -- The narcissistic slave -- Fishing for Antwone -- Cinematic unrest : Bush Mama and the Black Liberation Army -- Absurd mobility -- The ethics of sovereignty -- Excess lack -- The pleasures of parity -- "Savage" Negrophobia -- A crisis in the commons -- Half-white healing -- Make me feel good.

William Reese Company.
Blacks and Film, 1894-Present: Popular Culture as Socio/ideologicalBarometer and Consciously Commercial Work as Acts of Renegade Art:[catalog of publicity materials relating to black films]. [New Haven,Conn.: William Reese Company, 1985].
UCB Bancroft pf PN1995.9.N4 W5 1985

Willis, Sharon.
High Contrast: Race and Gender in Contemporary Hollywood Films / Sharon Willis. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1997.
UCB Main PN1995.9.S47 W56 1997

Woodman, Brian J.
"Represented in the margins : images of African American soldiers in Vietnam War combat films." In: The war film / edited and with an introduction by Robert Eberwein. New Brunswick, N.J. : Rutgers University Press, c2005. Rutgers depth of field series
Main Stack PN1995.9.W3.W36 2005

Young, Lola.
Fear of the Dark: 'Race', Gender and Sexuality in the Cinema Lola Young. London; New York: Routledge, 1996.
UCB Main PN1995.9.N4.Y68 1996

Journal Articles

Abraham, Linus
"The black woman as marker of hypersexuality in Western mythology: a contemporary manifestation in the film 'The Scarlet Letter'." Journal of Communication Inquiry April 2002 v26 i2 p193(22)
" The 1995 motion picture 'The Scarlet Letter' portrayed Hester Prynne's nudity and adultery observed by her black servant, Mituba. This relationship derives from 19th-century Western iconography about sex and race and perpetuates the association of blackness with hypersexuality." [Expanded Academic Index]

Alexander, Francis W.
"Stereotyping As A Method Of Exploitation In Film." Black Scholar 1976 7(8): 26-29.
"Explains "how the majority race will use stereotyping to hold down a minority race, how this stereotyping was used in the movies of today, and what black people must do to rid themselves of this stereotyping." [America History and Life]

Beeman, Angie K.
"Emotional segregation: A content analysis of institutional racism in US films, 1980-2001." Ethnic & Racial Studies, Sep2007, Vol. 30 Issue 5, p687-712, 26p
UC users only

Bobo, Jacqueline.
"Black Women in fiction & Nonfiction: Images of Power & Powerlessness." Wide Angle XIII/3-4, July-Oct 91; p.72-81. Examines media depictions of black women as powerless, noting esp. three frequently given characteristics: sexually promiscuous, overbearing, and strident.

Bourne, Stephen.
"The African American Image in American Cinema." Black Scholar v21, n2 (March-May, 1990):12 (8 pages).

Boyd, Herb.
"African-American Images on Television and Film." Crisis v103, n2 (Feb-March, 1996):22 (3 pages).
The portrayal of blacks in television programs and films is full of contradictions. According to the T.V. critic Donald Bogle, an excessive amount of comedy is associated with blacks in T.V. programs. Diane Williams, a writer, feels that serious programs concerning the blacks are not given an equal opportunity and are terminated before they become popular. According to James Muhammad, editor of the Final Call, the media highlights the negative points of black culture without emphasizing its good aspects.

Campbell, Christopher P.
"Culturally diverse TV would be better TV: Perhaps the NAACP's appeal to the networks to become more fully representative of American pluralism isn't such a bad idea after all." Television Quarterly v31, n1 (Spring, 2000):37 (3 pages). Issues regarding the demographic aspects of television programs are examined. Topics include multculturalism, stereotypes, and television programing.

Campbell, Edward D. C., Jr.
""Burn, Mandingo, Burn": The Plantation South In Film, 1958-1978." Southern Quarterly 1981 19(3-4): 107-116.
"The major films about the plantation South have reversed the stereotypes; the black rebellious slave is never condemned for his actions just as earlier films, including The Birth of a Nation, never condemned the white plantation owner. The film industry has gone from one extreme to the other." [America History and Life]

Carvell, Tim.
"Stereotype-free Black Films." (independent filmmakers making films that more accurately portray black life than films made by big Hollywood studios)(First:)(Brief Article) Fortune v136, n5 (March 16, 1998):34 (2 pages).

Clark, Leroy D.
"The second coming of Amos 'n' Andy." New Crisis v107, n1 (Jan-Feb, 2000):34 (2 pages).
Almost all television comedy portrayals of African Americans perpetuate racial stereotypes. Lampooning stereotypes requires the deft touches of Richard Pryor or Robert Townsend, qualities absent from these shows.

Cripps, Thomas.
"The Unformed Image: The Negro in the Movies Before "Birth Of A Nation." Maryland Historian 1971 2(1): 13-26.
"Characterization of Negroes in films prior to "Birth of a Nation" was varied. Often, Negroes were portrayed sympathetically due to the need for audiences in urban areas and to the urban location of most filming. The turning point was the concomitant development of David Wark Griffith's dominant style and the migration of the film industry to California - away from the polyethnic North. In the sterile atmosphere of Hollywood, Negroes were utilized only as comic relief. The Southern mystique prevented use of Negroes as heroes; the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) prevented their use as villains." [America: History and Life]

Cripps, Thomas.
"Sam the Piano Player The Man Between." Journal of Popular Film and Television v27, n4 (Wntr, 2000):16.
"As portrayed by actor Dooley Wilson in the movie Casablanca (1942), the character of Sam, the piano-playing confidant of Rick Blaine (Humphrey Bogart), represents a turning point in the depiction of blacks on the screen and a harbinger of the imminent struggle for racial equality by African Americans." [America: History and Life]

Dagle, J. and Kalinak, Kathryn
"The Representation of Race and Sexuality: Visual and Musical Construction in Gone with the Wind." Post Script XIII/2, Winter-Spring 94; p.14-27.
Discusses the function of Max Steiner's musical score and the role of Mammy in the narrative of "Gone with the wind".

Del Gaudio, S.
"I'd Walk a Million Miles For One of Her Smiles."Jump Cut /28, Apr 83; p.23-25.
Analyses the 'mammy' image of black women in Hollywood films.

Doherty, Thomas.
"The Black Exploitation Picture: Superfly and Black Caesar." Ball State University Forum. 24(2):30-39. 1983.

Dines, Gail
"Racism and Representation-The Social Construction of "Blackness" and "Whiteness"." [Part 1 of 2] Iris-A Journal About Women: 34-8, Winter 1994.

Dines, Gail
"Racism and Representation-The Social Construction of "Blackness" and "Whiteness"." [Part 2 of 2] Iris-A Journal About Women: 38-41, Winter 1994.1

Euell, Kim.
"Signifyin(g) Ritual: Subverting Stereotypes, Salvaging Icons." (Black racial and gender stereotypes and icons) African American Review v31, n4 (Winter, 1997):667 (9 pages).

Ford, Thomas E.
"Effects of Stereotypical Television Portrayals of African-Americans on Person Perception. Social Psychology Quarterly v60, n3 (Sept, 1997):266 (10 pages).

Gaskins, Bill.
"The World According to Life: Racial Stereotyping and American Identity." Afterimage v21, n1 (Summer, 1993):14 (3 pages).

Frost, Jennifer.
"Hedda Hopper, Hollywood Gossip, and the Politics of Racial Representation In Film, 1946-1948." Journal of African American History; 2008 93(1): 36-63, 28p
UC users only

Glenn, Cerise L.; Cunningham, Landra J.
"The Power of Black Magic: The Magical Negro and White Salvation in Film." Journal of Black Studies, Nov2009, Vol. 40 Issue 2, p135-152, 18p
UC users only

Godden, Richard and McCay, Mary A.
"Say It Again, Sam[Bo]: Race And Speech In Huckleberry Finn And Casablanca." Mississippi Quarterly 1996 49(4): 657-682.
"Compares Jim in The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1884) with Sam in Casablanca (1942) and suggests that each black character manipulates conventions of speech and hearing in order to reinterpret his subordinate status in liberating ways. The authors connect the characters' actions to a tradition of innovative African-American speech and relate each work to contemporary historical events involving race and civil rights." [from ABC-CLIO America: History & Life]

Gonder, Patrick.
"Like a Monstrous Jigsaw Puzzle: Genetics and Race in Horror Films of the 1950s." Velvet Light Trap. 52: 33-44. 2003 Fall.

Guerrero, Ed.
"The Black Man on Our Screens and the Empty Space in Representation." Callaloo Vol. 18, No. 2 (Spring, 1995), pp. 395-400
UC users only

Guerrero, Ed.
"Framing Blackness: The African-American Image in the Cinema of the Nineties." Cineaste v20, n2 (Spring, 1993):24 (8 pages).

Gunter, Barrie.
"Ethnicity and Involvement in Violence on Television; Nature and Context of On-screen Portrayals." Journal of Black Studies v28, n6 (July, 1998):683 (21 pages).

Hagopian, Kevin.
"Black Cinema Studies: Shadows and Acts." Journal of Communication v45, n3 (Summer, 1995):177 (9 pages).

Harris, Keith M.
"Visual Culture and the Black Masculine." Wide Angle - Volume 21, Number 4, October 1999, pp. 2-5 UC users only

Hayes, Dianne Williams.
"Athletes, Outcasts and Partyers."(films about African Americans in higher education) Black Issues in Higher Education v12, n23 (Jan 11, 1996):26 (3 pages).

Hicks, Heather J.
"Hoodoo Economics: White Men's Work and Black Men's Magic in Contemporary American Film." Camera Obscura, Aug2003, Vol. 18 Issue 53, p25-55, 30p
UC users only

Hoffman, Donald.
"Whose Home on the Range? Finding Room for Native Americans, African Americans, and Latino Americans in the Revisionist Western."(Popular Literature and Film) MELUS v22, n2 (Summer, 1997):45 (15 pages).

Holte, James Craig
"Unmelting Images: Film, Television, and Ethnic Stereotyping." MELUS, Vol. 11, No. 3, Ethnic Images in Popular Genres and Media (Autumn, 1984), pp. 101-108
UC users only

Horowitz, Joy.
"Hollywood's Dirty Little Secret." (racism in the motion picture industry) American Visions v4, n4 (August, 1989):16 (6 pages). "Comments on how African Americans are faring off-camera in the film industry as writers, directors, and producers. While on-screen talent is embraced, there is a "shocking paucity" of talent being tapped behind the camera." [from ABC-CLIO America: History & Life]

Hughey, Matthew W.
"Cinethetic Racism: White Redemption and Black Stereotypes in "Magical Negro" Films." Social Problems, aug2009, Vol. 56 Issue 3, p543-577, 35p
UCB users only

Hyatt, Marshall; Sanders, Cheryl
"Film as a Medium to Study the Twentieth-Century Afro-American Experience." Journal of Negro Education, Vol. 53, No. 2. (Spring, 1984), pp. 161-172.
UCB users only

Johnson, A.
"Moods Indigo" (The Portrayal of Black People in Cinema: A Long View) Film Quarterly, 1990 Winter, V44 N2:13-27.

Jones, J.
"The Black South in Contemporary Film." African American Review 1993 Spring, V27 N1:19-24.

Jurca, Catherine
"Motion Pictures' Greatest Year (1938): Public Relations and the American Film Industry Motion Pictures' Greatest Year (1938): Public Relations and the American Film Industry." Film History, Vol. 20, No. 3, Studio Systems (2008), pp. 344-356
UC users only

Kevorkian, Martin
"Computers with color monitors: Disembodied Black screen images 1988-1996." (cover story) American Quarterly; Jun99, Vol. 51 Issue 2, p283, 28p
UC users only

Kinney, Katherine
" Cold Wars: Black Soldiers in Liberal Hollywood." War, Literature & the Arts: An International Journal of the Humanities; Spring/Summer2000, Vol. 12 Issue 1, p101, 21p
UC users only

Larkin, Alile Sharon
"Cinematic Genocide." Black Camera 18:1 [Spring-Summer 2003] p.3-4, 15
UCB users only
"Larkin discusses "cinematic genocide," the continuing phenomenon in American movies that keeps men and women of color apart on the screen and she reinforces the connections between institutional racism and sexism. She touches on black male characters depicted as being in love with white women; white men and women falling in love on television; how the black male comedian is the only exception, because he poses no threat to the white male patriarchy; problematic gender relations between black men and women in television and film; and the lack of characters of color in animated films. The author collects "colored love stories" and describes a need to "match the black love songs that so often are appropriated in white film.""

Leab, Daniel J.
"All-Colored"--But Not Much Different: Films Made for Negro Ghetto Audiences, 1913-1928." Phylon (1960-) > Vol. 36, No. 3 (3rd Qtr., 1975), pp. 321-339
UC users only

Leab, Daniel J.
"The Gamut from A to B: The Image of the Black in Pre-1915 Movies." Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 88, No. 1. (Mar., 1973), pp. 53-70. UCB users only
"Until recently, the American film industry either ignored blacks completely or stereotyped them in demeaning roles. Unflattering and vicious stereotypes of Negroes are as old as cinema itself and were probably influenced the most by the depiction of blacks in the minstrel shows and in vaudeville. During the 1890's-1915 films portrayed blacks as a "menace, a dancing machine, a comic stooge, a faithful retainer, a cheerful flunky, a tainted unfortunate, or as ignorant savages" - the opposite of values esteemed by white Americans." [America History and Life]

Leyda, Julia
"Black-Audience Westerns and the Politics of Cultural Identification in the 1930s." Cinema Journal Vol. 42, No. 1 (Autumn, 2002), pp. 46-70
UC users only

Lyman, Stanford M.
"Race, Sex, and Servitude: Images of Blacks in American Cinema." International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society 1990 4(1): 49-77.
American films from 1909 to the 1970's, detailing the careers of Dorothy Dandridge, Paul Robeson, and Orlando Martins, which were diminished by white prejudice.

Lott, Eric.
"The Whiteness Of Film Noir." American Literary History 1997 9(3): 542-566.
"In the 1940's and 1950's American ethnic and nonwhite characters in film noir were racial metaphors for white corruption and symbolic scapegoats for the very criminality they evoked. In response to emerging black, Asian, and Hispanic activism, films such as Double Indemnity and A Double Life compared whites who capitulated to villainous desires with racial and ethnic stereotypes; yet by retaining the idea of respectable morality - the white sinecure - the films' racial codes, embedded in moral discourse and visual cues, vilified criminal acts and sanctioned the very "whiteness" the characters could not maintain. Once domesticated, the racial "Other" inside the white household portended familial dysfunction and reinforced the desirability of the white home that the Other's presence denied." [from ABC-CLIO America: History & Life]

Lyman, Stanford M.
"Race, Sex, And Servitude: Images Of Blacks InAmerican Cinema." International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society 1990 4(1):49-77.
" Outlines the history of racism and stereotyping of blacks in American films from 1909 to the 1970's, detailing the careers of Dorothy Dandridge, Paul Robeson, and Orlando Martins, which were diminished by white prejudice."

Lyne, William.
"No Accident: From Black Power to Black Box Office." African-American Review, 2000 Spring, 34:1, 39-59.

Madison, Davis, J.
"Living Black, Living White: Cultural Choices in Crime Films." World Literature Today, vol. 82, no. 3, pp. 9-11, May 2008
UC users only

Madison, Kelly J.
"Legitimation Crisis and Containment: The "Anti-Racist-White-Hero" Film." (Critical Essay) Critical Studies in Mass Communication v16, n4 (Dec, 1999):399 (18 pages).
Author Abstract: "This essay examines the way in which collective memories of struggles for African peoples' equality are constructed in mainstream film. From the late eighties to the late nineties, the film industry produced a series of thematically similar films dealing with struggles against white supremacy in the U.S. and in South Africa. In this essay I argue that movements for equality created a legitimation crisis for white supremacist patriarchal capitalism in general and white identity in particular. A textual analysis is presented in which it is argued that mainstream film helped "contain" this legitimation crisis by circulating paternalistic white supremacist discourses through which to remember key historical moments in the struggles against white supremacy. These "anti racist-white-hero films" are placed in the larger cultural context of backlash through which white supremacist patriarchal capitalism has sought to regain legitimacy in the U.S. over the past three decades. COPYRIGHT 1999 Speech Communication Association." [from Magazine Index]

Mapp, Edward.
"Black Women In Films." Black Scholar 1982 13(4-5): 36-40.
"Describes cinematic roles of black women from the 1920's to the 1970's as a proliferation of common stereotypes, but indicates a breakthrough to more sympathetic portrayals in the early 1970's."

Maurice, Alice.
"'Cinema at Its Source': Synchronizing Race and Sound in the Early Talkies." Camera Obscura: A Journal of Feminism, Culture, and Media Studies. 49: 31-72. 2002 Jan.
UC users only

McKissack, Fredrick L., Jr.
"The Problem with Black T.V."(Culture)(simplistic comedy TV portrayals)(Column) Progressive v61, n2 (Feb, 1997):38 (3 pages)

Maurice, Alice
"Cinema at Its Source": Synchronizing Race and Sound in the Early Talkies." Camera Obscura 17.1 (2002) 31-71
UC users only

Miller, Chris
"The Representation of the Black Male in Film." Journal of African American Men 3:3 [Winter 1998] p.19-30
UC users only
"Explores the systematic exclusion of Blacks from the production, distribution, and exhibition of films. Discusses the lack of film characters with which African Americans, especially youth, can relate, and suggests that more positive role models need to be portrayed. Examines at length Gordon Parks' 1972 Blaxploitation film "Superfly," opining that it exemplifies all that is wrong with Hollywood's attempts to put Blacks in "positive" film roles. Profiles Spike Lee's 1995 film "Clockers" and suggests that the lead character Spike is a more complicated depiction of an African American male." [from Chadwyk-Healey International Index to Black Periodicals]

Modleski, Tania.
"In Hollywood, racist stereotypes can still earn Oscar nominations." (movie review) Chronicle of Higher Education v46, n28 (March 17, 2000):B9 (2 pages). The author examines racial stereotypes used in the motion pictures The Hurricane and The Green Mile. Topics include Oscar nominations, film reviews, and public perceptions.

Nama, Adilifu.
"R Is for Race, Not Rocket: Black Representation in American Science Fiction Cinema." Quarterly Review of Film & Video, Mar2009, Vol. 26 Issue 2, p155-166, 12p
UC users only

Nickel, John
"Disabling African American Men: Liberalism and Race Message Films." Cinema Journal; Fall2004, Vol. 44 Issue 1, p25-48, 24p, 7 bw
UC users only

Pauly, Thomas H.
"Black Images And White Culture During The Decade Before The Civil Rights Movement."American Studies 1990 31(2): 101-119.
"The years from 1945 to 1954 contributed much to the civil rights movement even though there were no outspoken campaigns for reform during this time. Novels, stage plays, and films dramatized issues of racial injustice even as they drew on racial concerns sensitized by revelations from the Nazi death camps. Prominent black Americans, like Ethel Waters, Jackie Robinson, and Ralph Ellison, also helped discredit old stereotypes." [America History and Life]

Pinsky, M.I.
"Racism, History and Mass Media."Jump Cut /28, Apr 83; p.66-67.
Traces the presentation of racial conflict through the films "The Birth of a Nation", "Gone with the Wind" and "Red November, Black November".

Projansky, Sarah
"The Elusive/Ubiquitous Representation of Rape: A Historical Survey of Rape in U.S. Film, 1903-1972." Cinema Journal Vol. 41, No. 1 (Autumn, 2001), pp. 63-90
UC users only

Regester, Charlene.
"African American Extras in Hollywood during the 1920s and 1930s." Film History, Vol. 9, No. 1, Silent Cinema (1997), pp. 95-115
UC users only

Regester, Charlene.
"African-American writers and pre-1950 cinema.(Critical Essay)." Literature-Film Quarterly 29.3 (July 2001): 210(26).
The relationship between black writers and the motion picture industry previous to 1950 positioned the writers as practically powerless. Works by Zora Neale Hurston, Charles Waddell Chesnutt, and Willard Motley managed to contribute to American cinema even when much of their work was severely compromised.

Regester Charlene.
"From the gridiron and the boxing ring to the cinema screen: the African-American Athlete in pre-1950 cinema." Culture, Sport, Society 6.2 (June 2003): p269(24).
"Black athletes, who were a dominating force in sports such as boxing and football in the pre-1950s, used their physical prowess as a marketable commodity and managed to join the ranks of motion picture stars, whether or not they were talented actors. Because of their bodies, these athletes were transformed on the screen to provide representations of black masculinity. This essay examines selected black athletes who contributed to this early screen image and that include: Paul Robeson and Woody Strode in the sport of football with Joe Louis and Canada Lee representing the sport of boxing. Others athletes who similarly contributed to the Black screen image are noted in an historical overview in these two sports." [Expanded Academic Index]

Regester, Charlene.
"Stepin Fetchit: The Man, The Image, And The African American Press." Film History 1994 6(4): 502-521.
UC users only
"Surveys the film career of actor Stepin Fetchit (Lincoln Perry), describes columns Perry wrote for the Chicago Defender from 1927 to 1946 as well as black press coverage of Perry's personal and professional ups and downs in the 1920's and 1930's, and examines his public conflicts with black journalists in the 1970's over the legacy for African Americans of his work." [from ABC-CLIO America: History and Life]

Reid, Mark A.
"The Black Action Film: The End of the Patiently Enduring Black Hero." Film History: An International Journal, vol. 2 no. 1. 1988. pp: 23-36.

Reid, Mark A.
"Dialogic modes of Representing Africa(s): Womanist Film." (Black Film Issue) Black American Literature Forum v25, n2 (Summer, 1991):375 (14 pages)

Rhines, Jesse
"Black Film/Black Future." The Black Scholar 33:1 [Spring 2003] p.47-53
UC users only
Blacks as depicted by Whites in films by Thomas Edison and in D.W. Griffith's "Birth of a Nation," as well as literary works are examined, and the question of who will define black identity and represent the black community is studied. Russell Simmons is exemplified as an individual who remains true to his roots in the black community while reaching beyond it to establish a new American multi-cultural environment. Participation in politics and Simmons' Hip-Hop Summit Action Network are considered avenues for empowerment and molding the future of those of African ancestry." [International Index to Black Periodicals]

Riggs, Marlon T.
"Black Macho Revisited: Reflections of a Snap! Queen" Black American Literature Forum, Vol. 25, No. 2, Black Film Issue. (Summer, 1991), pp. 389-394. UCB users only

Rodriguez, Roberto.
"The Early Years."(the portrayal of minorities in Hollywood film industry) Black Issues in Higher Education v12, n23 (Jan 11, 1996):22 (3 pages)

Rombes, Nicholas.
"A through S(e7en): A Racial Taxonomy of Serial Killer Cinema." Post Script: Essays in Film and the Humanities. 22 (2): 81-91. 2003 Winter-Spring.

Schneider, Alison.
"Celluloid Scholar: A New Look at African-Americans and Film." Chronicle of Higher-Education 2000 Sept 8, 47:2, A17.
UC users only

Simpson, Donald.
"Black Images in Film - the 1940s to the Early 1960s." (includes list of periodicals with film reviews for cited films) Black Scholar v21, n2 (March-May, 1990):20 (10 pages).

Spigner, Clarence.
"Black Impressions: Television and Film Imagery." Crisis v101, n1 (Jan, 1994):8 (4 pages).

Stephens, Lenora Clodfelter.
"Black Women In Films." Southern Quarterly 1981 19(3-4): 164-170.
"The birth of filmmaking introduced two basic female stereotypes for Negroes: the mammy and the seductress. Black women have seldom stepped out of their stereotyped role in films since the beginning in 1904." [America History and Life]

Thompson, Cliff
"The Brother From Another Race. Black Characters in the Films of John Sayles." Cineaste XXII/3, Dec 96; p.32-33.

Vaughn, Stephen.
"Ronald Reagan and the Struggle for Black Dignity in Cinema, 1937-1953." Journal of Negro History 1992 77(1): 1-16.
UC users only
"During his early years in Hollywood, Ronald Reagan was a political liberal and challenged racial prejudice in the film industry. As an actor, member of the Army Air Force film units, and activist in the Screen Actors Guild (SAG), Reagan's "public image both on and off the screen stood as a refreshing contrast to the general bias of Hollywood and the military." In part, Reagan's attitudes were the result of his family background, religious values, and association with antiracist organizations. Although he continued to voice support for black actors and condemn discrimination, Reagan, after becoming president of SAG in 1947, took virtually no action to challenge studio hiring practices, end cinematic stereotyping, or improve the employment of African Americans in the movie industry. In the postwar period, the economic decline of Hollywood as well as political intimidation of film studios by the House Committee on Un-American Activities help to explain the inactivity of SAG. Reagan chose to fight the alleged threat of communism and to attempt to refurbish the image of the film industry rather than continue his struggle against Hollywood's racism." [from ABC-CLIO America: History & Life]

Wager, Jans B.
"Jazz and Cocktails: Reassessing the White and Black Mix in Film Noir." Literature Film Quarterly, 2007, Vol. 35 Issue 3, p222-228, 7p
UC users only

Winokur, Mark.
"Marginal Marginalia: The African-American Voice in the Nouvelle Gangster Film." The Velvet Light Trap, vol. 35. 1995 Spring. pp: 19-32.

Yearwood, Gladstone Lloyd.
"The Hero in Black Film." Wide Angle V/2, 82; p.42-50.

The Image of African Americans in Animated Cartoons

Cohen, Karl F.
Forbidden animation : censored cartoons and blacklisted animators in America. Jefferson, N.C. : McFarland & Co., c1997.
Main Stack NC1766.5.C45.C64 1997

Lehman, Christopher P.
The Colored cartoon : Black representation in American animated short films, 1907-1954 / Christopher P. Lehman. Amherst : University of Massachusetts Press, c2007.
Main (Gardner) Stacks NC1766.U5 L442 2007
Contents Introduction: The Blackness of animation -- The silent era -- The arrival of sound -- Black characterizations -- Fred "Tex" Avery and "Trickster" animation -- Black representation and World War II political concerns -- African American representation and changing race relations -- United productions and the end of animated Black representation -- Conclusion: The legacy of animated African American expression.

Lehman, Christopher P.
"The New Black Animated Images of 1946: Black Characters and Social Commentary in Animated Cartoons." Journal of Popular Film and Television. 29 (2): 74-81. 2001 Summer.UC users only

Lindvall, Terry; Fraser, Ben.
"Darker Shade of Animation: African American Images in Warner Brothers Cartoons." In: Reading the rabbit : explorations in Warner Bros. animation / edited by Kevin S. Sandler. New Brunswick, N.J. : Rutgers University Press, c1998.
Main Stack NC1766.U52.W37365 1998

Neupert, Richard.
"Trouble in Watermelon Land: George Pal and the Little Jasper Cartoons." Film Quarterly, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 14-26, Fall 2001.UC users only

Sampson, Henry T.
That's enough, folks : Black images in animated cartoons, 1900-1960 / Henry T. Sampson. Lanham, Md. : Scarecrow Press, 1998.
Main Stack NC1766.5.A35.S26 1997
Moffitt NC1766.5.A35.S26 1997

Wallace, Michelle.
"The Celluloid Cabin: Satiricial Distortions of Uncle Tom in Animated Cartoon Short, 1932-1947." Studies in Popular Culture. 23 (3): 1-10. 2001 Apr.

Blaxploitation Films

Articles/review about Shaft
Articles/review about Sweet Sweetback's Baad Asssss Song
Articles/books about Melvyn Van Peebles

BaadAssss Cinema: a bold look at 70's blaxploitation films
In this groundbreaking documentary from the Independent Film channel, filmmaker Isaac Julien takes us back to the early 70s and the explosion of blaxploitation films, today one of American cinema's most beloved cult genres. Featuring a wealth of footage from classic films and interviews with key players the film thoroughly explores blaxploitation films from their breakout casting and unforgettable soundtracks to the outrageous fashions and over-the-top story lines.
Media Resources Center DVD 1561

Benshoff, Harry M.
"Blaxploitation Horror Films: Generic Reappropriation or Reinscription?" Cinema Journal - 39, Number 2, Winter 2000
UC users only
"The writer examines how the concept of African-American agency negotiated the generic structure of the horror film during the years of the blaxploitation film craze, ca. 1969-76. He notes that the generic pattern of the classical American horror film involves the use of race as a marker of monstrosity in ways generically consistent with prevailing ideas of white superiority. By way of contrast to this, he explores how the discourse of race plays out in blaxploitation horror films, finding that these films had a sizeable impact on the genre's evolution: As pop-culture signifiers of the growing public awareness about race and racial inequality, the films exposed and opposed the genre's historically racist structuring tenets, though female gender and sexuality were still often figured as central conceits of monstrous Otherness. He contends that the films, by embracing the racialized monster and turning him or her into an agent of black pride and power, created sympathetic monsters who helped shift audience identification away from the "normality" of bourgeois white society." [Art Index]

Brody, Jennifer DeVere.
"The Return of Cleopatra Jones." Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 1999 25(1): 91-121.
UC users only

Cha-Jua, Sundiata Keita:
"Repression Breeds Resistance": Black Audiences, Blaxploitation, Bruce Lee and Challenges to White Celluloid Masculinity." International Journal of Africana Studies 11:1 [Spring 2005] p.25-57

Cobley, Paul
"Sambos or Superspades?" In: The American thriller : generic innovation and social change in the 1970s / Paul Cobley. New York : Palgrave, 2000.
Full text available online (UCB users only)
Main (Gardner) Stacks PS374.D4 C57 2000

Dunn, Stephane
"Baad bitches" and sassy supermamas : Black power action films / Stephane Dunn. Urbana : University of Illinois Press, c2008.
Main (Gardner) Stacks

Dyer, Richard
"Music and presence in blaxploitation cinema." In: In the space of a song : the uses of song in film / Richard Dyer. Abingdon, Oxon ; New York : Routledge, 2012.
Main (Gardner) Stacks New books PN1995.9.M86 D94 2012

"Exploitation film."
Film History; Vol.VI nr.3 (Autumn 1994); p.291-404
Incl. articles on exploitation films of the 1930's and 1940's, and on 1960's and 1970's biker and 'blaxploitation' movies.

Gates, Philippa
"Femme might makes right: the 1970s blaxploitation vigilante crime-fighter." In: Detecting women : gender and the Hollywood detective film / Philippa Gates. Albany : SUNY Press, c2011.
Main (Gardner) Stacks PN1995.9.D4 G385 2011

Grant, W. R.
"The political economy of blaxploitation." In: Post-soul Black cinema : discontinuities, innovations, and breakpoints, 1970-1995 / William R. Grant, IV. New York : Routledge, 2004
Main Stack PN1995.9.N4.G69 2004
Table of contents http://www.loc.gov/catdir/toc/ecip047/2003017036.html

Guerrero, Ed
"The So-Called Fall of Blaxploitation." Velvet Light Trap, vol. 64, pp. 90-91, Fall 2009
UC users only

Hankin, Kelly.
"Badass Supermama Meets Foxy Brown." In: The girls in the back room : looking at the lesbian bar / Kelly Hankin. Minneapolis : University of Minnesota Press, c2002.
Full text available online (UCB users only)
Main (Gardner) Stacks PN1995.9.L48 H26 2002

Harris, Keith M. Harris, Keith M.
"Super bad: Jim Brown, blaxploitation, and the coming of boyz." In: Boys, boyz, bois : an ethics of Black masculinity in film and popular media / Keith M. Harris. New York : Routledge, 2006.
Main Stack PN1995.9.N4.H37 2006
Table of contents http://www.loc.gov/catdir/toc/ecip0518/2005025830.html

Holmlund, Chris.
"Wham! Bam! Pam! Pam Grier as Hot Action Babe and Cool Action Mama." Quarterly Review of Film and Video Volume 22, Number 2/April-June 2005
UC users only

Howard, Josiah.
Blaxploitation cinema : the essential reference guide / by Josiah Howard. Guildford : FAB, 2007.
Main (Gardner) Stacks PN1995.9.N4 H68 2008
Pacific Film Archive PN1995.9.N4 H68 2008

Howell, Amanda
"Spectacle, masculinity, and music in blaxploitation cinema." Screening the Past: An International, Refereed, Electronic Journal of Visual Media & History, Jul2005, Issue 18, p1

James, Darius.
That's blaxploitation! : roots of the baadasssss 'tude (rated X by an all-whyte jury) / Darius James. New York : St. Martin's Griffin, 1995.
Main Stack PN1995.9.N4.J35 1995

Lev, Peter
"From Blaxploitation to African American Film: Shaft, Superfly, Claudine, Leadbelly, Killer of Sheep." In: American films of the 70s : conflicting visions / Peter Lev. Austin, TX : University of Texas Press, 2000.
Full text available online (UCB users only)
Main (Gardner) Stacks PN1993.5.U6 L44 2000 AVAILABLE
Moffitt PN1993.5.U6 L44 2000

Massood, Paula J.
"Cotton in the City: The Black Ghetto, Blaxploitation and Beyond." In: Black city cinema: African American urban experiences in film Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2003.
UCB Main PN1995.9.N4 M33 2003

Morris, Gary.
"Blaxploitation, A Sketch." Bright Lights Journal (March 1997)

Kraszewski, Jon.
"Recontextualizing The Historical Reception of Blaxploitation: Articulations Of Class, Black Nationalism, and Anxiety In the Genre's Advertisements." Velvet Light Trap 2002 (50): 48-61.
Portions of this work only - UC users only

Lawrence, William Novotny
What It Is ... What It Shall Be! Blackness as Generic Revision in the Blaxploitation Films of the 1970s [Dissertation] Dissertation Abstracts International, Section A: The Humanities and Social Sciences, vol. 65, no. 8, pp. 2808, February 2005
Portions of this work only - UC users only
During the early years of the motion picture industry, black performers were often depicted as shuckin' and jivin' caricatures. Specifically, black males were portrayed as toms, coons and bucks, while the mammy and tragic mulatto archetypes circumscribed black femininity. This misrepresentation began to change in the 1950s and 1960s when performers such as Dorothy Dandridge and Sidney Poitier were cast in more positive roles. These performers paved the way for the black exploitation or blaxploitation movement, which began in 1970 and flourished until 1975. The movement is characterized by films that feature a black hero or heroine, black supporting characters, a predominately black urban setting, a display of black sexuality, excessive violence, and a contemporary rhythm and blues soundtrack. Films such as Shaft (1971) and Super Fly (1972) serve as examples. Blaxploitation films were made across varying genres, but the questionable elements of some of the pictures caused them to be referred to as "blaxploitation" films with little or no regard given to their generic categorization. This dissertation examines how Cotton Comes to Harlem (1970), Blacula (1972), The Mack (1973), and Cleopatra Jones (1973) fit within the detective, horror, gangster, and cop action genres, respectively. Furthermore, this dissertation illustrates the manner in which the inclusion of "blackness" represents a significant revision to the aforementioned genres.

Lawrence, Novotny
Blaxploitation films of the 1970s : Blackness and genre / Novotny Lawrence. New York : Routledge, 2008.
Main (Gardner) Stacks PN1995.9.N4 L37 2008
Moffitt PN1995.9.N4 L37 2008

Mapp, Edward.
"Black Women In Films." Black Scholar 1982 13(4-5): 36-40.
"Describes cinematic roles of black women from the 1920's to the 1970's as a proliferation of common stereotypes, but indicates a breakthrough to more sympathetic portrayals in the early 1970's."

McKissack, Fredrick L., Jr.
"Blaxploitation is Back." (black-themed movies and mental slavery) Progressive v61, n9 (Sept, 1997):40.

Medovoi, L.
"Theorizing historicity, or the many meanings of Blacula." Screen (London, England) v. 39 no. 1 (Spring 1998) p. 1-21
"The writer explores different ways in which to theorize the historicity of William Crain's film Blacula (1972). Blacula, a fairly obscure blaxploitation picture loosely based on Bram Stoker's Dracula story, can be fruitfully historicized in a number of ways. It can be viewed in terms of the broad sweep of African-American history, as an intervention in the historical operation of the vampire narrative, as a crucial moment in the history of popular black cinema, and in the context of the racial unrest of the late 1960s and early 1970s. Only by theorizing the film's historicity by way of Marxist, structuralist, feminist, and psychoanalytic models, can the depth and complexity of its historical meanings be revealed." [Art Index]

Miller, Chris
"The Representation of the Black Male in Film." Journal of African American Men 3:3 [Winter 1998] p.19-30
UC users only
"Explores the systematic exclusion of Blacks from the production, distribution, and exhibition of films. Discusses the lack of film characters with which African Americans, especially youth, can relate, and suggests that more positive role models need to be portrayed. Examines at length Gordon Parks' 1972 Blaxploitation film "Superfly," opining that it exemplifies all that is wrong with Hollywood's attempts to put Blacks in "positive" film roles. Profiles Spike Lee's 1995 film "Clockers" and suggests that the lead character Spike is a more complicated depiction of an African American male." [from Chadwyk-Healey International Index to Black Periodicals]

Morris, Gary
"Blaxploitation: A Sketch." Bright Lights

Morris, Gary.
"Blaxploitation, A Sketch." Bright Lights Journal (March 1997)

Nielsen, Aldon L.
"Nostalgia and the Racial Epiphany." CLA Journal v39, n2 (Dec, 1995):195 (13 pages).

Ongiri, Amy Abugo.
""He Wanted to be just like Bruce Lee" African Americans, Kung Fu Theater and Cultural Exchange at the Margins." Journal of Asian American Studies 5.1 (2002) 31-40
UCB users only

Parish, James Robert.
Black action films : plots, critiques, casts and credits for 235 theatrical and made-for-television releases / James Robert Parish, George H. Hill ; foreword by Richard Roundtree.> Jefferson, N.C. : McFarland, 1989.
Main (Gardner) Stacks PN1995.9.N4 P37 1989

Phillips, Mike.
"Chic and beyond." Sight & Sound ns6 (Aug. '96) p. 25-7.
Part of a special section on gangster movies. The writer asserts that "Blaxploitation" movies were spawned by the early 1970s films Shaft, Sweet Sweetback's Baadasssss Song, and Superfly. He chronicles the rise of the Blaxploitation formula and explains that although it declined in the late 1970s, the imagery of Blaxploitation furnished a template for how whites were to perceive the essential nature of the black man, providing a stream of images for black actors or directors to counter or juggle with. He shows how this bedrock of imagery was changed in the late 1980s and early 1990s by gangster rap, leading to a new wave of Blaxploitation movies that in many ways were patterned on the 1970s films but with some crucial differences.

Reflections on blaxploitation : actors and directors speak
[interviewers] David Walker, Andrew J. Lanham, Md. : Scarecrow Press, 2009.
Main (Gardner) Stacks PN1995.9.N4 R46 2009

Reid, Mark A.
"The Black Action Film: The End of the Patiently Enduring Black Hero." Film History, Vol. 2, No. 1 (Winter, 1988), pp. 23-36 UC users only

Robinson, Cedric J.
"Blaxploitation and the misrepresentation of liberation." (motion pictures; Black representation)(Cover Story) Race and Class July-Sept 1998 v40 n1 p1(12)
UC users only
"The motion picture industry is going through a second period of Blaxploitation, which is a misrepresentation of the Black liberation struggle and exploitation of black actors. The first period of Blaxploitation occurred in 1969-75 when the Black liberation movement was going through its most militant phase. Films of the era include 'Shaft' and 'Slaughter', and black actors included Sidney Poitier and Pam Grier. The genre included a sub-type of the Bad Black Woman." [Expanded Academic Index]

Rome, Dennis.
"Modern-day "Blaxploitation" : gangsta rap and its perpetuation of the Black demon stereotype." In: Black demons : media's depiction of the African American male criminal stereotype / Dennis Rome. Westport, Conn. : Praeger, 2004.
MAIN: PN1995.9.N4 S56 2006

Schubart, Rikke.
Super bitches and action babes : the female hero in popular cinema, 1970-2006 / Rikke Schubart. Jefferson, N.C. : McFarland & Co., c2007.
Main (Gardner) Stacks PN1995.9.W6 S363 2007

Semley, John
"Who's bleeding whom? Analyzing the cultural flows of blaxploitation cinema, then and now." CineAction. 80 (Spring 2010) p22.
UC users only

Sieving, Christopher J.
Soul Searching: African-American Cinema before Blaxploitation, 1963-1970 [Dissertation] Dissertation Abstracts International, Section A: The Humanities and Social Sciences, vol. 65, no. 4, pp. 1157, Fall 2004
Portions of this work only - UC users only

Sims, Yvonne D.
Women of blaxploitation : how the black action film heroine changed American popular culture Jefferson, N.C. : McFarland, c2006.
MAIN: PN1995.9.N4 S56 2006
Table of contents http://www.loc.gov/catdir/toc/ecip0617/2006022231.html

Stanfield, Peter
"Walking the streets : Black gangsters and the "abandoned city" in the 1970s blaxploitation cycle." In: Mob culture : hidden histories of the American gangster film / edited by Lee Grieveson, Esther Sonnet, and Peter Stanfield. New Brunswick, N.J. : Rutgers University Press, c2005.
Main Stack PN1995.9.G3.M63 2005

Washington, Michael.
"A Field Study of "Blaxploitation" Films." Journal of Black Psychology, Vol. 8, No. 1, 41-51 (1981)
UCB users only

Wlodarz, Joe.
"Beyond the Black Macho: Queer Blaxploitation." Velvet Light Trap 2004 (53): 10-25.
UCB users only

African American Films, Acting, and Film Making

Separate bibliography on Oscar Micheaux and Race Movies

Books

Alexander, George
Why we make movies: Black filmmakers talk about the magic of cinema New York: Harlem Moon, 2003.
Moffitt PN1995.9.N4 A43 2003

Antonio, Sheril D.
Contemporary African American cinema New York: P. Lang, c2002.
MAIN: PN1995.9.N4 A58 2002

Beavers, Herman
"The cool pose: intersectionality, masculinity, and quiescence in the comedy and films of Richard Pryor and Eddie Murphy." In: Race and the subject of masculinities / Harry Stecopoulos and Michael Uebel, editors. Durham: Duke University Press, 1997. New Americanists.
Main Stack HQ1075.R33 1997

Berry, Torriano.
The 50 most influential Black films: a celebration of African-American talent, determination,and creativity New York: Citadel Press/Kensington, c2001.
MAIN: PN1995.9.N4 B43 2001

Black American Cinema
Edited by Manthia Diawara. New York: Routledge, 1993. Series title: AFI film readers.
UCB Main PN1995.9.N4 B45 1993
UCB Moffitt PN1995.9.N4 B45 1993

Bogle, Donald.
Bright boulevards, bold dreams : the story of Black Hollywood New York : One World Ballantine Books, 2005.
MAIN: PN1995.9.N4 B59 2005
MOFF: PN1995.9.N4 B59 2005

Boyd, Todd.
Am I black enough for you? : popular culture from the 'hood and beyond. Bloomington : Indiana University Press, c1997.
MAIN: E169.04 .B67 1997
MOFF: E169.04 .B67 1997)

Brigham, William.
"Whatup in the 'Hood'? The Rage of African-American Filmmakers." In: States of Rage: Emotional Eruption, Violence, and Social Change. / Edited by Renee R. Curry and Terry L. Allison. pp: 91-106. New York: New York University Press, c1996.
Main Stack HN90.V5.S83 1996

Black Films and Film-makers: A Comprehensive Anthology from Stereotype to Superhero
Compiled with an introd. by Lindsay Patterson. New York: Dodd, Mead, [1975].
UCB Moffitt PN1995.9.N4 B51

Blackframes: Critical Perspectives on Black Independent Cinema
Editors: Mbye B. Cham, Claire Andrade-Watkins]. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, c1988.
UCB Moffitt PN1995.9.N4 B568 1988

VIDEORECORDING
Black Shadows on a Silver Screen
Post-Newsweek Stations, Inc.; producers, Stephan Henriquez, William Bowma; director, Steven York. Los Angeles, CA : Republic Pictures Home Video, c1986. 1 videocassette (VHS) (52 min.): sd., col. and b&w; 1/2 in.
Series title: The American documents series.
UCB Media Ctr VIDEO/C 1063

Cripps, Thomas.
Black Film as Genre / Thomas Cripps. Bloomington: Indiana UniversityPress, c1978.
UCB Main PN1995.9.N4 C68
UCB Moffitt PN1995.9.N4 C68

Cripps, Thomas.
Making Movies Black: The Hollywood Message Movie from World War II tothe Civil Rights Era / Thomas Cripps. New York: Oxford University Press,1993.
UCB Main PN1995.9.N4 C687 1993
UCB Moffitt PN1995.9.N4 C687 1993

Donalson, Melvin Burke
Black directors in Hollywood Austin: University of Texas Press, 2003.
MAIN: PN1995.9.N4 D66 2003Donalson, Melvin Burke, 1952-

Everett, Anna
Returning the gaze: a genealogy of Black film criticism, 1909-1949 / Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2001.
MAIN: PN1995.9.N4 E94 2001

Giovacchini, Saverio.
"'Shoot the right thing': African-American filmmakersand the American public discourse" In: Towards a New American Nation?Redefinitions and Reconstruction / edited by Anna Maria Martellone. pp. 207-221. Staffordshire, England: Ryburn Pub., Keele University Press, 1995. European papers in American history; 3
Main Stack E169.12.T67 1995

Grant, W. R.
Post-soul Black cinema : discontinuities, innovations, and breakpoints, 1970-1995 New York : Routledge, 2004.
MAIN: PN1995.9.N4 G69 2004
Table of contents http://www.loc.gov/catdir/toc/ecip047/2003017036.html

Guerrero, Ed
"A circus of dreams and lies: the black film wave at middle age." In: The new American cinema / edited by Jon Lewis. p. 328-52. Durham: Duke University Press, 1998.
Main Stack PN1993.5.U6.N47 1998

Jones, G. William (George William)
Black Cinema Treasures: Lost and Found / G. William Jones; foreword byOssie Davis. Denton: University of North Texas, c1991.
UCB Main PN1995.9.N4 J66 1991
UCB Moffitt PN1995.9.N4 J66 1991

Kisch, John.
A Separate Cinema: Fifty Years of Black-cast Posters / John Kisch and Edward Mapp; preface by Spike Lee;... 1st ed. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1992.
UCB Moffitt PN1995.9.P5.K57 1992

Knight, Arthur.
Disintegrating the musical: Black performance and American musical film Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2002.
MAIN: PN1995.9.N4 K59 2002

Leonard, David J.
Screens fade to black : contemporary African American cinema Westport, Conn. : Praeger Publishers, 2006.
MAIN: PN1995.9.N4 L46 2006
Table of contents http://www.loc.gov/catdir/toc/ecip067/2006003336.html

Lupack, Barbara Tepa
Literary adaptations in Black American cinema: from Micheaux to Toni Morrison Rochester, N.Y.: University of Rochester Press, 2002.
MAIN: PN1995.9.N4 L87 2002

Martin, Martin T., ed.
Cinemas of the Black Diaspora: Diversity, Dependence, and Oppositionality / edited by Michael T. Martin. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1995.
UCB Main PN1995.9.N4 C58 1995

Mapp, Edward.
African Americans and the Oscar: seven decades of struggle and achievement Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press, 2003.
MAIN: PN1995.9.N4 M29 2003

Martinez, Gerald.
What It Is--What It Was!: The Black Film Explosion of the '70s in Words and Pictures / edited by Michael T. Martin.New York: Hyperion, c1998.
UCB Main PN1995.9.N4 M32 1998

Massood, Paula J.
Black city cinema: African American urban experiences in filmPhiladelphia: Temple University Press, 2003.
MAIN: PN1995.9.N4 M33 2003

VIDEORECORDING
Midnight Ramble: Oscar Micheaux and the Story of Race Movies /
A Northern Lights production film for The American Experience presented by WGBH/Boston. [Alexandria, VA]: PBS Video [distributor], 1994. 1 videocassette (58 min.): sd., col with b&w sequences; 1/2 in. VHS.
Series title: American experience 704.
UCB Media Ctr VIDEO/C 3614

Neal, Mark Anthony.
Soul babies: Black poplular culture and the post-soul aesthetic / Mark Anthony Neal. New York: Routledge, 2002.
Main Stack E185.615.N35 2002
MusicE185.615.N35 2002

Null, Gary.
Black Hollywood: the Negro in Motion Pictures / by Gary Null. 1st ed.Secaucus, N.J.: Citadel Press, c1975.
UCB Bancroft F869.H7N8
UCB Main PN1995.9.N4 N81
UCB Moffitt PN1995.9.N4 N8

Null, Gary.
Black Hollywood: From 1970 to Today Secaucus, NJ: Carol Pub. Group, c1993.
UCB Moffitt PN1995.9.N4 N79 1993

Reid, Mark
"New Wave Black Cinema in the 1990s." In: Film genre 2000: new critical essays / edited by Wheeler Winston Dixon. pp: 13-28Albany: State University of New York Press, c2000. SUNY series, cultural studies in cinema/video.
Main Stack PN1995.F45787 2000

Reid, Mark
Black lenses, Black voices : African American film now Lanham, MD : Rowman & Littlefield, c2005.
MOFF: PN1995.9.N4 R43 2005
Table of contents http://www.loc.gov/catdir/toc/ecip053/2004026201.html

Reid, Mark
Redefining Black Film / Mark A. Reid. Berkeley: University ofCalifornia Press, c1993.
UCB Main PN1995.9.N4 R45 1993
UCB Moffitt PN1995.9.N4 R45 1993

Rhines, Jesse Algernon
Black Film, White Money Jesse Algernon Rhines. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, c1996.
UCB Main PN1995.9.N4.R52 1996

Richards, Larry
African American Films Through 1959: A Comprehensive, Illustrated Filmography. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 1998
UCB Main PN1995.9.N4 R54 1998

Ryan, Judylyn S.
Spirituality as ideology in Black women's film and literature Charlottesville : University of Virginia Press, 2005.
MAIN: PN1995.9.N4 R93 2005
PFA : PN1995.9.N4 R93 2005
Table of contents http://www.loc.gov/catdir/toc/ecip057/2005001760.html

Stewart, Jacqueline Najuma
Migrating to the movies : cinema and Black urban modernity Berkeley : University of California Press, c2005.
Full text available online (UCB users only)
MAIN: PN1995.9.N4 S74 2005
MOFF: PN1995.9.N4 S74 2005

Struggles for Representation: African American Documentary Film and Video
Edited by Phyllis R. Klotman and Janet K. Cutler. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, c1999.
Main Stack PN1995.9.N4.S77 1999

Taylor, Clyde.
The Mask of Art: Breaking the Aesthetic Contract-- Film and Literature . Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1998
PN1995.9.N4 T38 1998

Watkins, S. Craig
Representing: Hip Hop Culture and the Production of Black Cinema Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998
UCB Main PN1995.9.N4 W38 1998

Yearwood, Gladstone Lloyd.
Black Cinema Aesthetics: Issues in Independent Black Filmmaking / editedby Gladstone L. Yearwood. Athens, Ohio: Center for Afro-American Studies,Ohio University, [c1982].
Series title: Ohio University papers on Afro-American, African, andCaribbean Studies / Vattel T. Rose.
UCB Main PN1995.9.N4 Y4 1982
UCB Moffitt PN1995.9.N4 B48

Yearwood, Gladstone Lloyd.
Black Film as a Signifying Practice: Cinema, Narration and the African American Aesthetic Tradition / Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, c2000.
UCB Main PN1995.9.N4 Y43 2000

Journal Articles

Bobo, Jacqueline.
"The Subject is Money": Reconsidering the Black Film Audience as a Theoretical Paradigm." (Black Film Issue) Black American Literature Forum v25, n2 (Summer, 1991):421 (12 pages).

Bogle, Donald and White, Armond
"A Separate Cinema." (Special Section). Film Comment XXI/5, Sept-Oct 85; p.29-46. Discusses the history of black cinema in the USA, incl. the films produced by Oscar Micheaux as well as more contemporary films. Many posters reproduced in colour.

Bourne, Stephen
"Nina Mae McKinney."Films in Review XLII/1-2, Jan-Feb 91; p.24-28.
Career profile of the US actress, noting her place as Hollywood's first black leading lady, and the sad neglect of her talent.

Bourne, Stephen
"Star Equality." Films & Filming /351, Dec 83; p.31-34.
Examination of the fortunes of black actresses in Hollywood, looking particularly at the careers of Ethel Waters, Nina Mae McKinney, Hattie McDaniel and Lena Horne.

Bourne, Stephen
"Star Equality." (Part II) Films & Filming /352, Jan 84; p.24-25.
Second and final part of an article on black actresses in Hollywood, which looks at the careers of Diana Ross and Dorothy Dandridge.

Cripps, Thomas.
"The Birth of a Race Company: An Early Stride Toward a Black Cinema." Journal of Negro History, Vol. 59, No. 1. (Jan., 1974), pp. 28-37. UCB users only

Cripps, Thomas.
"The Films of Spencer Williams." Black American Literature Forum, Vol. 12, No. 4. (Winter, 1978), pp. 128-134. UCB users only

Dates, Jannette L.
"Cultural Diversity in American Media History." Film & History 1991 21(2-3): 64-69.
African-American contributions to the media, including musical recording, film, and television, deserve more recognition from scholars and industry executives alike.

Dempsey, Mary A.
"The Bronze Buckaroo Rides again; Herb Jeffries is still keepin' on." (star of all-black cowboy movies) American Visions v12, n4 (August-Sept, 1997):22 (4 pages).

Diawara, Manthia.
"Noir by Noirs: Towards a New Realism in Black Cinema." African American Review v27, n4 (Winter, 1993):525 (13 pages).
UC users only

Farred, Grant.
"No Way out of the Menaced Society: Loyalty within the Boundedness ofRace." Camera Obscura, vol. 35. 1995 May. pp: 7-23.

Ferreira, Patricia
"The Triple Duty of a Black Woman Filmmaker: An Interview with Carmen Coustaut." African American Review, Vol. 27, No. 3, Women's Culture Issue. (Autumn, 1993), pp. 433-442.
UC users only

Flory, D.
"Black on White: Film Noir and the Epistemology of Race in Recent African American Cinema." Journal of Social Philosophy 31.1 (Spring 2000): 82(35).
UC users only

Francis, Terri.
"Cinema On The Lower Frequencies: Black Independent Filmmaking." Black Camera, Spring/Summer2007, Vol. 22 Issue 1, p19-21, 3p
UC users only

Gordon,Dexter B.
"Humor in African American discourse: speaking of oppression." Journal of Black Studies Nov 1998 v29 n2 p254(23)
UC users only

Greene, Dennis.
"Tragically Hip: Hollywood and African-American Cinema." (Race in Contemporary American Cinema, part 2). Cineaste v20, n4 (Oct, 1994):28 (2 pages).

Grundmann, Roy
"Identity Politics at Face Value." Cineaste XX/3, 94; p.24-26. Scott McGehee and David Siegel discuss their film "Suture" and the issue ofidentity central to the film, in which twins, one played by a black actor, the other bya white, trade identities.

Hagopian, Kevin.
"Black Cinema Studies: Shadows and Acts." Journal of Communication v45, n3(Summer, 1995):177 (9 pages).
"Black filmmakers have received renewed attention in recent film studies literature. In 'Making Movies Black: The Hollywood Message Movie from World War II to the Civil Rights Era' by Thomas Cripps, the image of Black films is discussed using a philosophy based on political science. 'Black Cinema Treasures: Lost and Found' by G. William Jones is based on 16 unknown black films. 'Black American Cinema' by Manthia Diawara focuses on the relation between traditional culture and close analysis of black films. 'Framing Blackness: The African American Image in Film' by Ed Guerrero, 'Redefining Black Film' by Mark Reid and 'White Screens, Black Images: Hollywood from the Dark Side' by James Snead discuss new ways of studying black films." [Expanded Academic Index]

Hamilton, Sylvia.
"Film As A Medium To Reveal Research About Black Women's Lives." Atlantis [Canada] 1995 20(1): 163-167. Filmmaker Sylvia Hamilton, using an all-female crew, produced Black Mother Black Daughter (1989), a documentary film on African-Canadian women in Nova Scotia.

Hawkins, B. Denise.
"Flocking to Film School."(minorities and the film industry) Black Issues in Higher Education v12, n23 (Jan 11, 1996):8 (7 pages).

Heyde, Paul.
"Black Women Filmmakers Forum: An Alternative Aesthetic and Vision." Black Camera, Spring/Summer2006, Vol. 21 Issue 1, p15-15, 1p
UC users only

Inniss, Leslie B.; Feagin, Joe R.
"'The Cosby Show': The View From the Black Middle Class."(a television series and Black middle-class response) Journal of Black Studies v25, n6 (July, 1995):692 (20 pages).

Kagan, N.
"All Black-Cast Sound Films 1930-1950." (Reader's letter). Films in Review XXIII/8, Oct 72; p.509-10.
Partial listing of all-black films (A-G alphabetically).

Kelley, Robin D. G.
"Black Popular Culture And Contemporary Urban America." Radical History Review 1993 (57): 186-196.
"Publishes the description of a course taught at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, in 1993 that focused on the pleasures found in urban black neighborhoods and the politics of Afro-diasporic cultures. Topics considered include: critical approaches toward black pop culture; black culture during World War II; bebop, rock and roll, hip hop, and gangsta rap music; civil rights; film and television images of African Americans; black filmmakers; fashions and hairstyles; economic life; race, gender, and sexual politics; and the politics of difference.' [from ABC-CLIO America: History & Life]

Klotman, Phyllis R.
"About Black Film..." Black American Literature Forum, Vol. 12, No. 4. (Winter, 1978), pp. 123-127. UCB users only

Knee, Adam; Musser, Charles.
"William Greaves, Documentary Film-making, and the African-American Experience." Film Quarterly v45, n3 (Spring, 1992):13 (13 pages).

Larson, Charles R.
"The Black King: Forgotten 'Black?' Classic." Journal of Popular Film andTelevision, vol. 20 no. 2. 1992 Summer. pp: 17-25.

Leab, Daniel J.
""All-Colored" - But Not Much Different: Films Made For Negro Ghetto Audiences, 1913-1928." Phylon 1975 36(3): 321-339.
UC users only
"A study of the attempts made by blacks to deal with the negative screen image that dominated movies up to 1913. Unfortunately the film industry had made it impossible for Negroes to achieve technical and distribution knowhow; they were plagued by lack of experience and they had to use the facilities of an indifferent if not hostile industry. The black film-makers were not able to compete with the industry as a result. With both products (white and black) shown in the local ghetto theaters, the black suffered in comparison; consequently, the problem of the negative image was never corrected by 1928 ." [America History and Life]

Lee, Ernest; Russell, Joan C.
"Faces in the Crowd: A Historical Look at Black Films." Library Journal v113, n9 (May 15, 1988):37 (6 pages).

Lekatsas, Barbara.
"Encounters: The Film Odyssey of Camille Billops." (Black Film Issue) Black American Literature Forum v25, n2 (Summer, 1991):395 (14 pages).

Leavy, Walter.
"50 Years of Black Love in Movies." (Special 50th Anniversary Feature) Ebony v50, n4 (Feb, 1995):147 (7 pages).

Lott, Tommy L.
"A No-theory Theory of Contemporary Black Cinema." (Black Film Issue) Black American Literature Forum v25, n2 (Summer, 1991):221 (16 pages).

Lowery, Mark; Sabir, Nadirah Z.
"The Making of "Hollyhood." (African Americans in the motion picture industry) (Cover Story) Black Enterprise v25, n5 (Dec, 1994):104 (5 pages).

Lyne, William
"No Accident: From Black Power to Black Box Office." African American Review 34:1 [Spring 2000] p.39-59
UC users only
"The political and economic power of the African American community, especially in its relation to movies geared toward Blacks. Possibilities of change brought about by black planning and power, is touched upon and several movies, including "Do the Right Thing" and "Malcolm X" are discussed." [International Index to Black Periodicals]

Lyons, Nancee L.
"From Race Movies to Blaxploitation to Homeboy Cinema." (evolution of African American films by African American filmmakers). American Visions v7, n1 (Feb-March, 1992):42 (2 pages).
Motion picture portrayals of African Americans have not changed substantially from the sex and violence genre perpetuated in the 1970s. Fortunately more Black directors are involved in motion pictures, but controversy lingers over who gets to decide what is a marketable product.
The marketing of black films is discussed. Many people within and outside of the black community feel that modern black films are still being stereotyped as "ghettoized" flicks starring shady characters and giving black society a bad rap.

Miller, James A.
"The Case of Early Black Cinema." Critical Studies in Mass Communication v10, n2 (June, 1993):181 (4 pages).
"The unprecedented popularity of Afro-American actor-director Spike Lee has once again spurred debates over the nature of Afro-American films. It must be recalled that development in American film-making practices did not occur until the racist film, 'The Birth of A Nation' was shown in 1915. However, the present crop of black filmmakers depict the social and economic conditions of the black community which is very much different from those perceived by the public. Racism may still be a fundamental issue but the new generation has focused on issues they deem more essential." [Expanded Academic Index]

Molden, David.
"African Americans in Hollywood: A Black-on-Black Shame." Black Issues in Higher Education v12, n23 (Jan 11, 1996):112.

Nicholson, D., Taylor, Charles, Davis, Z.I.
"Voices."Wide Angle XIII/3-4, July-Oct 91; p.120-135.
Three conflicting opinions of the worth and essential aims of US independent black cinema.

Nicholson, David.
"Why can't we give black cinema a chance?" Washington Post v110 (Sun, Aug 30, 1987):C1, col 1.

"Nigger Heaven Returns to U.S. Movie Theaters." The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, No. 20. (Summer, 1998), pp. 66-67.
UC users only

Poitier, S.
"Walking the Hollywood Color Line." American Film V/6, Apr 80; p.24-29.
Excerpt from S.P.'s autobiography, 'This life', detailing his rapid rise and fall in Hollywood and its effect on the careers of other black performers.

Ramsey, Guthrie P., Jr.
"Muzing New Hoods, Making New Identities: Film, Hip-Hop Culture, and Jazz Music."Callaloo. 25(1):309-20. 2002 Winte
UC users only

Regester, Charlene
"African American extras in Hollywood during the 1920s and 1930s." Film History, 1997, Vol. 9 Issue 1, p95-115, 21p
UC users only

Regester, Charlene
"African-American writers and pre-1950 cinema." (Critical Essay) Literature-Film Quarterly July 2001 v29 i3 p210(26)
UC users only
"The relationship between black writers and the motion picture industry previous to 1950 positioned the writers as practically powerless. Works by Zora Neale Hurston, Charles Waddell Chesnutt, and Willard Motley managed to contribute to American cinema even when much of their work was severely compromised." [Expanded Academic Index]

Regester, Charlene
"From the Gridiron and the Boxing Ring to the Cinema Screen: the African-American Athlete in pre-1950 Cinema." Culture, Sport, Society; Summer/Autumn2003, Vol. 6 Issue 2/3, p269-292, 24p,
UC users only

Regester, Charlene
"Stepin Fetchit: the man, the image, and the African American press." Film History, 1994, Vol. 6 Issue 4, p502-521, 20p
UC users only

Rhines, Jesse Algeron.
"The Political Economy of Black Film." (Race in Contemporary American Cinema: Part 4) Cineaste v21, n3 (Summer, 1995):38 (2 pages).

Samuels, Allison and John Leland.
"They've Got Next." (influence of African Americans in the film industry) Newsweek April 5, 1999 v133 i14 p66(1)

Seelow, David
"Look Forward in Anger: Young, Black Males and the New Cinema. Journal of Men's Studies v5, n2 (Nov, 1996):153 (26 pages).

Sexton, Jared.
"The Ruse of Engagement: Black Masculinity and the Cinema of Policing." American Quarterly, Mar2009, Vol. 61 Issue 1, p39-63, 25p
UC users only

Seymour, Gene (ed.).
"We've Gotta Have It: Black Filmmakers Seize the Moment." Nation. 272(13):12-17. 2001 Apr 2

Shepard, T.
"Beyond the 'Black Film' - An Interview with Gordon Parks." Cineaste VIII/2, Fall 77; p.38-40. illus.
G.P. discusses his work and the subject of 'black' films.

Sharkey, Betsy.
"Knocking on Hollywood's door: Black filmmakers like Spike Lee struggle to see and be seen." American Film v14, n9 (July-August, 1989):22 (8 pages).

Sheridan, Earl
"Conservative Implications of the Irrelevance of Racism in Contemporary African American Cinema Conservative Implications of the Irrelevance of Racism in Contemporary African American Cinema." Journal of Black Studies, Vol. 37, No. 2 (Nov., 2006), pp. 177-192
UC users only

Smith, Valerie; Camille Billops; Ada Griffin
"Introduction: [Black Film]." Black American Literature Forum, Vol. 25, No. 2, Black Film Issue. (Summer, 1991), pp. 217-219.
UC users only

Streible, Dan.
"Black Cinema Treasures: Lost and Found." Velvet Light Trap (Spring 1993): 79(2).

Ukpokodu, I. Peter.
"African Heritage from the Lenses of African-American Theatre and Film." Journal ofDramatic Theory & Criticism. 16(2):69-93. 2002 Spring

Williams, J.
"Daughters Of The Diaspora - A Filmography Of 65 Black Women Independent Film And Video Makers." Cineaste, 1994, V20 N3:41-42.

Wanzo, Rebecca
" Beyond a 'Just' Syntax: Black Actresses, Hollywood and Complex Personhood." Women & Performance; 2006, Vol. 16 Issue 1, p135-152, 18p
UC users only

Webb, Allyson.
"Black America's cinematic past. ('Art of Black Cinema,' Concept East II, Detroit, Michigan)." American Visions 6.n2 (April 1991): 38(2).

Williams, Juan.
"Black political power in film and television." Journal of Popular Film and Television 33.2 (Summer 2005): 98(4).



Books and Articles About Individual Filmmakers and Individual Films





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