Dictionary of Abbreviations and Acronyms in Geographic Information Systems, Cartography, and Remote Sensing

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l Liter
l. Links
L Lake
La. Louisiana
LA Land access; Louisiana
L.A. Los Angeles (Calif.)
LAAS Local Area Augmentation System
LAC Libraries and Archives Canada = Bibliotheque et Archives du Canada; Litografia Artistica Cartografica; Local Area Composite
LACIE Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment
LADAR Laser Detection and Ranging
LAGEO Laser Geodynamic Satellite
LAGIC Louisiana Geographic Information Center
LAMP Low Altitude Mapping Photogrammetry
LAMPS Laser-scan Automated Map Production System
LAMS Large Area Mosaicing Software
LAN Local area network
LAND Landmark feature identification number
LANDRU Local Access to Networked Data Retrieval Utility (Univ. of Calgary)
LANDSAT Land Satellite
LAP Landsat Applications Program (PNW)
LaRC Langley Research Center (NASA)
LARIS Louisiana Areal Resource Information System
LARS Laboratory for Applications of Remote Sensing (Purdue Univ.)
LARSYS Laboratory of Applications of Remote Sensing Image Data Processing System (Purdue Univ.)
LAS Land Analysis System
LASN Local Area Spatial Network
LASS Land Applications Satellite System (ESA)
Lat. Latitude
LAT Large Area Triangulation
LAU Landesamt fur Umweltschutz (Saarland)
LBA Large-scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia
LBR Laser Beam Recorder
LBS Location-based services
LBS-G Littoral Battlespace Sensing - Glider (US Navy)
LC Library of Congress (U.S.); Land cover
L/C Land cover
LCA Land cover analysis
LCC Lambert conformal conic (projection); London County Council
LCD Liquid-crystal displays
LCDB Land Cover Database
LCDC Land Conservation and Development
LCGMD Library of Congress Geography and Map Div. (U.S.)
LCGTF Library of Congress Genre/Forms Terms for Library and Archival Materials
LCMMP California Land Cover Mapping & Monitoring Program
LCS Liberian Cartographic Service
LCTY Locality
LDAS Land Data Assimilation System (NASA)
LDPC Local Datum Plane Coordinate
LDD Land Development Desktop 2i
Ldg. Landing
LDLS Lesotho Dept. of Lands, Surveys and Physical Planning
LDMG Lesotho Dept. of Mines and Geology
LDNG Landing
LDO Land Development Office (NovaLIS Technologies)
LDP Low distortion projection
LDSI LandDesign Surveying Inc.
LE Less than or equal
LEAF Land Ecosystem Atmosphere Feedback
LEC Lockheed Electronics Company
LEM Landform Elevation Model; Lunar Escape Module
LEO Low Earth orbit
LEP Linear Error Probable
LES Lincoln Electric System
LF Large format; Line feed
LFC Large format camera
LFI Schweizerisches Landesforstinventar
LFVZ Leichtensteinische Fremdenverkehrszentrale
lg. lang
Lg. Lange
LGIS Land Geographic Information System
LGISC Louisiana Geographic Information Systems Council
LGN Lagoon
Lgr Lehmgrube = Clay pit
LGS Liberian Geological Survey; Louisiana Geological Survey
LGSOWOG Landsat Ground Station Operations Working Group
lH lichte Hohe
LI Landmaelingar Islands
LIA Land Information and Analysis office (USGS)
Ligue des Bibliotheques Europeennes de Recherche, Groupe des cartothecaires
LIC Land Information Centre
LICGF Land Information & Computer Graphics Facility (Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison)
LIDAR, Lidar Light Detection and Ranging
Lieut. Lieutenant
LIGO Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory
LIM Land identification method; Land Inventory and Management Program (USSCS)
LIMA Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica
LIMAP Landsat Imagery Analysis Package (S.Dakota)
LIMO Land Information Management Office (Miami County, Kans.)
LIMS Location Management System
LINZ Land Information New Zealand
LIO Land Information Ontario
LIS Land information system(s); Landsat Information System; Library and information science; Lightening Imaging Sensor
LISCOM Land Information Systems Committee (So. Australia)
LIT Land Information Toronto
Lith. Lithographed; lithographer
LK Lake
LKB Lockwood, Kessler & Bartlett Inc.
LKC Crater lake
LKI Intermittent lake
LKS Lakes
LKSC Crater lakes
LL Line-by-line
LLA Adjusted line length
LLC Line length code
LLV Low Light Visibility
L.M. Loh Mulhe = Tannery
LMCTF Land Managers Cooperative Task Force (Alaska)
LMIC Land Management Information Center
LMP Land Management Planning
LMS Large-scale mapping system; Lidar Mapping Suite (Optech)
LMV Statens Lantmateriverket (Sweden)
LO Located object
L&O Limnology & Oceanography (journal)
LOC Library of Congress; Landsat Oversight Committee (Colorado)
LOCUS Leveling Online Computations User Service (NGS)
LOD Levels of detail
LOGIC Loveland Geographic Information/Cartographic System
LOMA Letters of map amendment
LOMC Letters of map correction
LOMR Letters of map revision
Lon. Longitude
Long. Longitude
LORAN Long Range Navigation (system)
LOS Land Observation Satellite (Japan); Line-of-sight
LP Line printer
LPGS Landsat Product Generation System; Level 1 Product General System
LPI Lines per inch; Lunar and Planetary Institute
LPM Load point marker
LPS Library Programs Service (USGPO); Local positioning systems
LQ Letter quality
LR Laser Retroflector
LRD Low resolution data
LRDA Land Resources Data Analysis
LRDB Low Resolution Data Base
LRDC Land Resources Development Centre
LRIDP Land Resources Inventory Demonstration Project (PNW)
LRIS Land Registration and Information Service (Maritime Provinces); Land Resource Information System (S. Dakota and N. Carolina)
LRITF Land Resources Inventory Task Force
LRM Linear Referencing Method
LRR Laser Retro-reflector
LRS Linear Referencing System
LRU Line Replaceable Unit; Line Replacement Unit
LRUD Left, right, up, down
L/S Landsat
LSACTS Land Surveyors Advisory Council on Technical Standards (California)
LSAW Land Surveyors' Assn. of Washington
LSD Land Surface Datum; Lands and Survey Div. (Trinidad and Tobago)
LSDP Landsat Signature Development Program (software)
LSI LiDAR Services International
LSIT Land surveyor in training
LSM Land Surface Models (NASA)
LSN Linear scaling number
LSO Land Surveyors Online
LSPS Louisiana Society of Professional Surveyors
LSR Local Space Rectangular
LSRC Louisiana Spatial Reference Center
LSRP Laser Printer
LSS Life-saving station
Lst Ladestelle
LST Local Standard Time
Lt. Lieutenant
LT Less than; Local Time; Linear triangulation
LTAP Long-Term Acquisition Plan (USGS)
LTC Light transfer characteristics
LTE Less than or equal
LTER Long Term Ecological Research project
LTTM Longterm Terrain Model
LTO Land Title Office (New Zealand)
LTU Line Transfer Unit
LU Land units
L/U Land use
LUCCAS Land Use and Cover Change Analysis System (Pacific Meridian Resources)
LUDA Land Use and Data Analysis (program); Land use development assistance
LU/LC (or LULC) Land use, land cover
LUM Limited update, monoscopic
LUMIS Land Use Management Information System (JPL software)
LUMS Land Use Management System
LUNHA Land Use History of North America (USGS)
LUNR Land Use and Natural Resource Information System (N.Y.)
LUPIN Land Use Planning Information Network (CERES)
LUS Limited update, stereo
LUST Leaking underground storage tank
LUT Land utilization type
LVAB-W Landesvermessungsamt Baden-Wurttemberg
LVAN-W Landesvermessungsamt Nordrhein-Westfalen
LVAR-P Landesvermessungsamt Rheinland-Pfalz
LVAS Landesvermessungsamt des Saarlandes
LVAS-H Landesvermessungsamt Schleswig-Holstein
LVVWD Las Vegas Valley Water District
lW lichte Weite
LWC Louisville Water Company
LWD Littoral Warfare Data

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m Meter
m. mittlere
M Maestrale, Magistrale, Meridionalis, Meridialis, Mezzodi = South; Muhle = Mill
M. Mile; mille (1,000); Mitte
MA Mean annual; Maritime Administration; Massachusetts; Manitoba
MAC Machine automation control; Mapping Applications Center (USGS); Mineralogical Assn. of Canada; Mapping Advisory Committee; Mobile Arctic caisson
MACA Ministerio de Asuntos Campesinos y Agropecuarios (Bolivia)
MAD Management Areas Database; Metro Area Disaster GIS (Oregon)
MADAR Maps and Data at Ryerson [University}
MADGIC Maps, Data and Government Information Centre (Trent University); Maps, Academic Data, Geographic Information Centre (Univ. of Calgary)
MADM Multiple attributes decision-making
MAF Master address file
MAFF Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (U.K.)
MAFI Magyar Allami Foldtani Intezet = Hungarian Geological Inst.
MAG Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderia (Costa Rica, Ecuador)
MAGE Map Authoring and Generalisation Expert
MAGERT Map and Geography Round Table (ALA)
MAGI Maryland Automated Geographic Information System
MAGIC Map and Geographic Information Center (Univ. of Conn. and Univ. of New Mexico); Map and Geospatial Information Collection (Dalhousie University Library); Map & Geoinformation Curators Group (ICA)
MAGIRT Map and Geospatial Round Table (ALA)
MAGIS Maps, Aerials and GIS (Univ. of Hawaii Library, Manoa)
MAGSAT Magnetic Field Satellite (U.S.)
MAIGIS Multi-Agency Internet Geographic Information Service
MALSCE Massachusetts Assn. of Land Surveyors and Civil Engineers
MAP Map Analysis Package; Mapping Alliance Program (Space Imaging, Inc.); Market Area Planner (Huff)
MAPA Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentacion (Spain)
MAPCAT Map catalog
MAPCO Map Corporation of America
MAPDS Ministerio de Agricultura y Pesca, Direccion de Suelos (Uruguay)
MAPIS Map Products Information System
MaPKBS Map Projection Knowledge-based System
MAPPS Management Assn. for Private Photogrammetric Surveyors; Maps, Aerial Photo and Publication System
MAPS Mississippi Assn. of Professional Surveyors; Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellite
M.A.P.S. Microcomputer-based Automated Projection System
MAPSAT Mapping Satellite (U.S.)
MAR Mean annual runoff
MARAD Maritime Administration (US)
MARC Machine Readable Cataloging (LC); Mid-America Remote Sensing Center (Murray State Univ., KY)
MARIS Mississippi Automated Resource Information System
MARLS Missouri Assn. of Registered Land Surveyors; Montana Assn. of Registered Land Surveyors
MARS Monitoring Agriculture with Remote Sensing (European Union)
MAS Millimeterwave Atmospheric Sounder
MASC Map Activity Support Contract
Mass. Massachusetts
Mat-Su Matanuska-Susitna Borough (Alaska)
MAT Medial-axis transformation
MATLAB Matrix Laboratory
MAV Micro Aerial Vehicle
MAW Metropolitan area window
mB Millibar
MB Megabyte
MBMG Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology
MBPS Million bits per second
MBR Minimum bounding rectangle
MC Mapping Center
MC&G Mapping, Charting & Geodesy (U.S. Dept. of Defense)
MCAS Marine Corps Air Station
MCB Marke Carl Bauer = Carl Bauer Brand
MCD Minor civil division; Major civil division
MCDM Multi-criteria decision-making
MCE Mapping and Charting Establishment (Canada)
MCG Map Curators' Group
MCGA Monochrome/Color Graphics Adapter
McIDAS Map-computer Interactive Data Access System
MCIS Maps and Chart Information System
MCMC Mid-continent Mapping Center (USGS)
MCO Mars Climate Orbiter
MCS Machine control system; Master Control Station
Md. Maryland
MD Maryland; Metadata
MDA Monochrome Display Adapter; MacDonald, Dettwiler and Associates, Inc.
MDAS Multispectral Data Analysis System (Bendix Corp.)
MDC Div. de la Cartographie (Morocco)
MDD Mineral Deposits Div., Geological Assn. of Canada
MDG Direction de la Geologie (Morroco)
MDGLS Missouri Div. of Geology and Land Survey
MDL Measurement Devices Ltd.; MicroStation Development Language (Bentley Systems)
MDLPP Mason-Dixon Line Preservation Partnership
M.D.M. Mount Diablo Meridian
MDOT Michigan Dept. of Transportation
MDP Master Data Processor
MDR Minimum Data Recorder
MDS Metadata standards; Multi-dimensional scaling
MDSHS Mount Diablo Surveyors Historical Society
MDSD Mono-Digitizer Stereo-Digitizer
MDOT Michigan Dept. of Transportation
MDT Mountain Daylight Time
MDTC Div. de la Topographie et de la Cartographie (Mauritania)
Me. Maine
M.E. Military Engineer; Mining Engineer
ME Maine; Monoscopic Extraction
MECM Miss~ao de Estudos Cartograficos de Macao
MEDEA Measurements of Earth Data for Environmental Analysis (U.S.)
MEDS Minimum essential data set
MEGDR Mission Experimental Gridded Data Record(s)
MEGRIN Multipurpose European Ground Related Information Network
mehr-gesch. mehrgeschossig
MEI Maps Etc. Inc.
MEIS Multispectral Electrooptical Imaging Sensor
MEM Ministry of Energy and Minerals (Tanzania)
MEMPR Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources (British Columbia)
MENR Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources (Trinidad and Tobago)
MEO Medium Earth orbit
MEOW Mono-Extraction Orthophoto Workstation
MER Ministere de l'Energie et des Ressources (Quebec)
MERES Mineral and Energy Resources Exploration Satellite (Japan)
MERIS Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer
MERRA Michigan Energy and Resources Research Association
MESH Mapping Edinburgh's Social History project
MESSR Multispectral Electronic Self-Scanning Radiometer
METSAT Meteorological Satellite
MEWS Mono-Extraction Workstation
MF Miscellaneous Field Studies Map(USGS)
MFC Map Feature Coding
MFGDP Manual of Federal Geographic Data Products
MFLOPS Million Floating Points Operations Per Second
MFS Maine Forest Service
MGB Mississippi Bureau of Geology
MGE Microstation GIS Environment (Intergraph); Modular GIS Environment
MGG Marine Geology and Geophysics Report
MGIS Micro Geographic Information System
MGRS Military Grid Reference System
MGS Maine Geological Survey; Maryland Geological Survey; Minnesota Geological Survey; Mars Global Surveyor (satellite)
MGSD Michigan Geological Survey Div.
MGSSSR Ministerstvo Geologii SSSR
MGUG Manitoba GIS Users Group
MH Ministry of Housing (Bahrain)
M.H. Meierhof = dairy farm
MHAPO Minnesota Historical Aerial Photographs Online
MHTD Missouri Highway and Transportation Dept.
MHTEHI Magyar Honvessdeg Terkepeszeti Hivatal
MHW Mean High Water
MHz Megahertz
Mi. Mile(s)
MI Michigan; Military Intelligence; Miscellaneous Investigations (map)
MIAS Multispectral Image Analysis System
Mich. Michigan
MIEM Ministere de l'Industrie et de Mines (Malagasy Republic)
MIF Main Image File; MapInfo Interchange Format
Mil. Military
MIL Map and Imagery Laboratory (Univ. of Calif., Santa Barbara); Milli-inch (1 thousandth of an in.)
MILSTRIP Military Standard Requisitioning and Issue Procedures (USDMA)
MILUS Multiple Input Land Use System (JPL software)
MIME MultiPurpose Internet Mail Extension
Min. Minute
Min. E. Mineral Engineer; Mining Engineer
Minn. Minnesota
MIO Map Information Office
MIPS Map and Image Processing System; Million Instructions Per Second; Mini-Image Processing System
MIRAGE Map Image Rendering Database for Geoscience (NRCan)
MIS Management Information System; Map Information System
MISR Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (NASA); Macaulay Institute for Soil Research
Miss. Mississippi
MITE Megapixel Imaging Technology
MITES Miniature Interferometer Terminals for Earth Survey
MJH M.J. Harden Associates, Inc.
ML Master Library
ml ma?a = little
MLA Multi-linear array
MLC Minimal level cataloging (Library of Congress)
MLHD Maximum likelihood (decision functions)
MLLW Mean Lower Low Water
MLMIC Minnesota Land Management Information Center
MLMIS Minnesota Land Management Information System
MLRA Major Land Resource Areas
MLTA Maine Land Title Assn.
MLW Mean low water
MMKS Mjetve Mesimore Kulturore e Sportive "Hamid Shijaku" (Albania)
MMOI Mathematical Mode of Inquiry
MMQ Metric Map Questionnaire
MMS Metropolitan Map Series; Minerals Management Service (U.S.); Multi-Mission Modular Spacecraft (U.S.)
MMSD Metric Mapping Support Data
MN Magnetic north; Mine; Minnesota
Mn/DOT Minnesota Dept. of Transportation
MNFS Minor frame synchronization
MNR Ministry of Natural Resources (Ontario)
MNS Multi-Navigator System (Brunton)
Mo. Missouri
MO Magnetic-optical disc; Member organization; Missouri; Model orientation
MOA Minute of angle
MoD Ministry of Defence
MODIS Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (or Spectrometer)
MODM Multiple objectives decision-making
MODN Module name
MOLA Mars Orbital Laser Altimeter
MOLDS Inst. for Modernization of Land Data Systems
MOMS Modular Optoelectric Multispectral Scanner
Mont. Montana
M.O.P. Ministerio de Obras Publicas
MOPU Ministerio de Obras Publicas y Urbanismo (Spain)
MoRAP Missouri Resource Assessment Partnership
MOS Marine Observation Satellite; Multispectral Optoelectric Scanner
MOSS Map Overlay and Statistical System
MOST Moving Objects Spatio-Temporal
MOUG Map Online Users Group
MP Measuring point
MPC Minnesota Population Center
MPE Map Publishing Environment
MPLIS Multipurpose land information system(s)
Mpls. Minneapolis
MPO Multiproduct operation; Metropolitan planning organizations
MPP Multi-spectral scanner preprocessor
MPRD Modified Proportional Radial Displacement
MPRM Ministry of Petroleum and Mineral Resources (Saudi Arabia)
MPWUPH Ministry of Public Works, Urban Planning and Housing (Djibouti)
MR Monoscopic revision
MRAC Musee Royale de l'Afrique Centrale
MRB Missouri River Basin
MRBC Missouri River Basin Commission
MRC Mississippi River Commission; Map Reference Code (USGS)
MRD Mineral Resources Div. (Manitoba); Mineral Resources Dept. (Fiji); McCloud Ranger District
MRDB Mapping Requirements Data Base System
MRI Metadata Reference Information; Mediamark Research Inc.
MRIB Marine Realms Information Bank
MRIR Medium Resolution Infrared Radiometer
MRLA Major Land Resource Area
MRLU Map Reproduction and Liaison Unit
MRMS Maritime Resources Management Service
MRO Mars Reconnnaissance Orbiter (NASA)
MRS Multispectral Resource Sampler
MrSID Multiresolution Seamless Image Database
MRSA Major River Systems Analysis
MRSH Marsh
MRWS Monoscopic Revision Workstation
ms. Manuscript
MS Manuscript; Mean seasonal; Milli-second; Microsoft Corp.; Monochromatic Scanner; Mississippi
MSA Metropolitan statistical area; Mineralogical Society of America; Maritime Safety Agency (Japan)
MSC Map Society of California; Mapping Science Committee (NRC)
MSD Mapping support data; Malawi Dept. of Surveys; Mauritius Survey Dept.
MSDO Mapping Support District Office
MS-DOS MicroSoft Disc Operating System
MSE Mean square error
MSEDB Mapping Sciences Education Data Base
MSIA Mapping Sciences Inst., Australia
MSIRI Mauritius Sugar Industry Research Inst.
MSIS Map Separates Information System; Model State Information System
MSL Mean sea level
MSLS Maine Society of Land Surveyors
MSP Multispectral photography
.MSP Microsoft Paint format
MSPE Missouri Society of Professional Engineers
MSPS Michigan Society of Professional Surveyors; Minnesota Society of Professional Surveyors
MSR Minimal Spatial Representation
MSRN Michigan Spatial Reference Network
MSRLS Michigan Society of Registered Land Surveyors
MSS Multispectral Scanner; Maryland Society of Surveyors
MST Mountain Standard Time
MSTD Marine Science and Technology Division (Science Applications International Corporation)
MSTS Map Separates Tracking System
MSU Microwave Sounding Unit
MSV Model and Scenario Visualization
Mt. Mount; Mountain; Mont
MT Mountain; Montana
MTA Major Trading Areas (FCC)
MTAE Maden Tetkik ve Arama Enstitutu (Turkey)
MTC Ministerio de Transporte y Comunicaciones (Venezuela)
MTF Modulation transfer function
MTJ Mendocino Triple Junction
MTLT Minimum Total Length Triangulation
Mtn. Mountain
MTO Ministry of Transportation (Ontario)
MTP MSS Telemetry Processor
MTPE Mission to Planet Earth (NASA)
MTS Mountains; Maine Technical Source
Mts. Mountains
MTSAT Multi-Functional Transport Satellite (Japan)
MTT Mobile Training Teams (USDMA)
MTU Magnetic tape unit
MUAC Map Users Advisory Committee (ACMLA)
MUID Map Unit ID (Identification)
MUIR Map Unit Interpretations Record (US NRCS)
MURB Minister fur Umwelt, Raumordnung und Bauwesen (Saarland)
MVE Multi-View Editor
MVI Mapping for the Visually Impaired
MVP Moving vessel profiler
MW Megawatt
M.W. Mittelwasser
MWDI Master Water Data Index
MWF Map Window File
MWRTK Midwest Real Time Kinematic
MWT Minimum Weight Triangulation
MyCOE My Country, Our Earth

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n. nad = on, upon; nordlich = northern
N Norden = North
N. North
NA National Archives; National Atlas; Not available; Not applicable
NABCI North American Bird Conservation Initiative
NABGG National Assn. for Black Geologists and Geophysicists
NAC NASA Advisory Council
NACIS North American Cartographic Information Society = Sociedad de Informacion Cartografica Norte Americana
NACo National Assn. of Counties
NACS National Assn. of County Surveyors
NAD North American Datum
NAD 27 North American Datum of 1927
NAD 83 North American Datum of 1983
NADCON North American Datum Conversion (NGS)
NADEC National Atlas Development Centre (Ghana)
NADO National Assn. of Development Organizations
NAFSMA National Assn. of Flood and Stormwater Management Agencies
NAGT National Assn. of Geoscience Teachers
NAHSC National Automated Highway System Consortium
NAICS North American Industry Classification System
NAIP National Agriculture Imagery Program (USDA)
NAIS National Atlas Information Service (Canada)
NALMS North American Lake Management Society
NALS Nevada Assn. of Land Surveyors
NAMCOR National Petroleum Corporation of Namibia
NAO North Atlantic Oscillation
NAP Northern Affairs Program (Canada)
NAPA National Academy of Public Administration
NAPL National Air Photo Library (Canada)
NAPP National Aerial Photography Program (U.S.)
NARA National Archives and Records Administration (U.S.)
NARC National Association of Regional Councils
NARL Naval Arctic Research Laboratory (Barrow, Alaska)
NARS National Archives and Records Service (U.S.)
NARSA National Advanced Remote Sensing Applications Program
NAS National Academy of Sciences (U.S.); National Airspace System (U.S.)
NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration (U.S.)
NASBOG National Assn. of State Boards of Geology
NASDA National Space Development Agency (Japan)
NASS National Agricultural Statistics Service (USDA)
NAST NPOESS Airborne Sounder Testbed
NATM New Austrian Tunnelling Method
NATMAP Div. of National Mapping (Australia)
NATMO Indian National Atlas and Thematic Mapping Organization
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization
NAUS National Atlas of the United States
NAVD North American Vertical Datum
NAVD 88 North American Vertical Datum 1988
NAVOCEANO Naval Oceanographic Office (U.S.)
NavSol Navigation Solutions LLC
Navtech Navigation Technology Seminars Inc.
NAVTECH Navigation Technologies Corp.
NAWQUA National Water Quality Assessment (Program, USGS)
NB Narrow band; New Brunswick
Nbf Nebenbahnhof
NBFU National Board of Fire Underwriters
Nbg. Nurnberg
NBI National Bridge Inventory (US)
NBII National Biological Information Infrastructure
NBMG Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology
NBS National Biological Survey (U.S.); National Bureau of Standards (U.S.); National Board of Survey = Maanmittaushallitus (Finland)
NBSM National Bureau of Surveying and Mapping (China)
NBTR Narrow band tape record(s or -er)
NC North Carolina
N.C. North Carolina
NCAP National Collection of Aerial Photographs
NCAR National Center for Atmospheric Research (U.S.)
NCARB National Council of Architectural Registration Boards
NCC National Cartographic Centre (Iran); National Commission for Cartography (Canada)
NCDCDS National Committee for Digital Cartographic Standards (U.S.)
NCDOT North Carolina Dept. of Transportation
NCDS National Cartographic Data Standard
NCDSB National Cartographic Data Standard Base
NCE North Coast Engineering
NCEE National Council of Engineering Examiners
NCEES National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying
NCEP National Centers for Environmental Prediction (US)
NCGA National Computer Graphics Assn.
NCGE National Council for Geographic Education
NCGIA National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis
NCGMP National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program (US)
NC&GS National Charting & Geodetic Survey
NCGS North Carolina Geological Survey
NCHRP National Cooperative Highway Research Program
NCIC National Cartographic Information Center (U.S.)
NCITS National Committee for Information Technology Standards (USA)
NCMOC Naval Central Meteorology and Oceanography Center (US)
NCMP National Coastal Mapping Program (USCE)
NCR National Capital Region
NCRDS National Coal Resources Data System
NCRST National Consortia on Remote Sensing in Transportation
NCRST-F National Consortia on Remote Sensing in Transportation - (Flows)
NCS National Cartographic Standards
NCSA National Center for Supercomputer Applications
NCSD Nebraska Conservation and Survey Div.
NCSME Service des Mines et de l'Energie (New Caledonia)
NCSS North Carolina Society of Surveyors
ND North Dakota
N.D. North Dakota
N-D N-dimensional
NDAR National Directory of Australian Resources
NDCDB National Digital Cartographic Data Base (USGS)
NDCS National Digital Cartographic Standards
NDF Nevada Division of Forestry
NDG Northern Development Group Inc.
NDGPS National Differential GPS Network (or System) (US); Nationwide Differential GPS
NDGS North Dakota Geological Survey
NDI Nautical Data International Inc.
NDIIPP National Digital Information Infrastructure and Preservation Program (Library of Congress)
NDL National Digital Library (Library of Congress)
NDLS Nauru Directorate of Lands and Survey
NDNRC Nevada Dept. of Natural Resources and Conservation
NDOT Nevada Dept. of Transportation
NDS National Decision Systems
NDSA National Digital Stewardship Alliance (US)
NDSL Nevada Division of State Lands
NDSPLS North Dakota Society of Professional Land Surveyors
NDVI Normalized Difference Vegetation Index
NE Northeast; Nebraska
Neb. Nebraska
NEAR Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous
NED National Elevation Dataset (earlier sometimes called Database)(USGS)
NE[Delta] Exoatmospheric Noise Equivalent Reflectances
NEDSS National Electronic Disease Surveillance System (US)
NEHRP National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program
NEIC National Earthquake Information Center (USGS)
NEIS National Earthquake Information Service
NEL National Exploitation Laboratory
NEMO North East Map Organization
NEPAN National Environmental Policy Act; National Environmental Protection Act
NERDD Networked Electronic Report & Document Distribution
NERL North East Research Libraries (US)
NES New England Section (ACSM)
NESDIS National Environmental Satellite, Data and Information Service (US)
NESACSM New England Section ACSM
NESDIS National Environmental Satellite Data and Information Service
NESS National Environmental Satellite Service
NESTA National Earth Science Teachers Assn.
NET New Electronic Titles (US GPO)
NETR Nationwide Environmental Title Research, LLC
NETS National Establishment Time-Series (Walls & Associates)
Nev. Nevada
NEXRAD Next Generation Weather Radar
NF Newfoundland
nf. Not fordable
NFAP National Forest Applications Program
NFDRS National Fire Danger Rating System
NFFL National Forest Fire Laboratory
NFIP National Flood Insurance Program (U.S.)
NFIRA National Flood Insurance Reform Act (U.S.)
NFIS National Forest Information System
Nfld. Newfoundland
NFS National Forest Service (USA); National Forest System; Network File System
NFWS National Fish and Wildlife Service (USA)
N.G. Nicholas Guerard
NGA National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
NGAC National Geospatial Advisory Committee (US)
NGBN National Gravity Base Net (USA)
NGCS National Geodetic and Cartographic Service (Vietnam)
NGDA National Geospatial Digital Archive (Library of Congress)
NGDC National Geophysical Data Center (USA); National Geospatial Data Clearinghouse
NGDF National Geospatial Data Files; National Geospatial Data Framework (UK)
NGES Northrup Grumman Electronic Systems
NGGI National Greenhouse Gas Inventory (Australia)
NGI National Geography Inst. = Kungnip Chiriwon (S. Korea)
NGIC National Geodetic Information Center
NGMA National Geoscience Mapping Agency (Australia)
NGMBD National Geologic Map Database (USGS)
NGPRP Northern Great Plains Resource Program
NGRI National Geophysical Research Inst. (India)
NGRS National Geodetic Reference System (USA)
NGS National Geographic Society (USA); National Geodetic Survey (U.S.)
NGSP National Geodetic Satellite Program
NGTOC National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (USGS)
NGU Norges Geologiske Undersokelse
NGVD National Geodetic Vertical Datum
NGVD29 National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929
NGWIC National Ground Water Information Center
NH New Hampshire
N.H. New Hampshire; New Haven
NHAP National High Altitude Photography (program)
NHC National Hurricane Center (USA)
NHD National Hydrography Dataset (USGS)
NHGIS National Historical Geographic Information System (MPC)
NHLSA New Hampshire Land Surveyors Assn.
NHPN National Highway Planning Network (FHWA)
NHS National Highway System; National Height System (USA); National Household Survey (Canada)
NHTSA National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (USA)
NI Natturfraedistofnun Islands
NICMOS Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer
NIEHS National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (US)
NII National Information Infrastructure
NIIGA Nauchno-Issledovatel'skii Institut Geologii Artiki (U.S.S.R.)
NILS National Integrated Land System (US BLM)
NIMA National Imagery and Mapping Agency (USA)
NIMSA National Interest Mapping Service Agreement (UK)
NIP National Imagery Project (NRCan)
NIPR National Inst. for Polar Research (Japan)
NIS Nationwide Inpatient Sample (AHCPR)
NIST National Inst. of Standards and Technology (USA)
NITF National Imagery Transmission Format
NIUA National Inst. of Urban Affairs (India)
NIWAR National Inst. of Water and Atmosphere Ltd. (New Zealand)
NJ New Jersey
N.J. New Jersey
NJDEP New Jersey Dept. of Environmental Protection
NJDOT New Jersey Dept. of Transportation
NJGIN New Jersey Geographic Information Network
NJGS New Jersey Geological Survey
NJIT New Jersey Institute of Technology
NJMapp New Jersey Mapping Assistance Partnership Program
NJSPLS New Jersey Society of Professional Land Surveyors
NJSPS New Jersey Society of Professional Surveyors
NLA National Land Agency (Japan); National Library of Australia
NLAPS National Landsat Archive Production Sytem (USGS)
NLCD National Land Cover Dataset (USGS & USEPA)
NLD National Levee Database (UCACE)
NLDAS North American Land Data Assimilation System (NASA)
NLIS National Land Information Service (UK)
NLL Northern Limit Line (Korea)
NLQ Near-letter quality
NLRB National Level Bibliographic Record
NLUIS Northern Land Use Information Series (Canada)
NM New Mexico
NMAS National Map Accuracy Standard(s)
NMASM New Mexico Assn. of Surveyors and Mappers
NMB National Mapping Bureau (Papua New Guinea)
NMBM&MR New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources
NMC National Map Collection (Canada)
NMCC National Map Collection of Canada
NMD National Mapping Div. (USGS)
NMDOT New Mexico Dept. of Transportation
NMF Network Mapping Facilities (Firm)
NMFS National Marine Fisheries Service (U.S.)
NMMC National Map Managers Conference
NMP National Mapping Program (USGS)
NNE North northeast
NNSS Navy Navigational Satellite System
NNW North north west
no nordostwarts
NO Nordosten = northeast
N.O. New Orleans
NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (U.S.)
NOBS Northern Ohio Bibliographic Society
NOD New Orleans District
NOMS Northern Ohio Map Society
NOPPA National Ocean Pollution Protection Act
NORTAD North American Transportation Atlas Data; North American Transportation Database
NOS National Ocean Service (U.S.); National Ocean Survey (U.S.)
NOSC National Oceans Systems Center
NOSS National Oceanographic Satellite System (U.S.)
NP Norsk Polarinstitutt
NPF Norsk Petroleums-forening = Norwegian Petroleum Society
NPIC National Photographic Interpretation Center (U.S.)
NPMS National Pipeline Mapping System (US)
NPOC Naval Polar Oceanographic Center (U.S.)
NPOESS National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites
NPP NOOESS Preparatory Project
NPR National Performance Review (U.S.); Non-photorealistic rendering
NPRA National Petroleum Reserve (Alaska)
NPR-A National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska
NPS National Park Service (U.S.); Nonpoint source
Nr. Nummer = number
NRA National Recreation Area; NASA Radarsat Program
NRC National Research Council; Nuclear Regulatory Commission (U.S.)
NRCan Natural Resources Canada
NRCS Natural Resources Conservation Service (USDA)
NRCT National Resources Council of Thailand
NRDD Natural Resources Data Directory (NSW); National Resources Data Directory (Australia)
NRI National Resources Inventory (SCS)
NRIC National Resource Information Centre (Australia); Natural Resources Information Council
NRIS National Resource Information System
NRN National Road Network
NRO National Reconnaissance Office (U.S.)
NRS National Reference System (U.S.)
NRSA National Remote Sensing Agency (India)
NRSC National Remote Sensing Centre (U.K.)
NRSL Northern Remote Sensing Laboratory (Univ. of Alaska)
NRT Navigation Response Team (US Coast Survey)
NRVIS Natural Resources and Values Information System (Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources)
NRWS Narrows
NS Nova Scotia; Not sprinklered
NSA National Security Agency
NSAPI Netscape Server Application Programming Interface
NSB North Slope Borough (Alaska)
NSC National Space Council (U.S.); National Security Council (U.S.); National Society of Cartographers
NSD Nepal Survey Dept.
NSDC National Spatial Data Council (U.S.)
NSDI National Spatial Data Infrastructure; National Spatial Data Information
NSDI CAP National Spatial Data Infrastructure Cooperative Agreements Program
NSDNR Nova Scotia Dept. of Natural Resources
NSF National Science Foundation (U.S.)
NSGIC National States Geographic Information Council
NSI Natural Scale Indicator
NSIF NATO Secondary Image Format
NSKV Norges Sjokartverk
NSLAB Niedersachsisches Landesamt fur Bodenforschung
NSLVA Niedersachsisches Landesverwaltungsamt
NSN National Satellite Network
NSPE National Society of Professional Engineers
NSPS National Society of Professional Surveyors
NSRFC Nova Scotia Research Foundation Corp.
NSRS National Spatial Reference System (NOAA)
NSS National Soil Survey (Ireland); National Speleological Society; Navigational Safety System
NSSDA National Standard for Spatial Database Accuracy
NSTB National Satellite Test Bed
NSTL National Space Technology Laboratory
NSW New South Wales
NTAD National Transportation Atlas Data (or Database(s) -- U.S. Bureau of Transportation)
NTD National Topographic Database (OS)
NTDB National Topographic Data Base (Canada)
NTDL Northern Territory Dept. of Lands (Australia)
NTDME Dept. of Mines and Energy (Northern Territory, Australia)
NTF National Transfer Format (U.K.)
NTIS National Technical Information Service (U.S.)
NTM Notice to Mariners
NTPS National Transportation Planning System
National Topographic Series (Canada); National Topographic System (Canada); Navigation Technology Satellite; Nevada Test Site
NTSB National Transportation Safety Board (U.S.)
NUC National Union Catalog
NUC CM National Union Catalog, Cartographic Material
NURE National Uranium Resources Evaluation (program)
NV Nevada
NVC National vegetation classification (US)
NVCA Nottawasaga Valley Conservation Authority
NVCN National Vertical Control Network (U.S.)
NVDI Normalized difference vegetation index
nw nordwestlich
NW Northwest; Nordwesten
N.W. Niedrigwasser
NWA National Water Alliance
NWFP North West Frontier Province (Pakistan)
NWI National Wetlands Inventory (USFWS); National Wilderness Inventory (Australia)
NWS National Weather Service (NOAA)
NWSCA National Water and Soil Conservation Authority (New Zealand)
NWWS North West Wetlands Survey
NY New York
N.Y. New York
N.Y.C. New York City
NYPL New York Public Library
NYSAPLS New York State Assn. of Professional Land Surveyors
NYSDOT New York State Dept. of Transportation
NYSDT New York State Dept. of Transportation
NYSGS New York Geological State Geological Survey
NZ New Zealand
N.Z. New Zealand
NZFS New Zealand Forest Service
NZGD New Zealand Geophysics Div.
NZGS New Zealand Geological Survey
NZMG New Zealand Map Grid
NZMS New Zealand Dept. of Lands and Survey
NZOI New Zealand Oceanographic Inst.
NZSB New Zealand Soil Survey

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o ostwarts
O Osten, Orientalis, Orien, Oriente, Orientis = East
OAB Operational advisory broadcasts
OAC Osterreichischer Automobil Club
OACES Oregon Association of County Engineers and Surveyors
OACH Office of the Assistant Chief Hydrologist
OADCES On-line Aerotriangulation Data Collection and Editing System
OAdW Osterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften
OAF Optimal aerial forecasting
OALS Office of Arid Lands Studies
OAMTC Osterreichischer Automobil-, Motorrad- und Touring-Club
OAS Orbit Adjustment Subsystem; Organization of American States
OASIS Oceanic and Atmospheric Scientific Information System
Obj. Objekt
OBM Ontario Base Map; Ontario Basic Mapping Program
OBRP Object representation
OBS Office of Biological Services
Obst. Pl. Obst Plantation = Orchard
OC Oil and Gas Investigation Chart (USGS)
OCAP Ohio Capability Analysis Project
OC-CLSA Orange County Chapter of the California Land Surveyor's Assn.
OCE Office of the Chief of Engineers
OCH Office of the Chief Hydrologist
OCL Object Constraint Language
OCLC Ohio College Library Center
OCR Optical Character Recognition; Optical Character Reader
OCRS Ontario Centre for Remote Sensing; Oregon Coordinate Reference System
OCS Office of Cadastral Survey (BLM); Operational Control System; Outer Continental Shelf; Ocean Color Scanner
OCTS Ocean Color and Temperature Scanner
OCUL Ontario Council of University Libraries
OCX Object Component eXtension
OD Optical disc; Outside diameter
ODAIPR Open Data Access and Intellectual Property Rights (ICA)
ODBC Operational Database Connectivity
ODC Open Data Consortium
ODE Open development environment
ODF Oregon Dept. of Forestry
ODFW Oregon Dept. of Fish and Wildlife
ODGMI Oregon State Dept. of Minerals and Mineral Industries
ODGS Ohio Div. of Geological Survey
ODNR Ohio Dept. of Natural Resources
ODOP Ohio Digital Orthophotography Project
ODOT Ohio Dept. of Transportation; Oregon Dept. of Transportation
OEEPE Organisation europeene d'etudes en photogrammetrie experimentale
OESA Office of Earth Science Applications
OF Open file; Open-file
OFAT Ontario Flow Assessment Techniques
Offn. Offnung = aperture, opening
OFIPLAN Oficina de Planificacion Nacional (Costa Rica)
OFR Open file report; Open-file report
OFSS Open-file Services Section
OGC Open GIS Consortium, Inc.; Oil and Gas Commission (British Columbia)
OGDE Ontario Geographic Data Exchange
OGDI Open Geospatial Datastore Interface
OGIC Oregon Geographic Information Council
OGIS Open GIS; Office of Geographic Information Systems (New Jersey)
OGP OpenGeoportal
OGRIP Ohio Geographically Referenced Information Program
OGS Ontario Geological Survey; Oklahoma Geological Survey
OGW Office of Ground Water
OGWP Office of Ground Water Protection (EPA)
OH Ohio
OHA Officeof Hawaiian Affairs
OHN Ontario Hydro Network
OHW Office of Hazardous Wastes Hydrology
OIA Office of International Activities
OICC Ontario Institute of Chartered Cartographers
OIG Office of International Geology
OIH Office of International Hydrology
OII European Commission's Open Information Interchange
OILT Oil tank farm
OIR-GIS Office for Information Resources-GIS Services Division (Tennessee)
OIS Obstruction Identification Surfaces
OK Okonomisk kart (Norway); Osterreichische Karte; Oklahoma
OKAGE Oklahoma Alliance for Geographic Education
OLAP Online analytical processing
OLE Object Linking/Embedding
OLID Ontario Land Information Directory
OLS Operational Linescan (or Line Scan) imaging system; Ordinary Least Squares; Operational Line Scanner (DMSP)
OM Oil and Gas Investigation Map (USGS)
O.M. Ol Muhle = Oil mill
OMG Open Management Group
OMNR Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources
OMO Other mapping organization
OMPS Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite
OMTC Ontario Ministry of Transportation and Communications
ON Ontario; Original negative
ONC Operational Navigation Chart
ONERN Oficina Nacional de Evaluacion de Recursos Naturales (Peru)
ONIG Office Nationale de la Geologie (Algeria)
ONPR Office of National Petroleum Reserve (USGS)
ONSWG Open Navigation Surface Working Group
Ont. Ontario
OO Object-Orientation
OOPEC Office for Official Publications of the European Communities
OOSI Osterreichisches Ost- und Sudosteuropa-Institut
OPAC Online public access catalog; online patron access catalog
OPAL Obscurant penetrating autosynchronous Lidar
OPCS Office of Population Censuses and Surveys (U.K.)
OPEC Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
OPEDS Outside Plant Engineering Design System (ESRI, Bell South)
OPIS Ocean Planning Information System
OPL Oilfield Publications Limited
OPP Operational Positional Procedure
OPR Office of Planning and Research
OPS Optical sensor(s)
OPUS Online Positioning User Service (US NGS); Online Processing User Service
OR Oregon
ORMAP Oregon Map (organization)
OQ Orthophoto quadrangle
ORBIMAGE Orbital Imaging Corp.
Ore. Oregon
ORH Office of the Regional Hydrologist
ORID Ortho Rectified Image Data
ORN Ontario Road Network
ORNL Oak Ridge National Laboratory
ORRH Office of the Regional Research Hydrologist
ORRI Orthorectified radar imagery
ORSER Office for Remote Sensing of Earth Resources (Penn. State Univ.)
ORSTOM Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre Mer
OS Ordnance Survey (U.K.); Object space; Operating System
OSBEELS Oregon State Board of Examiners for Engineering and Land Surveying
OSCAR Online Satellite Catalog and Request System (NOAA)
OSD Overseas Surveys Directorate (U.K.); Office of the Secretary of Defense (U.S.); On-screen display
OSDA Oregon State Dept. of Agriculture
OSDL Oregon Spatial Data Library
OSEC Ocean Systems Engineering Corp.
OSECO Ogden Surveying Equipment Company
OSEDA Office of Social and Economic Data Analysis (Missouri)
OSFD Oregon State Forestry Dept.
OSGB Ordnance Survey (U.K.)
OSI Ordnance Survey of Ireland; Open Systems Interconnect model; Open Systems Interconnection
OSIP Operational Satellite Improvement Program
OSLS Oklahoma Society of Land Surveyors
OSM Office of Surface Mining; Open Street Map
OSNI Ordnance Survey of Northern Ireland
OSOA Optimal Statistical Objective Analysis
OSP Office of State Planning
OSPE Ohio Society of Professional Engineers
OSS Office of Strategic Services (U.S.)
OSSI Optronic Sensor for Stereo Imagery
OSSIM Open Source Software Image Map (ImageLinks)
OSTA Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications (NASA)
OSTF Ordnance Survey Transfer Format
OSTZ Osterreichisches Statistisches Zentralamt
OSU Oregon State University
OSW Office of Saline Water; Office of Surface Water
OTA Office of Technology Assessment
OTC Over-the-counter; Office for Topography and Cartography (Tunisia)
OTF On-the-fly
OTH Over the horizon
OTHT Over the horizon targeting
O.U. Open under
OUCLS Ontario Universities' Library Cooperative System
OUO Official use only
OVN Optical visible near-infrared
OW Oil well
OWDC Office of Water Data Coordination
OWRD Oregon Water Resources Dept.
OWRR Office of Water Resources and Research
OWRT Office of Water Research and Technology
OWS OGC Web Services

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P Pier; Precision; Ponente = West
Pa. Pennsylvania
PA Pennsylvania
PAA Priority abatement areas; Provincial Archives of Alberta
PAAD Program Acronyms, Abbreviations and Definitions
PAC Public Archives of Canada; Photo Annotation/Classification; Publications Advisory Committee (WAML)
PACOG Pueblo Area Council of Governments
PACON Pacific Congress on Marine Science and Technology
PAD Position Aware Device
PADCO Planning and Development Cooperative International
PAGES Program for the Adjustment of GPS Ephemeris (NGS)
PAGIS Protected Area Geographic Information System (NOAA); Planning and Geographic Information Systems (Hawaii); Pulaski (County, Ark.) Area Geographic Information System
PAI Pacific Air Industries
PAIGH Pan-American Inst. of Geography and History
PAL Prime agricultural lands
PALIS Ponds and Lakes Information System
PAM Port-A-Meter; Point access methods
PAN Polska Akademia Nauk
PANGA Pacific Northwest Geodetic Array
Pan-STARRS Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System
PAPS Pooled Analytical Plotter System
PARC Palo Alto Research Center (Calif.)
PAS Pacific Aerial Surveys
PASDA Pennsylvania Spatial Data Access system
PASP Planning and Analysis Section
PASS Precision Aerial Survey System (3Di)
PASSIA Palestinian Academic Society for the Study of International Affairs
PAT Polygon Attribute Table
PAVE Package for Analysis and Visualization of Environmental Data
Pbf Personenbahnhof = Passenger railway station
PBM Portable Bitmap (format)
PBO Plate Boundary Observatory; Performance-based organization
PBS Primary Base Series (USFS)
PC Personal Computer; Principal components
PCA Principal components analysis
PCC Professional competency credit; Program for Cooperative Cataloging (Library of Congress)
PCD Practical Cartography Day
PC-DOS Personal Computer-Disc Operating System
PCGN Permanent Committee on Geographical Names for British Official Use
PCH Professional competency hour; Pacific Coast Highway (Calif.)
PCLI Independent political entity (republic)
P-Code Precise code; Protected code
PCS POS Computer System
PCT Pacific Coast Trail
.PCX PC Paintbrush Export Format
PD Precision digitizing; Publications Div. (USGS)
PDA Personal digital assistant; Portable data access
P&DC Printing & Distribution Center
PDEP Pennsylvania Dept. of Environmental Projection
PDF Platform Data File; Portable Document Format
PDH Professional development hour
PDL Page Description Language; Positioning Data Link (Pacific Crest Corp.)
PDOP Position dilution of precision
PDQ Public Data Queries, Inc.
PDR Preliminary Design Review (U.S. government)
PDS Photogrammetric Data Services
PDT Pacific Daylight Time; Precision digitizing table; Pliable Display Technology
PDU Professional development unit
PDWS Precision digitizing workstation
P.E. Photogrammetric Engineer; Professional Engineer
PECG Professional Engineers in California Government
PEN Peninsula
Penn. Pennsylvania
PennDOT Pennsylvania Dept. of Transportation
Pers. Personen
PE&RS Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing (journal)
PES Post enumeration survey
Pf. Pfeiler; Pfuhl = Pool, pond
PFAS Pennsylvania Facility Analysis System (PDEP)
PFLP Point-feature label placement
PFM Pure File Magic (format)
PGD Personal Geodatabase(s)
PGM Permanent ground monument; Petermanns Geographische Mitteilungen; Portable Grayscale Map
.PGM Portable Graymap (format)
PGML Precision Graphics Markup Language
PG/S Product Generation Segment
P.H. Power house
PHC Probable hydrologic consequences
PHIGS Programmer Hierarchical Interactive Graphics System
Philada. Philadelphia
Phillips Phillips, P.L. List of Geographical Atlases in the Library of Congress
PHODIS Photogrammetric Image Processing System (Carl Zeiss Inc.)
PHZM Plant Hardiness Zone Map (USDA)
PI Pseudo intelligence; Photo interpretation
PIC Public Information Center
.PIC Lotus 1-2-3 Picture Format
PICA Project Integrated Catalogue Automation
PICG Programme International de Correlation Geologique
PICS Pacific Institute of Cartographers Society
PID Photoionization detector; Permanent station identifier
PIDL Polygon ID left
PIDR Polygon ID right
PIER Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk
PIG Panstwowy Instytut Geologiczny (Poland)
PIMMA Pipeline Integrity Management Mapping Application (RSPA)
PIN Parcel identification number
PIO Public Inquiries Office (USGS)
PIOS Polygon Information Overlay System (ESRI)
Pixel Picture element
PK Peak
PKM Penyiasatan Kajimbumi Malaysia; Professional Kansas Mapper
PKS Peaks
PL Programming language; Public law
PLAT Plateau
PLF Point Location File
PLGR Precision lightweight GPS receiver
PLI Precision Laser & Instrument, Inc.
PLN Plain
PLOT Plotting (software)
PLQ Public land quadrangles (Washington State Dept. of Natural Resources)
PLS Professional Land Surveyor
PLSC Professional Land Surveyors of Colorado
PLSO Professional Land Surveyors of Oregon; Professional Land Surveyors of Ohio
PLSS Public Land Survey System (U.S.)
P.M. Prime meridian; Papier Muhle = Paper mill
PMA Production and Marketing Administration (USDA)
PM/S Production Management Segment
PMSA Primary metropolitan statistical area
PMT Positive media transfer; Photomultiplier tube
PND Pond
PNDI Intermittent pond
.PNG Portable Network Graphics (format)
PNRC Pacific Northwest Regional Commission
PNDS Ponds
PNRS Preliminary Natural Resources Survey
PNW Pacific Northwest
PO Photogrammetric Operations; Post office
P&O Plans & Operations
POAM Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement
POC Point of contact; Point of control
POD Print-on-demand
POES Polar-Orbiting Satellites (NOAA)
POLYID Polygon identification number
POS Point-of-scale; Position orientation systems; Position and Orientation System (Applanix)
POS LV 220 Position and Orientation System for Land Vehicles 220 (Applanix)
POSIX Portable Operating System Interface for Computer Environments (UNIX)
POTS Pan-only Triangulation System
PP Proof plot; Proof plotter
PPA Provincial Archives of Alberta
PPB Parts per billion
PPC Pocket PC
PPDB Point Positioning Data Base
PPGIS Public participation GIS
PPL Populated place
PPM Portable Pixelmap (format)
PPMS Photogrammetry Production Monitoring System
PPNL Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
PPNM Pengarah Pemetaan Negara, Malaysia
PPP Point-to-point (protocol account, for email connections); Precise Point Positioning
PPPG Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Geologi
PPS Performance Planning System; Precise Positioning Service; Photographic Processing System
PPSS Precise Positioning Service Security Module
PPWK Panstwowe Przedsiebiorstwo Wydawnictw Kartograficznych (Poland)
PQ Province Quebec
PR Photo revision; Precipitation Radar; Pattern recognition; Puerto Rico
PRF Point response function; Pulse repetition frequency
PRIM Primary Map (inventory)
PRISM Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model
PRO Public Record Office (U.K.)
PROSIX Production System (USGS)
PROSYS Production System--UNIX (USGS)

Pond, River, Ocean, Waterway and Lake Echosounder Remote

PRSN Puget Reference Station Network
PRS92 Philippines Reference System of 92
PS Plot Services; Point source; PostScript; Paleontological Society; Polar stereographic (projection); Professional Surveyor (journal)
PSA Paciulli, Simmons & Associates Ltd.
PSAN Professional Surveyors Assn. of Nebraska
PSCOG Puget Sound Council of Governments
PSD Perceived spatial dispersions; Programme des services de depot (Canada)
PSFM Professional Society for Forensic Mapping
PSI Planning Systems, Inc.
PSLS Pennsylvania Society of Land Surveyors
PSM Professional Surveyor Magazine
PSMA Professional Services Management Assn.
PSPCI Professional Surveyors Publishing Company, Inc.
PSPE Pennsylvania Society of Professional Engineers
PSSC Public Service Satellite Corp.
PST Pacific Standard Time
PSU Primary sampling unit
Pt. Point
PT Point
PTC Positive train control
Pts. Points
PUBGRF90 TIGER Geographic Reference File Names, 1990
PUG Petroleum Users Group (ESRI)
PUMA Public Use Microdata Area (USBC)
PUMS Public Use Micro-Data Sample
PURL Persistent URL software
Pv. M. Pulver Muhle = Powder mill
PVT Position, Velocity and Time

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QA Quality assurance
QA/QC Quality assurance/quality control
QBS Quality-based selection
QC Quality control
QDF Queensland Dept. of Forestry
QDM Queensland Dept. of Mines
QGIS Quantum GIS
Q.H. Quadruple hydrant
QINSy Quality Integrated Navigation System (Quality Positioning Services, Inc.)
QLID Queensland Land Information Directory
QLIS Queensland Land Information Strategy
QLPS Quick-Look Processing System
qm Quadratmeter
QMSoft Qualitative Marketing Software Inc.
q.p. Queen-post
QS Quadratic splines
QSL Quarter scan line
QTM Quaternary triangular mesh
QW Quality of water
QWIFS Queen's Web Interface for SPSS (Queen's University)

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r. rechts
R Range; Release; River; Ruin
R&A OSS Research and Analysis Branch, Office of Strategic Services (U.S.)
RA Rural area (Canada)
RAC Related Accreditation Commission (ABET)
RAD Rapid development application; Rules for Archival Description
RADAR Radio Detecting and Ranging
RADEF Road Administration Data Exchange Format
RAID Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks
RAIM Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (GPS)
RALI Resource and Land Information; Resource and Land Investigations (program LIA)
RALS Random access logical subfiles
RAM Random access memory
RAMS Regional Atmospheric Modelins System (ATMET)
RAP Regional applications program
RAPID Rapid Application Planning Implementation and Deployment (GeoData Solutions, Inc.)
RAS Remote Analysis Systems
RASC Royal Australian Survey Corps
RASVY Royal Australian Survey Corps
RATP Regie autonome des transports parisiens
RBDS Radio broadcast data system
RBE Rule-Base Engine
RBI River Basin Investigation
RBMS Relational Database Management System
RBV Return Beam Vidicon
RCA Radio Corporation of America
RCC Regional census center
RCH Reach
RCIC Regional Coastal Information Center
RCID Record ID (Identification)
RCMRD Regional Centre for Mapping of Resources for Development (Kenya)
RCRA Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
RCS Research Camera System
RCSSMRS Regional Centre for Services in Surveying and Mapping and Remote Sensing (Nairobi)
RCWD Rancho California Water District
Rd Road
R&D Research and development
RDBMS Relational database management system
RDC Regional Distribution Centre (Natural Resources Canada); Research Data Centre (Canada)
Rdg Ridge
RDGE Ridge
RDI Resource Data International Inc.
RDS Radio data system
RDTS Research and Development Tracking System (BLM)
RE Royal Engineers (U.K.)
REA Rural Electrification Administration (U.S.)
REAP Regional Environmental Applications Program (N. Dakota)
REC Recompile(d)
RE COMP Recompile
RECOMP Recompilation
RECON Retrospective conversion
RECTAS Regional Center for Training in Aerospace Surveys (Nigeria)
REDI Real Estate Data Inc.; Regional Economic Development Information System (San Diego, Calif.)
REGIS Regional Geographic Information System (Kent County, Mich.)
Reichsb Reichsbahn = National railroad
Reichsbf Reichsbahnhof = National railroad station
RELOS Regional Locator System
REMS Regional Earth Modeling System (NASA)
RepCode Representation Code
Res Reservation
RESCU Remote Emergency Satellite Cellular Unit
RESTEC Remote Sensing Technology Center of Japan
Resvr Reservoir
RET Rotterdamsche Electrische Tram
RETSAM Review, Editing and Tagging Software for Automated Mapping
REU Resources Evaluation Unit (USFS)
Rev Revised
REVPG Revision and Product Generation System
RF Representative fraction; Reef; Radio frequency
RfC Reference concentration
RFPMG Radar Fixed Point Minigraphic
RG Record group
RGB Red-green-blue
Rgbf Rangierbahnhof = Shunting station
RGD Rijks Geologische Dienst (Netherlands)
RGS Royal Geographical Society (U.K.)
RH Regional hydrologist; Relative humidity; Roundhouse
RI Rhode Island
R.I. Rhode Island
RIAI Royal Inst. of Architects of Ireland
RICS Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors (U.K.)
RIG RETSAM/Intergraph/Giant
RIJP Rijksdienst voor de IJsselmeerpolders (Netherlands)
RIN Realty Information Network
RINEX Receiver Independent Exchange (GPS data format)
RIP Raster Image Processing; Raster Image Processor; Road Inventory Program
RIPS Remote Image Processing System; Remote Information Processing System
RIRT Russian Inst. of Radionavigation and Time
RIS Rapid Imaging Software; Retroreflector in Space
RISC Reduced Instruction Set Computer
RiskMAP Risk Mapping and Planning (FEMA)
RIT Rochester Institute of Technology
Riv River
Rk Rock
RKSW Rocks in water
RKW Rock in water
RL Rannsoknastofnun Landbunadarins (Iceland)
RLE Run-length encoded
RM Replacement mapping
RMA Reliability, Maintainability and Availability; Risk Management Agency (USDA)
RMCA Road Map Collectors of America
RMD Hans Rudolf Manual Deutsch
RMIB Rudolf Muller International Booksellers
RMK R.M. Keddal & Associates, Inc.
RMMC Rocky Mountain Mapping Center (USGS)
RMMS Rocky Mountain Map Society
RMS Root mean square
RMSE Root mean squared error
RMSI Risk Management Solutions Inc.
RMT Remotely measured target
RNRC Renewable Natural Resources Center
RNRF Renewable Natural Resources Foundation
RO Range only
RODOBRAS Comiss~ao Especial construc~ao da Rodovia Belem-Brasilia
ROM Read-Only Memory
ROMANSE Road Management System for Europe
ROMP Regional Observation Monitoring (well) Program
ROP Raster operations processor
ROW or R-O-W Right-of-way
RP Reference point
RPC Rational polynomial coefficient
RPDS Rapids
RPE Regional political ecology
RPF Raster product format
RPID Representation module ID
RPIE Replacement Photographic Image Equipment
RPMIS Real Property Management Information System
RPP RBV Preprocessor
RPU Remote positioning unit
RQA River Quality Assessment
RRDS Reduced Resolution Data Set
RRH Regional Research Hydrologist
R.S. Ranger station
R/S Remote sensing
RSAC Remote Sensing Application Center (USFS)
RSAL Remote Sensing Applications Laboratory (Univ. of Washington)
RSC/TAMU Remote Sensing Center/Texas A&M Univ.
RSGS Royal Scottish Geographical Society
RSI Remotely Sensed Imagery; RADARSAT International Remote Sensing Institute (S.Dakota State Univ.); Research Systems, Inc.
RSIP Remote Sensing and Image Processing
RSPA Research and Special Programs Administration (USDOT)
RSRP Remote Sensing Research Program (Univ. of Calif., Berkeley)
RSRT Resort
RSSC Remote Sensing Science Council
RST Representation Style Table
RSTF Remote Sensing Task Force
RSTN Railroad station
RSV Reservoir
RSVP Resource reservation protocol
RT Radio tower; Real time; Remote terminal
RTA Regional Transport Authority (Chicago)
RTCM Radio Technical Commission for Maritime (format)
RTF Rich Text Format
RT-GPS Real-time Differential GPS
RTK Real-time kinematic; Right-to-Know Network
RTN Real-time network
Rt of W Right-of-way
RTP Real Time Positioning
RTPC Real-Time Point Cloud
R&TS Research & Technical Standards
RTSD Royal Thai Survey Dept.
RTSI Routing Technology Software Inc.
RTTK Real Time TurboKinematic (Allen Obsobne Associates)
RTV Raster to vector
RUIN Ruins
RUIS San Diego Regional Urban Information System
RUS Rest of the U.S.
RV Reise- und Verkehrsverlag
R-VIS Reality Visualization
RVP Raster-to-vector processor; Radar Verification Programme
Ry Railway

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s. Sculpsit (engraver); Seconds; sudlich = southern, southerly; Steel
S Secret; Store; See = Lake, Ocean; Suden = south
SA Selected availability; Selective availability; Signal accuracy; Situational awareness; Source acquisition
S&A Sampling and analysis
SAA Southern Appalachian Assessment (GIS database)
SAC Sectional aeronautical chart; Satellite Applications Centre (CSIR); Statistical Area Classification (Canada)
SACC Spatial Analysis Coordinating Committee
SADIE System at Arizona for Digital Information Extraction
SADL South Australia Dept. of Lands
SADME South Australian Dept. of Mines and Energy
SADR Spatial address
SAE Survey Agro Ekonomi (Indonesia)
SAF Society of American Foresters
SAFOD San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth
SAGA Short Arc Geodetic Adjustment (doppler)
SAGEEP Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems
SaGES Surveying and Geomatics Educators Society
SAIC Science Applications International Corp.
SAL Stanford Auxiliary Library
SaLIS Surveying and Land Information Systems (journal)
SALT Salina
SAM Spatial access methods
SAM Inc Surveying and Mapping, Inc.
SAMAB Southern Appalachian Man and Biosphere (project)
SAMSOG Surveying and Mapping Society of Georgia
SANAIS South African Natural Areas Information System
SANDAG San Diego Association of Governments
SanGIS San Diego Geographic Information Source
SAON Sustaining Arctic Observing Networks
SAR Synthetic aperture radar
SARSAT Search and Rescue Satellite Aided Tracking System
SARM Spatial Auto-Regressive Model
SA/S Source Aquisition Segment
SAST Scientific Assessment and Strategy Team (U.S.)
SAT Small area triangulation
SAW Spill analysis workstation; Surface acoustic wave
SAZU Slovenske Akademije Znanosti in Umetnosti = Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Art
SB Survey of Bangladesh
SBAS School Boundary Analysis System (GeoSpatial Technologies)
SBCDP Small Business Competitiveness Demonstration Program (U.S.)
SBET Smoothed bed estimate of trajectory
SBM Surveys and Mapping Branch (Manitoba)
SBUV Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (spectrometer)
S.B.V. Adm. Schulbucher-Verschleiss-Administration (Wien)
sc. Sculpsit = engraver
SC South Carolina
S.C. South Carolina
S/C Spacecraft
S.C.A. Samuel Chapman Armstrong
SCADA Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition
SCAMP Southern California Aerial Mapping Project
SCAN Surface Condition Analyzer (Surface Systems Inc)
SCAR Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research
SCB Statistika Centralbyran (Sweden)
SCC Servico de Cartografia e Cadastro (Macao); SoftCopy Catalog (USDMA)
SCCAMA Southern California Computer Aided Mapping Assn.
SCD Source Control Drawing; Specification Control Drawing
SCDOT South Carolina Dept. of Transportation
SCEC Southern California Earthquake Center
SCEP Servico Cartografico do Exercito (Portugal)
SCERP Southwest Center for Environmental Research and Policy
SCGIS Sedgwick County (Kans.) GIS Dept.
SCGP Societe Canadienne des Geologique Petroliers
SCGS South Carolina Geological Survey
Sch School
SCH School
Scheit-elst. Scheitelstarke
Schl. Schloss = castle
SCM Supply chair management
S.C.M. Sacrae Caesareae Majestatis = Holy Imperial Majesty (Holy Roman Emperor)
SCO State Cartographer's Office (Wisconsin)
SCOOP Schedule Control of Orthophoto Products
SCOPE Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment
SCR Service Cartographique du Rwanda
SCS Soil Conservation Service (USDA); Soft Copy Search (NIMA)
SCSA Standard Consolidated Statistical Area; Soil Conservation Society of America
SCSD Street Centerline Spatial Dataset
SCSI Small computer system interface
SCSMAC South Carolina State Mapping Advisory Committee
SCSPLS South Carolina Society of Professional Land Surveyors
sct. Sculpsit (engraver)
SCTRAP South Carolina Toxic Risk Atlas Project
sculp. Sculpsit (engraver)
SCWRC South Carolina Water Resources Commission
SD South Dakota
S.D. South Dakota
SDA Spalding DeDecker Associates, Inc.; Survey Document and Analysis (Univ. of California, Berkeley)
SDB Spatial data base
SDBMS Spatial database management system
SDDOT South Dakota Dept. of Transportation
SDDP Spatial Data Discovery Portal (Simon Fraser University )
SDE Spatial Database Engine (ESRI)
SDES Spatial Data Exchange Standard
SDG Survey Dept. Ghana
SDGS South Dakota Geological Survey
SDH Spatial data handling
SDI Selected Dissemination of Information; Spatial data infrastructure
SDL Survey Dept. of Libya
SDLC Synchronous Data-Like Control; System Development Life Cycle
SDMG Direction des Mines et de la Geologie (Senegal)
SDMS Spatial Data Management System
SDNR State Dept. of Natural Resources
SDOI Spatial Data Organization Information
SDPS Spatial Data Production System
SDRW Societe de Developpement Regional pour la Wallonie
SDS Swaziland Dept. of Surveys; Simplicial data structure
SDSB Satellite Data Services Branch (NOAA)
SDSFIE Spatial Data Standard for Facilities, Infrastructure and Environment (Tri-Services)
SDSS Spatial decision support systems
SDT Spatial Data Technologies (Firm)
SDTP Spatial data transfer processor
SDTS Spatial Data Transfer Standard
SDUK Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge
SDV Soil Data Viewer (NCRS)
SE Southeast
SEAMS Soil, Environmental, and Agricultural Management System (Univ. of Florida Dept. of Soil and Water)
SEASAT Sea Satellite (U.S.)
SEATO Southeast Asia Treaty Organization
Sec Section
SECFT Sociedad Espa~nola de Cartografia, Fotogrametria y Teledeteccion
SECO Surveying Equipment Company (later: SECO Manufacturing)
Secs Sections
SEDAC Socioeconomic Data and Application Center
SEDESOL Secretaria de Dessarrollo Social (Mexico)
SEDIC Sudan Engineering & Digital Information Centre
SEDMS Spatially Enabled Document Management System (Intergraph Corp.)
SEDUE Secretaria de Desarrollo Urbano y Ecologia (Mexico)
SEG Society of Economic Geologists; Society of Exploration Geophysicists
S.E.O.P. Secretaria de Estado de Obras Publicas (Argentina)
SEOS Stationary Earth Orbit Satellite
SEPA State Environmental Protection Agency
SEPM Society for Sedimentary Geology
Ser Service
SERIES Satellite Emission Range Inferred Earth Surveying
Servicio Nacional Geologia y Mineria (Chile)
SES Standalone Edit Stations
SESCPF Service d'Etude des Sols et de la Carte Pedalogique de France
SESWG Solid Earth Science Working Group
SEVIRI Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager
SEWUG Southeastern Water Use Group
S.F. San Francisco
SfBWW Senator fur Bau- und Wonungswesen (Berlin)
SFHA Special Flood Hazard Area
SFQL Structured Full-text Query Language
SfSU Senator fur Stadtentwicklung und Umweltschutz (Berlin)
SGA Societe Geoscientifique de l'Atlantique; State Geologic Agencies; Service Geologique de l'Armee (Syria)
SGB Service Geologique Belgique; Servicio geologico de Bolivia
SGCB State Geodesy and Cartography Board (Mongolia)
SGD Solar Geophysical Data (journal); Symbolized Graphic Data; Surveyor General's Dept. (South West Africa)
SGE Servicio Geografico del Ejercito (Spain)
SGG Service Geologique du Gabon
SGpK Schweizerische Geophysikalische Kommission
SGI Servicio Geologico d'Italia; Silicon Graphics workstation
SGK Schweizerische Geologische Kommission
SGL Service Geologique de Luxembourg
SGM Servicio Geografico Militar (Uruguay)
SGML Standard generalized markup language
SGN Servicio Geologico Nacional (Argentina, Nicaragua); Service Geographique National (Laos)
Sgr Sandgrube = Sand pit
SGS Stanford Geological Survey
SGtK Schweizerische Geotechnische Kommission
SGU Sveriges Geologiska Undersokning; Savezna Geodetska Uprava (Yugoslavia)
S.H. School house
SHA State Highway Administration (Maryland)
SHAPE Systematic Horizontol Adjustment of Positional Errors
SHC Service hydrographique du Canada
S.H.C. Surveyor, Hopkins County
SHDSL Symmetric High-bit-rate Digital Subscriber Line
SHEF Standard Hydrometeorological Exchange Format
SHIPS Seizmic Hazards Investigation in Puget Sound
SHMP Seizmis Hazard Mapping Program
SHN Servicio de Hidrografia Naval (Argentina)
SHOALS Scanning Hydrographic Operational Airborne LiDAR System (or Survey -- USCE, Optech)
SHOL Shoal
SHOM Service Hydrographique et Ocenographique de la Marine (France)
SHORAN Short-range Navigation (system)
SHS Surveyors Historical Society
SI Survey of India; Survey of Israel
SIAC Spatial Information and Analysis Consortium
SIAMS Ship Information and Management System
SIAN Service d'information de l'atlas nationale (Canada)
SIAT Special Image Annotation Tape
SIB Solar Indices Bulletin
SIC Standard Industrial Classification
SICC Surveying Instrumentation and Coordinate Computation
SICO Schonstedt Intstrument Company
SICOM South Australian Spatial Information Committee
SID Scanned Image Data; South Australian Spatial Information Directory
SIF Standard Interchange Format (Intergraph)
SIG Sistemas de informacion geografica; Special interest group; Système d'information géographique
SIGACE Special Interest Group for the Application of CD-ROM in Education
SIGCAT Special Interest Group on CD-ROM Applications & Technology (U.S.)
SIGGRAPH Special Interest Group on Graphics (ACM)
SIGIT Swedish Institute for Geographic Information Technology
SIGLIT Special Interest Group on Library Information Technology (U.S.)
SIGS Solomon Islands Geological Survey
SIGSA Sistemas de Informacion Geografica S.A.
SILS Science Information and Libary Services (USGS)
SIM Spatial interaction model; Survey Information on Microfilm (UK Ordnance Survey)
SIMAG Spatial Information Management Advisory Group
SIME Space Imaging Middle East
SIP Scanner Interface Processor
SIPES Society of Independent Professional Earth Scientists
SIR Shuttle Imaging Radar; Space Imaging Radar (NASA); Surveys, Investigations and Research (USGS)
SIRGAS Sistema de Referencia Geocentrico para las Americas
SIRS Satellite Infrared Spectrometer
SIRU Soils and Irrigation Research Unit (South Africa)
SIS Standard Indexing System (DOD aerial photography); Spatial Information Systems (Computer Aided Development Corp.)
SISMD Solomon Islands Survey and Mapping Div.
SJSU San Jose State University
SK Survey of Kenya; Slovenska Kartografia
SKV Statens Kartverk (Norway)
SKW Shafer, Kline and Warren, Inc.
s.l. Sine loco = without place (of publication)
SLA Special Libraries Assn.; Singapore Land Authority
SLAC Stanford Linear Accelerator Center
SLAGMD Special Libraries Assn. Geography & Map Div.
SLAP Soils Landscape Analysis Project; Supplemental Low Altitude Photography
SLAR Side-Looking Airborne Radar
SLAT Spacecraft Location/Attitude Tape
SLATS Statewide Landcover and Trees Study (Queensland DNR)
SLC Scan Line Corrector (USGS)
SLD Slope-Line Detection
SLDI Sustainable Land Development International
SLD29 Sea Level Datum of 1929
SLF Standard Linear Format
SLG Symbolized Line Graph; Synthetic Line Generation
SLGSD Sri Lanka Geological Survey Dept.
SLIP Serial Line Internet Protocol
SLM Structure line model
SLNSW State Library of New South Wales
SLP Slope(s)
SLR Satellite Laser Ranging; Side-looking Radar
SLSD Sri Lanka Survey Dept.
SLSI Society of Land Surveyors of Iowa
SLUPD Swaziland Land Use Planning Dept.
sm Seemeile
SM Survey Manual
S.M. Saw mill; Sage Muhle = Sawmill
SMA Schweizerische Meteorologische Anstalt
SMAC State Mapping Advisory Committee (or Council)
SMART Spatial Mapping Academic Research Tools
SMASCH Specimen Management System for California Herbaria
SMB Surveys and Mapping Branch (Manitoba)
SMC Special Mapping Center
SMCDG Small Map Collection Discussion Group (MAGERT)
SMCRA surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act
SMD Surveys and Mapping Div. (Tanzania)
SME Softcopy Monoscopic Extraction; Society of Mining Engineers; society for Mining, Metalurgy, and Exploration, Inc.
SMGE Sociedad Mexicana de Geografia y Estadistica
SMI Surveyors Module International (Firm)
SMIB Surveying and Mapping Inst. of Beijing
SMIMS Single MIM-Based Integrated Mapping System (USBC)
SMIRR Shuttle Multispectral Infrared Radiometer
SMIPS Small Interactive Image Processing System
SMMR Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer
SMMT Submilimeter Telescope
SMN Servicio Meteorologico Nacional (Argentina)
SMOW Standard Mead Ocean Water
SMS Synchronous Meteorological Satellite(s)
SMSA Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area
SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
S/N Signal-to-Noise Ratio
s.n. Sine nomine = without name (of publisher)
SNARIL Social, Natural, and Agricultural Resources Information Laboratory (Univ. of Kentucky)
SNB Service New Brunswick
SNCF Societe Nationale des Chemins de Fer (France)
SND Street Network Database
SNEP Sierra Nevada Ecosystem Project
SNF Superior National Forest (Minn.)
SNGM Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)
SNI Siemens Nixdorf Information Systems AG
SNID Startnode ID
SNIG Sistema Nacional de Informac~ao Geografica = Portuguese National Infrastructure for Geographic Information
SNLCS Servico Nacional de Levantamento e Conservac~ao de Solos (Brazil)
SNM Square nautical miles
SNR Signal-to-Noise Ratio
SNRIM Subcommittee on Natural Resources
SNT Servicio Nacional de Turismo (Chile)
SNWA Southern Nevada Water Authority
SNWS Southern Nevada Water System
SOAP Simple Object Access Protocal
SoC Society of Cartographers
SOCC Satellite Operations Control Center (NOAA)
SODEMI Societe pour le Developpement Minier de la Cote d'Ivoire
SOFRATOP Societe francais de travaux topographique et photogrammetriques
Soft AT Softcopy Aerotriangulation
SOHO Solar and Heliospheric Observatory Satellite
SOI Survey of India
SOLE Spatial On-Line Editor (ESRI)
SOLSE Shuttle Ozone Limb Scanning Experiment
SOM Space Oblique Mercator (projection); Spatial Object Manager (Smallworld)
SONAR Sound Navigation and Ranging
SONATRACH Societe Nationale de Recherches de l'Explorations Minieres (Algeria)
SOP Secretaria de Obras Publicas
SORCE Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment
SORSA Spatially-Oriented Referencing Systems Assn.
SOS Survey Office System
SOWR Sensitivity of Water Resources (global change hydrology program)
SP Survey of Pakistan
SPANS Spatial Analysis System (TYDAC Technologies)
SPARRSO Bangladesh Space Research and Remote Sensing Organisation
SPB Space Planning Bureau
SPC State Plane Coordinate (system or systems)
SPC RE Survey Production Centre, Royal Engineers (U.K.)
SPCS State Plane Coordinate System(s)
SPDK Sistem Pengurusan Data Kadaster (Malaysia)
SPEK Sistem Pengeshan Kualiti = Quality Assurance System (SPDK)
SPID Sistem Pengurusan Imej Dokumen = Certified Plan Image Database (SPDK)
SPIE Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers
SPIN-2 Space Information-2 Meter Data (Russian Space Agency)
SPIRE Spatial Paradigm for Information Retrieval and Exploration
SPO State Planning Office
SPOEM Special Projects Office for Exploitation Modernization (USDMA)
SPOT Systeme Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre (satellite)
SPOTS Standard Programming of Telemetry Systems
spr Spring
SPRI Scott Polar Research Inst. (Univ. of Cambridge)
SPS Stichting Planbureau Suriname; Standard Positioning Service
SP/S Source Preparation Segment
SPT Strathclyde Passenger Transport
SPVEA Superintendencia do Plano de Valorizac o Economica da Amazonia (Brazil)
sq. Square
SQL Standard Query Language; Structured Query language
SRBC Susquehanna River Basin Commission
SRES OP Special Report on Emission Scenarios Open Process
SRF Systematic reconnaissance flights
SRI Spatial Reference Information
SRMB Surveys and Resource Mapping Branch (British Columbia)
SRMC Southern Resources Mapping Corp.
SROM Spectro-radiometer for Ocean Monitoring
SRTM Shuttle Radar Topography Mission
SRV Socialist Republic of Vietnam
SSA Seismological Society of America
SSCC SPAWAR Systems Center, Charleston
SSD Singapore Survey Dept.; Sudan Survey Dept.
SSDAN Social Science Data Analysis Network (University of Michigan)
SSE South Southeast
SSEW Soil Survey of England and Wales
SSEOP Space Shuttle Observation Project (U.S.)
SSGN Service Geographique National (Senegal)
SSI Surface Systems Inc.
S-SIG Sureying Special Interest Group
SSK Stereo Softcopy Kit (Intergraph Corp.)
SSM/I Special Sensor Microwave Imager
SSMC Silver Spring Metro Center (NOAA)
SSMS Spatial statistical modeling service
SSS Side Scan SONAR; Simple "Sight" Survey (Carlson Software)
SSSA Soil Science Society of America
SST Sea-surface temperature
SSU Strategic Services Unit (U.S. War Dept.); Secondary sampling unit; Stratospheric Sounding Unit
SSURGO Soil Survey Geographical (database)
SSW South Southwest
SS1 SpaceShipOne
St Saint; Street
st Stone
Sta Station
STAAC Space and Terrestrial Applications Advisory Committee
STAC State Technology Applications Centers (NASA)
StatsCan Statistics Canada
STATSGO State Geographic Database (U.S.)
Stb. Steinbruch = stone quarry
St.Br. Steinbruch = Stone quarry
STC Standard Telephones & Cables PLC; Stanford Technology Corp.
STCB Survey Technician Certification Board (ASCM)
Std. Par. Standard parallel
Stde. Stunde = hour
STEPS Spatial Templates for Emergency Preparedness (PlanGraphics, Inc.)
STDM Social Tenure Domain Model; Stadium
STDN Spacecraft Tracking and Data Network
STF Summary tape file
STIA Spatial Technologies Industry Association
STIBOKA Stichting voor Bodemkartering (Netherlands)
STINASU Stichting Natuurbescherming Suriname
STK Satellite Tool Kit (Analytical Graphics, Inc.); Surveyor's Tool Kit
STM Stream; System test mode; Solid Terrain Modeling; Solid Terrain Modeling, Inc.
STMA Anabranch
STMD Distributary
STMI Intermittent stream
STMM Stream mouth
Str. Strait(s); Stream; Strasse = street
STRT Strait
STV Service Topographique (Vanuatu)
SU Standard update; Stanford University; Syracuse University
SUC Society of University Cartographers
SUDENE Superintendencia de Desenvolvimento do Nordeste (Brazil)
SuDocs Superintendent of Documents (U.S.)
SUDSS Spatial understanding and decision support system
SUE Surface utility engineering
SUGK Slovak Office of Geodesy and Cartography
SUM Standard update, monoscopic
SUNI Stockholms Universitet Naturgeografiska Institutionen
SUNMAP Dept. of Natural Resources (Queensland) and its earlier names: Dept. of Lands; Division of Information, Dept. of Lands; Dept. of Geographic Information; Dept. of Mapping and Surveying
Sup. Hdqrs. Supervisor's headquarters
Sur. Survey; Surveyor
SUS Standard update, stereoscopic
SV Space vehicle
SVC Scalable Vector Graphics
SVD Singular Value Decomposition
SVF Simple Vector Format
SVG Scaled (or Scalable) Vector Graphics
S-VGA Super Video Graphics Array
SVP Society of Vertebrate Paleontology
SW Software; Southwest; Surface water
S/W Software
SWA Super-wide angle
SWAB Southwest Alluvial Basins (project, NM)
SWDC Southwestern Colorado Data Center
SWEMP Southwest Exotic Plant Mapping program
SWG Standards working group
SWIR Short wave infrared
SWMD Selected World Mineral Deposits
SWOOP South Western Ontario Orthophotography Project
S.W.P.A. Southwest Pacific Area (Allied Forces)
SYCI System Corrected Images
SYMAP Synagraphic Mapping System
SzBPK Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin-Preussischer Kulturbesitz
S3 Satellite Security Systems

Return to index

t Tonne
t. tief = deep
T Township; photogrammetric elevation (measured with stereo plotter); Tramontana, Tramuntana, Triones = North
T. Teich = pond; Tiefe = depth
TAC Terrain Analysis Center (USCE); Technology Accreditation Commission (ABET); Topcon America Corporation
TACA Transportes Aereos Centro Americanos
TACAN Tactical Air Navigation
TACC Texas Advanced Computing Center
TAG Tabular and Graphic (system); Trans-Atlantic Geotraverse
TAPS Tennessee Assn. of Professional Surveyors
TAR Tape address register
TARA The Aerial Reconnaissance Archives (UK)
TARGA TrueVision Advanced Raster Graphics Adapter
TASC Transportation Administration Service Center (US); The Analytic Sciences Corp.
TASMAP Tasmania Dept. of Lands
TAVO Tubinger Atlas des Vorderen Orients
TAZ Traffic analysis zone
TBC Trimble Business Center
TBD To be determined
TBM Temporary bench mark; Tunnel boring machine
TBPLS Texas Board of Professional Land Surveying
TBV To be verified
T.C.H. Thomas Campanius Holm
TCI Touring Club Italiano
TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
TCT Trans-continental Traverse (U.S.)
TD Thematic data; Topographic Div. (USGS); Total depth; Topographische dienst (Netherlands)
TdA Teledeteccion Aplicada, S.A.
TDC Tennessee Dept. of Conservation
TDD Telecommunications Device for the Deaf
TDM Tasmania Dept. of Mines
TDN Topografische Dienst Nederland
TDOA Time Difference of Arrival
TDOT Tennessee Dept. of Transportation
TDR Time Domain Reflectrometry
TDRSS Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (US DoD)
TDS Tripod Data Systems
TDSA Tribal designated statistical area
TDT Terrestrial Dynamic Time
T.E. Topographical Engineer
TEC The Engineering Center; Topographic Engineering Center (USCE)
TEFIS Transmission Electrical Facilities Information System (Santee Cooper)
TEKPLOT Tektronix Plotting (DLG software)
TELEX Teletypewriter Exchange
TELNET Telecommunications Network
Tenn. Tennessee
TERCOM Terrain Contour Matching
TERSS Tasmanian Earth Resource Satellite Station
TES Terrain Edit System
TESC Tile enclosed elevator with self-closing traps
TESEMPS Terrain Edit Station/Elevation Matrix Processing System
Tex. Texas
TEXPLOT Tektronix Plotting (DLG software)
TFC Forestry Commission Tasmania
TFEL Thin-film electrolumiscent
TFH Technische Fachhoschule (Berlin)
TG Toll gate
TGO Trimble Geomatics Office
TGS Technicolor Graphic Services, Inc.
T.H. Triple hydrant; Territory of Hawaii
THNOC The Historic New Orleans Collection
Thon Gr. Clay pit
THSOA The Hydrographic Society of America
TI Technical instruction; Technical investigation; Texas Instruments; Topographic instruction
TIB Tabula Imperii Byzantini
TIC Technical Information Center (NASA)
.TIF Tagged Image File
TIFF Tagged Image File Format
TIGA Texas Instruments Graphics Architecture
TIGER Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing
TIGRIS Topologically Integrated Geographic Resource and Information System
TIMS Therms Infrared Multispectral Scanner
TIN Triangulated irregular network
TIR Thermal infrared ; Tabula Imperii Romani
TIROS Television Infrared Observation Satellite
TIRS Thermal Infrared Scanner
TJSA Tribal jurisdiction statistical area
TLG Telegraph
TLI Terrain Line Interpolation
TLID TIGER/Line Record Identification Number
TLM Telemetry; Topographic Line Map
TLP Telephone
TLSD Tuvalu Lands and Survey Div.
TLUI Traditional Land Use Inventory (NSB GIS Div.)
TLV Threshold limit value
TM Thematic Mapper (Landsat); Timber management
TMAC Technical Mapping Advisory Council (US)
TMC The Map Collector (journal); Thinking Machines Corp.
TMDL Total maximum daily load
TMI Topographic Mapping Initiatives (NR Can)
TMLS Ministry of Lands, Survey and Natural Resources (Tonga); Terrestrial mobile LIDAR scanning
TMS Thematic Mapper Simulator; Topographic Mapping Service (Geomatics Canada); TIGER Mapping Service
TN Tennessee
TNA The National Archives (UK)
TNM UC The National Map Users Conference (US)
TNP Terrain Navigator Pro (Maptech); Transportation Network Profile
TNRIS Texas Natural Resources Information System
TNS TopoNet Server (Maps a la carte, Inc.)
T.O. Teer Ofen = Tar works
T-O Orbis terrarum (Medieval European map type: Nile and Don rivers and Mediterranean form a "T" surrounded by ocean in the shape of an "O")
TOF Time of flight
TOMS Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (NASA)
TOPOCOM U.S. Army Topographic Command
TOPS Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System
TOSCA The Oxford Seminars in Cartography
Tp. Township
TPC Tactical Pilotage Chart; Traverse PC
TPM Theodolitprufmachine
TPS Thin-plate splines; Topcon Positioning Systems
TP&W Texas Parks and Wildlife
TQ Topographic quadrangle
Tr. Trail; Truss
TR Township and Range (public land survey)
TRACE Topographic Resources and Cost Evaluation (system)
Trafo Transformator
Trans Transmission
TRB Technical Review Board (U.S.)
TRE Topaz Ranch Estates (Nevada)
Tres Trestle
TRF Terrestrial Reference Frame
Trgf. Tragfahigkeit = Carrying capacity
TRI Toxic Release Inventory (USEPA)
TRIM Terrain Resource Information Management (program, British Columbia)
TRMM Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission
T/RS Township/Range System
TRS Trimble Reference Station
TRSC Thailand Remote Sensing Center
TS Top secret
TSA Texas Surveyors Association
TSARP Tropical Storm Allison Recovery Project
TSC1 Trimble System Controller
TSD Treatment, storage and disposal sites
TSGS Topographic Section, General Staff (Gt. Brit.)
TSI Teqnical Services Inc.
TSIS Total Solar Irradiance Sensor
TSOP The Society for Organic Petrology
TSPS Texas Society of Professional Surveyors
TSS2 TurboSurvey Software 2
TSX TerraSAR-X (satellite)
TSX-1 TerraSAR-X (satellite)
TT TT Maps & Publications Private Ltd.
TTD Tactical terrain data
TTPI Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands
TTY Teletype
TUG Triuniversity Group
TUNS Technical University of Nova Scotia
TVA Tennessee Valley Authority
T.V.K. & Co Tanner, Vallance, Kearny & Co.
TVP Topological vector profile
TWA Time-weighted average
Twp. Township
TWRA Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency
TWRI Techniques of Water Resources Investigations (USGS)
TX Texas
TxDAPA Texas Digital Aerial Photo Archive
TxDOT Texas Dept. of Transportation
TxMAP Texas Mapping Project
TXRTK Texas RTK Network

Return to index

U Unclassified
UA Urban area (Canada); Urbanized area
UAM United Aerial Mapping; Urban Airshed Model (USEPA)
UART Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter
UAS Unmanned aircraft system; Unmanned Aerial Systems; Urban Area Studies
UAV Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
UC Univ. of California
UCAID Univ. Corp. for Advanced Internet Development
UCB Univ. of California, Berkeley
UCD Univ. of California, Davis
UCDL University of California Digital Library
UCGIS Univ. Consortium for GIS
UCLGES Unified Cartographic Line Graph Encoding System
UCLS Utah Council of Land Surveyors
UCPTE Union for the Coordination of the Production and Transport of Electric Power
UCS Uniform Color Space
UCSB Univ. of California, Santa Barbara
UDA User data area
UDB Universal Data Base
UDC Universal Decimal Classification
UDF Universal Data Format
uDIG User-friendly Desktop Internet GIS
UDNR Utah Dept. of Natural Resources
UDOGM Utah Division of Oil, Gas and Mining
UDP User Datagram Protocol
UDS Urban Data Solutions
UDSL Utah Division of State Lands
UDWR Utah Division of Water Resources
UE Useful elevation
UGB Urban growth boundary
UGC Utility Graphics Consultants
UGID Universal Geographic Identity
UGKK SR Urad geodezie, kartografie e katastra Slovenskej republiky
UGS Utah Geological Survey
UGMS Utah Geological and Mineral Survey
UGSMD Uganda Geological Survey and Mines Dept.
UHF Ultra-high frequency
UHGP Upland Habitat Goals Project (San Francisco Bay Area, California)
UHMS Urban Hydrology Monitoring System
UID Unique identifier; User identification
UK United Kingdom
U.K. United Kingdom
UKMO United Kingdom Meteorological Office
ULCC Utility Location and Coordination Council
ULS Unmanned Lidar systems
ULSD Uganda Dept. of Lands and Surveys
UMAC Upper Midwest Aerospace Consortium
UML Unified Modeling Language
UMS Universal Map Sharing (Traverse PC)
UN United Nations
UNAM Universidad Nacional de Mexico
UNCLA Unclassified
UNDP United Nations Development Program
UNECA United Nations Economic Commission for Africa
UNEP United Nations Environment Programme
UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
UNGEGN United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names
UN-GGIM United Nations Committee of Experts on Global Geospatial Information Management
UNGIWG United Nations Geographical Information Working Group
UNIMACE Universal Automated Mapping Compilation Equipment
Univ. University
UNR Univ. of Nevada, Reno
UP Urban planning
UPADI Union Panamerica de Asociaciones de Ingenieros
UPC Universal Product Code
UPPS Universal Projection Plotting System
UPRN Unique Property Reference Number
UPRR Union Pacific Railroad
UPS Universal polar stereographic
UQAM Universite du Quebec a Montreal
UR Universal Rectifier
U/R Urban/rural
URISA Urban and Regional Information Systems Assn.
URUID Unrectified image data
URL Universal Resource Locator; Uniform Resource Locator
URPI Unit for Retail Planning Information Ltd.
URS Unrestricted random sample
U.S. United States of America
USA United States of America; United States Army
USACE U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
USACERL U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratories
USAETL United States Army Engineer Topographic Laboratories
USAF United States Air Force
USAP United States Antarctic Program
USARP United States Antarctic Research Program
USB Underwriters' Survey Bureau; Unified S-Band
USBC United States Bureau of the Census
USC Unified soil classification
USC&GS United States Coast and Geodetic Survey
USCE United States Army Corps of Engineers
USCG United States Coast Guard
USCS United States Customary System
USD Univ. of South Dakota
USDA United States Dept. of Agriculture
USDC United States Dept. of Commerce
USDI United States Dept. of the Interior
USDMA United States Defense Mapping Agency
USDOT U.S. Dept. of Transportation
USEPA United States Environmental Protection Agency
USFS United States Forest Service
USFWS United States Fish and Wildlife Service
USGCRP U.S. Global Change Research Program
USGIF United States Geospatial Intelligence Foundation
USGK Utstredni Sprava Geodezie a Kartografie (Czechoslovakia)
USGPO United States Government Printing Office
USGS United States Geological Survey
USGS-MP United States Geological Survey, Menlo Park
USLS United States Lake Survey
USMC United States Marine Corps
USNBS United States National Biological Survey
USN United States Navy
USNC United States National Committee (ICA)
USNCHC United States National Committee on Scientific Hydrology
USNC-ICA United States National Committee for the ICA
USNG US National Grid
USNO United States Naval Observatory
USNOS United States National Ocean Service (or Survey)
USPLSS U.S. Public Land Survey System
USPS United States Postal Service
USR Universal Space Rectangular (coordinate system)
USSCS United States Soil Conservation Service
UST Underground storage tank
UT Unit terminator; Universal Time; Unorganized territory; Utah
UTA University of Texas at Arlington
UTC Universal Time Coordinated; Urban Traffic Control System (Siemans)
UTM Universal transverse Mercator
UTMS Universal Mobile Telecommunications Systems
U-TDOA Uplink Time Difference of Arrival (TruePosition)
UUG Utstredni Ustav Geologicky
UURI Univ. of Utah Research Inst.
UV Ultraviolet; Unit value
UW Univ. of Washington
UWM Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison
UVMap Urban VMap
UWCL Univ. of Wisconsin Cartography Laboratory (Madison)
U-2 A high altitude remote sensing aircraft

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V Volt
Va. Virginia
VA Visual accumulation; Virginia
VABM Vertical angle elevation bench mark
VACP Virtual active control point
Val Valley
VAP Valley Air Photos (Firm)
VARIS Virginia Resources Information System
VAS Virginia Assn. of Surveyors
V&V Verification and validation
VBA Visual Basic for Applications
Vbf Verschriebebahnhof
VCGI Vermont Center for Geographic Information
VCR Video cassette recorder
VCSH Virtual Center for Spatial Humanities
VDMR Virginia Div. of Mineral Resources
VDOT Virginia Dept. of Transportation
VDSL Very-high speed Digital Subscriber Line
VDT Video display terminal
VDU Video display unit
VEDIS Vallejo [Calif.] Economic Development Information System
VegCAMP Vegetation Classification and Mapping Program (California Dept. of Fish and Game)
VEN'D Brick veneered building
VFC Vector Function Chainer
VFR Visual Flight Rules; Vector Relational Format
VGA Video Graphics Array; Video Graphics Adaptor
VGI Volunteered geographic information
VGS Vermont Geological Survey
V/H Vertical over height ratio
VHB Vanasse Hangen Brustlin, Inc.
VHF Very high frequency
VHP Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)
VHRR Very high resolution radiometer
VI Virgin Islands
VIAF Virtual International Authority File
VICAR Video Information Communication and Retrieval (JPL software)
VICMAP Victoria Dept. of Crown Lands and Survey
VIIRS Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite
vill. Village
VIMSARS Video image map storage and retrieval system
ViSC Visualization in Scientific Computing
VISG Visual Information Services Group
VISION Visual Information System Integrating our Neighborhoods (Columbus, Ohio)
VITD VPF Interim Terrain Data
VITec Visual Information Technologies Inc.
VLBI Very long baseline interferometric (or interferometry)
VLC Volcano
VLS Virtual Learning Systems, Inc.
VLSI Very large scale integration
VMap Vector Smart Map
VML Vector Markup Language
VMR Vertical Mapping Resources, Inc.
VMS Voyage Management Sytem
VNIR Visual and near-infrared
VNP Voyageurs National Park
Vobf Vorbahnhof
VOC Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie
V.P. Vertical pipe or stand pipe
VP Vector program
VPASS Video Processor and Sync Separator
VPF Vector Product Format
VPFPS Vector Product Format Production System (Intergraph Federal)
VPF/PS Vector Product Format/Production System (Intergraph Federal)
VPN Virtual private network
VRA Visual Resources Assn.
VRML Virtual Reality Mock-up (or Mark-up or Modeling) Language
VRP Vector-to-raster processor
VRS Virtual Reference Station (Trimble)
VSEGEI Vsesoiuznnoi Nauchno-Issledovatel'skii Geologicheskii Institut (USSR)
VSLS Vermont Society of Land Surveyors
Vt. Vermont
VT Vermont
VTA Valley Transportation Authority (San Jose, Calif.)
VTD Voting district
VTIR Visible and Thermal Infrared Radiometer
VTM Vegetation Type Map
VTR Video tape recording
VTRAK Vector-to-raster conversion software
Vtrans Vermont Agency of Transportation
VVK Verwaltung Vermessungs und Kartenwesen
VVT Value Valid Table
Vw Vorwerk = Farmhouse

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w Wood; westlich = western;
W Westen = West; Wald = Forest
WA Washington (State)
WAAS Wide area augmentation system (or sites)
WAC World Aeronautical Chart
WACMA Western Australia Central Map Agency
WADGPS Wide Area Differential GPS
WADM Dept. of Mines Western Australia
WAG Wireless Assisted GPS
WAGAP Washington Gap Analysis Program
WAGDA Washington State Geospatial Data Archive
WAGN West Antarctic GPS Network
WAIS Wide-area Information Server (or Service or System); Western Antarctic Ice Sheet
WALIS Western Australian Land Information System
WAM Western Air Maps, Inc.
WAML Western Assn. of Map Libraries
WAML IB Western Assn. of Map Libraries Information Bulletin
WAN Wide area network
WAP Wireless Application Protocol
Wasch Waschhaus = Laundry, wash house
WASP Wildfire Airborne Sensor Program
Wash. Washington (State)
WAT Weighted-average toxicity
WB World Bank
WBVT Wide-band video tape
WBVTR Wide-band video tape recorder
WCB Workshop Certification Board (ACSM)
WCCS Washington Council of County Surveyors; Wisconsin County Coordinate System
WCMC World Conservation Monitoring Center
WCRP World Climate Research Program
WCS Web Coverage Service (EVG); World Construction Set (Questar Productions); World coordinate system
WCWMC William C. Wonders Map Collection (Univ. of Alberta)
WC2N Western Canadian Cryospheric Network
WD Working Draft (ISO)
WDB I World Data Bank I (US CIA)
WDB II World Data Base II
WDDES World Digital Database for Environmental Science (ICA/IGU)
WDG Washington Dept. of Game
WDGER Washington Div. of Geology and Earth Resources
Wdlg. Widerlager
W.D.M.C. War Dept. Map Collection (U.S.)
WDMS Watershed Data Management System
WDNR Washington Dept. of Natural Resources
WDOE Washington Dept. of Ecology
WEF Water Environment Federation
Wein B Weinberg = Vineyard
WELU Western Energy Land Use Team
WESTFED Western Federation of Professional Surveyors
WET Wetland Evaluation Technique
WFPLS Western Federation of Professional Land Surveyors
WFPS Western Federation of Professional Surveyors
W.G. Wired glass skylight
WGMG Working Group on Map Generalization (ICA)
WGNHS Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey
WGS World Geodetic System; World Geodetic Survey
WGS 84 World Geodetic System of 1984
W.H. Wirtshaus = public house, inn; William Harrison
WI Wisconsin
WIC Westindische Compagnie
WIMS Weather Information Management System
Wis. Wisconsin
WIS Watershed Information System
WISCLAND Wisconsin Initiative for Statewide Cooperation on Landscape Analysis and Data
WISE Women Investigating Sciences and Environment (Univ. of Nebraska)
WLA William Lettis and Associates, Inc.
WLIA Wisconsin Land Information Society
wlk wie?ka = large, great
WLS Weighted least squares
WLU World Land-use Survey
WMATA Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority
WMC Western Mapping Center (USGS)
WMD Water management district
WME Window to My Environment (US EPA)
.WMF Windows Metafile Format
WML Wireless markup language
WMO World Meteorological Organization; Wilkinson Microwave Anistropy Probe
WMP World Mapping Project
WMS Washington (D.C.) Map Society; Web Map Server; Web Map Service (Open GIS Consortium); Work Management System; World Mapping System; World Market Strategies Ltd.
Wn Wiesen = Meadows
WNRO GPS Week Number Roll Over
WNW West northwest
WO Welsh Office
WOM Web Object Management
WORM Write Once, Read Many
WP Word processor
WPCF Water Pollution Control Federation
.WPG WordPerfect Graphic format
WPU Wilayah Pembangunan Utama
WQM Water quality monitor
WR Water Resources; Western Region
WRAP Western Regional Applications Program (NASA)
WRCB Water Resources Control Board
WRD Water Resources Div. (USGS); Water Resources Dept.
WRI Water Resources Investigations (USGS)
WRIDS Wildland Resources Information Display System
WRIP Water Resources Information Project (Ontario)
WRIR Water Resources Investigation Report
WRIS Wildland Resources Information System
WRRI Water Resources Research Inst.
WRS World Reference System (Landsat)
WRSIC Water Resources Scientific Information Center
ws wie? = village
WS Work station
WSC Water Survey of Canada
WSDOT Washington State Dept. of Transportation
WSG Wine Specialty Group (Assn. of American Geographers)
WSGS Wyoming State Geological Survey
WSLD Western Samoa Lands and Survey Dept.
WSLS Wisconsin Society of Land Surveyors
WSM Widener Surveying and Mapping (Firm)
WSP Water-supply Paper
WSPS Western Society of Professional Surveyors
WSRN Washington State Reference Network
WSU Washington State Univ.
WSUCSC Washington State Univ. Computing Service Center
WSW West southwest
W.T. Water tank; Washington Territory
WTCD Deltaic watercourse
WT&H Woodward, Tiernan & Hale
WTUSM Wuhan Technical University of Surveying and Mapping
WV West Virginia
W. Va West Virginia
WVALS West Virginia Assn. of Land Surveyors
WVGES West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey
WVS World Vector Shoreline (USDMA)
WVS+ World Vector Shoreline Plus
WVSPLUS World Vector Shoreline Plus
WW Water works
WWW World Wide Web
WY Wyoming
Wyo. Wyoming
WYSDOT Washington State Dept. of Transportation
WYSIWYG What you see is what you get
W3C World Wide Web Consortium

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XDS eXternal Data Source
XMI XML Metadata Interchange
XML eXtensible Markup Language
XWD X-Window screen dump
XMP Extensible Metadata Platform (format)
Yd Yard
YK Yukon
Y2K Year 2000 (problem)
ZCTA ZipCode Tabulation Area (US Census Bureau)
Z.F.B. Zucker Fabrik = Sugar factory
ZGI Zentrales Geologisches Institut (German Democratic Republic)
Zgl Ziegelei = Brickyard
ZGS Zambia Geological Survey Dept.
ZIMAS Zoning Information and Map Access System (Los Angeles, Calif.)
ZLI Zia Landform Images
ZMA Zone Map Automation (Los Angeles, Calif.)
ZPS ZEH plotting software
ZRC Znanstvenoraziskovalni Center (Slovenske Akademije Znanosti in Umetnosti)
ZS Zambia Survey Dept.
ZSE Zaenkert Surveying Essentials (Firm)
ZTS Zoom Transfer Scope

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3D Three-dimensional
3DEP 3D Elevation Program (USGS)


Other Sources



The compilers wish to thank Bryon D.H. Ellingson for the approximately 1,100 names we were allowed to incorporate into this dictionary from his unpublished Acronyms & Abbreviations (6th ed., 1995), and for contributions by Chris Bledsoe, Richard A. Buggelli, John Creaser, Peter De Vincentis, Alice Drew, Rodney Evans Garrett, Ryan Goodpasture, Cristina Gouveia, Linda Grover, Peter Grueschow, Jim Guthrie, Greg Hajic, Alex Irving, David Irving, Ron Jones, Khaleel Khan, Doug Kibbe, Bob Kilmer, Mark Leitzell, Rick Lorenz, Mike Molloy, Philip Mulholland, Kevin J. Newland, Mike Oimoen, Uriel Perez, Abram Pointet, Beverly Ryan, Steve Scamp, Rich Soares, Joan Steber, J Steele, Cristina P. Tanzi, Zoltan Vekerdy, David R.W. Wadsworth, Bob Ware, M.G. Quill Williams and Alberta Wood.   NASA-Ames Research Center Technology Applications Branch's Acronyms Reference Guide (1981) was an invaluable source.

This list contains 4,802 entries.



Abbreviations A-K