Building the Libraries at Berkeley

Introduction / History
Chronology of Library Facilities Projects
Doe/Moffitt Seismic Construction Phase I Phase III
Phase II Phase IV

Introduction/ History
In 1869, one-thousand and thirty-six books at the College of California in Oakland were donated to serve as UC Berkeley's first library. Since 1873 when this collection was moved to Berkeley, the UCB Libraries have grown to their present size approaching 9 million volumes, operating over 46 service units and served by a library staff of over three hundred.

Building the Library has been a continuous process throughout the 118 years since its inception. The growth and change of the Library reflects that of the campus as a whole -- as the size of the student body and number of academic departments has incre ased, so have the collections of books, manuscripts, periodicals, photographs and recordings. In recent years microfiche, online catalogs, CD-Rom and full-text online databases have made new demands on users, librarians and the library buildings. Polici es, practices and technology have all contributed to a continuing evolution that has brought Berkeley to its present status as one of the major libraries in the nation.

Throughout the process, there have been milestone changes in the physical spaces occupied by the libraries. With the construction of Bacon Hall in 1885 to serve as the University Library and Art Museum, the Library had its first building. In 1908, the cornerstone of Doe Library was laid and the dedication was held in March of 1912. Only five years later, two more floors were added to the building and in 1927 additional stacks were completed. The first branch library, for Education, was opened in Havil and Hall in 1924 to be followed by 17 more branch libraries. During the late 1940's, Doe Library was expanded to the East with the addition of the Annex. The Moffitt Undergraduate Library was completed in 1970, the last major library construction proj ect until the four-phase seismic upgrade which is now underway.

Seismic Upgrade of the Doe and Moffitt Libraries
Two independent seismic reviews of UC buildings were undertaken in the 1970's. Each identified the Doe and Moffitt Libraries as in need of upgrade to help ensure the safety of library patrons, staff and collections. In 1981, the consulting firm of Kaplin, McLaughlin and Diaz made several proposals about how to improve seismic safety of the libraries. One of their suggestions -- to build an underground stack -- formed the basis of a plan to bring the Doe and Moffitt buildings up to current seismic standard s. The upgrade is being implemented in four phases, with funding provided by the State of California. As of Fall 1996, Phase I was completed; Phase II was completed in January 1998; Phase III was completed Fall 1999; Phase IV construction is scheduled to begin fiscal year 2004-05.
Phase I: Moffitt seismic upgrade and construction of the Main Stacks

Phase I of the seismic correction was two-fold: 1) upgrades to the Moffitt Library building, and 2) construction of an underground Main Stacks. These projects were completed in 1992 and 1994, respectively.

The Moffitt Library seismic upgrade involved adding seismic shear walls at the four corners of the building. These shear walls created new corner spaces which the Library now uses as group study areas and training facilities for students. Based on the Campus Long Range Development & Master Plan mandate to turn Campanile Way into a pedestrian walkway, the Library relocated its loading dock, shipping/receiving and support functions to Moffitt Library's 2nd floor.

Doe Library renovations in Phase I focused on the construction of a new underground stack designed to accommodate the growth of library collections and related services until the year 2006 (ten years after project completion.) The underground Main Stac k is 143,000 assignable square feet, providing 454 reader spaces and 1.9 million volumes. To maximize the number of books housed on campus, rather than at the off-campus Northern Regional Library Facility, the Main Stacks utilize a mix of compact and fix ed library shelving. Two-thirds of its collection is housed on compact, movable shelving, with the balance housed on fixed shelving. If necessary in the future, the fixed shelving can be replaced with compact shelving to further increase the on-campus sto rage capacity of the Main Stacks.

Other modifications to the buildings and the adjacent glade were required by the Phase I plan including removal of six World War II temporary buildings located north of Doe Library and West of Evans Hall; rerouting University Drive to the north creatin g the new Memorial glade; rerouting some campus utilities and reconfiguring Room 190 of Doe Library to create an Information/Reference Room gateway to the new underground Main Stacks.

The State provided $31,400,000 for building construction, with an additional $6,000,000 for these additional modifications to the Library's surroundings.
Phase II: Demolition of old Doe Stacks and seismic upgrade of the Doe building core
Beginning in October/November 1996, Phase II of The Library's seismic upgrade began. This project has a target for completion in early 1998. The goal of Phase II is to bring the seismic rating of Doe Library from "poor" to "good" and to meet all regulatio ns of the State Fire Marshall. Phase II will be accomplished in steps, as follows:

  1. reroute utilites to allow for subsequent work;
  2. demolish old book stacks in the Doe core (a step made possible by the completion of Phase I and the subsequent move of all books to the underground Main Stacks);
  3. excavate the Doe core area to the level of the existing Doe basement; build new foundation footings and pour a new concrete slab;
  4. build new shear walls in Doe core in accordance with current seismic requirements. (These new shear walls will both improve the seismic strength of Doe Library, and serve as the base for future seismic strengthening of the historic North Reading Roo m);
  5. strengthen existing column-to-beam connections throughout Doe Library.
Phase III: Seismic upgrade to the historic north rooms of Doe Library -- H.A.S. Reading Room and Reference Annex; the Morrison Library and the Information Center.
Phase III, funded by State Proposition 203 in 1995, began in June 1997 and was completed in Fall 1999. Phase III work focused on the seismic upgrade to the "historic North Reading Room" of Doe Library. Working with an historic preservationist, plans were made to seismically improve the building without destroying any of its historic and architectural details. The architects and structural engineers designed new shear walls and roof trusses (sky braces) that are undetectable and in unseen attic spaces and wall plenum areas within the North Reading Room, the Morrison Library and the Information Center.

Note: The Phase III sky braces are connected into the new Doe core concrete shear walls built in Phase II.
Phase IV: Seismic upgrade to the Doe Annex
The goal of Phase IV is to seismically strengthen the Doe Annex, primarily occupied by Bancroft Library and its rare book vault. Based upon preliminary structural studies, perimeter shear walls and internal bracing to all bookstack areas will be built. It is likely that the Doe Annex will have to be emptied in order to complete sesimic upgrades.  Beginning July 2002, architects will develop plans for Phase IV. Funding for construction and -- estimated at $20 million dollars -- will be sought from the State Legislature. Construction drawings will be developed during the fiscal year beginning July 2003, with construction to commence in fiscal year 2004/2005.

The Completed Project
Moffitt Library, Doe Library, Doe Annex and the underground Main Stacks will together constitute an integrated complex, upgraded to current seismic standards. As a result of the phased 14-year construction project, these buildings will protect the Univers ity's book collections valued at over $3 billion dollars, as well as its students, faculty, researchers and staff.

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