U.C. Berkeley Library Web
Guide to
Attic Grave Reliefs of the Late 5th and 4th Centuries B.C. =
Attische Grabreliefs des späten 5. und des 4. Jhs. v. Chr.

This database analyzes a collection of 2700 Attic grave reliefs of the late 5th and the 4th centuries B.C. A variety of data providing careful analyses for each monument includes: epigraphical information, analytical descriptions, where it was discovered, its current location and inventory number, the type of material used in its construction and its dimensions, images (3200 in total) and bibliography.

There are four ways to search the database. These choices appear in the square boxes on the left side of the screen. Simply click on the desired search method to begin. Predefined search is the default search that opens automatically.

Search Predefined

Tree of Subject Headings
String Global Search
Subject Unspecified

Searches are easily performed with the PREDEFINED SEARCH and yield much information

Sample search:
In the drop down menu box the categories include a search by:
Rubriken der Datenbanken - Database headings/Subject headings
Grabstelen nach Inv.Nr. - Funerary stele by inventory number
Grabstelen nach Spitznamen - Funerary stele by "nickname" (i.e.it's most recognizable name
which could be the name of the person honored by the stele, it's museum inventory number, or even it's IG inscription number)
Bildtypen:Figuren - Type of picture: figures Bildtypen:Komposition - Picture type: composition
Inscriftentext- Inscriptions
Fundorte (lateinische shrift) - Place of discovery (Latin form)
Fundorte (neugriechisch) - Place of discovery (Modern Greek form)
Grabbezirke: Bezeichnung- Funerary district or region: name of burial plot
Grabbezirke: laufende Nummer - -Funerary district or region: Burial plot number: current number
Literatur: Corpora und Referenzwerke -
Literature: Corpora and reference works
Photos (Negative) -

The following example demonstrates the pattern for searching the database.  Although this search is representative of the database's capabilities, it is in no way its limit.

1. To begin simply select a category in the drop down menu box at the top left.
2. Enter a word to search in the small box on the right and click on "start."

For example, if you want to find information and a picture of the stele cited by its standard CAT (Classical Attic Tombstones) number: CAT 1.855

1. Select "Literatur: Corpora und Referenzwerke" and type in "CAT" and click "start" (Note: This database is extremely case sensitive; typing cat will not work!)
2. A list of possibilities appears; click on either "CAT" or "Clairmont, CAT"
3. In the top window is the bibliographic description of that work and the lower window breaks that data info fields. 
4. Click on "Children" to see a list of the individual entries. You can scroll down to 1.855 or simply type in "1.855" in the "Go to" box and "Enter."
5. Double-click on CAT 1.855 in the lower window.
6. In the lower window of the next screen you will see what the database uses as a key entry point, the stele's "Spitznamen": Aristion von Ephesos.
7. Click on that link in the lower window and the full information will open.

(Note: If you had known the stele's Spitzname (its common or "nickname") you could have just chosen to search for that in step 1 by choosing "Grabstelen nach Spitznamen" as your search in step 1.)

The information that appears in the top window is as follows:

Naiskos: Aristion von Ephesos [i.e. Naiskos-the type of stele]
(Athen, Nat.Mus. Inv.Nr. 4487) [i.e. Current location and Inventory No.]
Dat.: 360/30 (Feinchronologie) [i.e. Datum or date: 360-330BC]
FO: Athen: Kerameikos (Grabungsareal) Bereich zwischen Heiliger Straße und Südlicher Gräberstraße
[i.e.= Fundorte = place of discovery: Athens in the Kerameikos, (excavation site), Area between the Sacred Way and the Southern Grave Road]
Bez.: Aristion [i.e. Bezeichnung = Subject description: Aristion]
Lit.: Conze, Nr. 1035[i.e. Literatur = Bibliography: A. Conze's Die attischen
Grabreliefs, (1922), Nr. 1035] Conze, Taf. 207 [i.e Tafel=Plate #207 in Conze's Attischen Grabreliefs]
CAT 1.855 [i.e. C. W. Clairmont's Classical Attic Tombstones (1993), vol. 1 #855]
Demos und Thanatos, Naiskos Nr. 337 [i.e. J. Bergemann's Demos und Thanatos, (1997), # 337]
IG II³ 8507 [i.e. Inscriptiones Graecae Vol. 2, 3rd ed, # 8507]

In the tab menu, there are several menu options:

Images = the default. Cf. special image instructions later in this guide.
Naiskos = a type of tombstone
Inschrift = Inscription
Abbildungen = Pictures of the monument
Literatur = Bibliography on the monument
Bestimmungen = Description
Parents (hierarchy) = higher levels of the analysis of the item
Children (hierarchy)  = lower levels of the analysis of the item

(Note:  Menu choices do not appear if there is no pertinent data for a
particular monument. On some Macs these choices only display as a dash.)

-Click on "Naiskos"
In the lower window appears some of the same information as above, but there are also some additional information and/or links:

AO: Athens, Nat. Mus. [i.e. current location: Athens, National Museum]
Ivr.Nr.: 4487 [i.e. Inventory number: 4487]
Bezeichnung: Aristion von Ephesos [i.e. subject description: Aristion von Ephesos]
FO: Athen, Kerameikos (Grabungsareal), Berich zwischen Heiliger Strasse ... [i.e. Fund Orte = location found: Athens, Kerameikos (excavation area), area between Sacred Way ...]
Grabbezirk: A22: Aristion  [i.e. Funerary district or family plot: A22: Aristion. Numbering from J. Bergemann's Demos und Thanatos (1997) as set up by R. Garland in The Annual of the British School at Athens 77(1982) pp.125-76 which has maps.]
Nekropole: Athen, Heilige Strasse [i.e. Cemetery: Athens. Sacred Way]
Stelen-Typ: Naiskoi über 1,5 m ursprüngliche Höhe [i.e. Stele type: The naiskos was originally about 1.5 meters high]
Architektur: Horizontale Sima als Abschluß
Anten mit Profilkapitellen [i.e. Architectural description of the monument: Horizontal sima; antae with
profile capitals]
Fig. Beiwerk: Sirene Haar raufend, Brust schlagend [i.e. Figure Details: Siren pulling Hair, hand on chest]
Material: Pentelisch [i.e. Material: Pentelic marble]
Höhe: 1,50 [i.e. Height: 1.50 meters]
Breite: 0,49-0,47 [i.e Width: .49-.47 meters]
Figurenzahl: Zwei Figuren [i.e. Number of Figures: Two Figures]
Komposition: Mann Stehend, Diener (pais) stehend [i.e. Composition: A standing male and a standing
Generationen: Eine Generation [i.e. How many family generations are included: One Generation]

-Next, click on Inschrift (Inscription) in the drop down menu box. Information regarding the inscription is listed.

Text:  AΡIΣTIΩN <αρι>ΣTΩNOΣ EΦEΣIOΣ  [i.e. Aristion from Ephesos son of (Ari)ston]
Anbringung: Epistyl [i.e. Location of inscription: on the Epistyle (architrave)]
Abfolge: Einzige Nameninscrift [i.e. Sequence: A single name inscription]
Generationen: Eine Generation [i.e. Generations: One generation]
Soziales: Metoken Ephesos [i.e. Social Group, ethnicity, class of citizenship: Metoi, Sklaven,
Ephesos, etc.]

-In the tab menu click on "Abildungen"
In the lower window appears a list (links) of the type of images available and their sources. As you mouse over each entry the picture appears in a pop-up window (if you have a pop-up block enabled,  this will not happen).

Gesamtansicht: Fittsch.-B. 1991 Film 58, 2 [i.e. Complete view: photographed by G. Fittschen-Badura in
1991, Film #58, frame 2]
Kopf, Profil: Fittsch.-B. 1991 Film 3, 2 [i.e. Profile view of the head: photographed by G. Fittschen-
Badura in 1991, Film #3, frame 2]
Inschrift, gesamt: Fittsch.-B. 1991 Film 3, 5 [i.e. Complete view of the inscription: photographed by G.
Fittschen-Badura in 1991, Film #3, frame 5]

- Click on "Literatur" in the tab menu
In the lower window appears the bibliography for the monument as explained previously, but now broken down into Arch. Lit. (i.e. archaeological citations) and Epigr. Lit. (epigraphical citations).

- Click on "Bestimmungen" in the tab menu
In the lower window appears miscellaneous information about the monument.

- Click on "Parents" in the tab menu
In the lower window appear the levels in the hierarchical structure of the database "above" this entry,
i.e. The entire Datenbank der attischen Grabreliefs... and then: The types of grave stele and then:
The specific type of stele, a naiskos

- Click on "Children" in the tab menu
In the lower window appear the levels in the hierarchical structure of the database "below" this entry, i.e. the figures on this particular Naiskos, in this case the figure of Aristion and a figure of a Diener (i.e. a servant)

There are also clickable links available in the entries that appear in the lower window.

Go back to the drop down menu box and select "Naiskos" again.
-In the lower window, go to Nekropole, and click on "Athen, Heilige Strasse" (note that it is in blue, which indicates that it is a clickable link. This brings up a list of the other stele in the database that were found
near the Sacred Way.

To return to the other possible clickable links in the Naiskos window, you will need to click on the phrase "Aristion von Ephesos" in Navigation (History), choose "Naiskos", then "Athen, Heilige Strasse".  For example, another clickable link is under "Komposition: Mann stehend, Diener (pais) stehend" which then leads you to a clickable list of other stele in the databases which depict a standing man and a servant/slave."

(Note: Unfortunately in this database there is no "back button;" Mac users may be able to force a back and forward browser button by clicking on "View" on the upper tool bar and then "Buttons.")   You'll need to click on the "Zuruck zu ..." phrase or click on the appropriate heading that appears in the "Navigation (History)" window to the center right of the screen.


This database has a wealth of images. There are two places images appear: in the lower data sheet window and in pop up boxes that appear as your cursor moves over appropriate entries. You can click on and enlarge the images in the lower data sheet windows, but not in the pop up boxes. For most images, there is a 'store' button located below the image. One can store images in the "Personal area" (window at the lower right of the screen) for comparison or to print at a later time.

-Click "store" under the picture
-In the box that pops up, enter any file name to name your personal area and "Start." (You only need to do this step once for each session) [i.e. Name des privaten Verzeichnisses = name of the private file]
-A prompt appears:
[Ist der Verzeichnisname korrekt? (bitte notieren) = Is the name correct? (please note)]
-If OK, click "start."
There is now an option to "only store" or "place in viewer." Place in "only store" if you want to print the images at full size. You can also compare the stored images from here.
-Click "only store"
-A new box pops up with a drop down menu that says "Neues Ergebnis" [i.e new result name]
-Click "only store"
-Choose a name for your image, such as AristionHead in the box that appears.
-Click "ok"


- Choose "Place in viewer" to compare images.
(Note: You cannot right click and print from this area, instead you must Ctrl + P, but only the small image as appears will print.
- Click on a space in the Personal area to insert the image. That image will remain open for viewing during your session.

To view stored images you can access them by clicking on the name of your collection of images in the Personal area - or - by selecting "Viewer for Image Databases" from the search method boxes on the far left side. Once
you have stored an image, if you click on the search title in the "lightbox" or "personal area" (as it is sometimes called) the image appears or you can click on "Viewer" and then click on the search title.


A complete listing of these subject headings is attached. This method provides one with the ability to find all monuments depicting particular iconography, or of a particular style, or type of material, and many other
characteristics. (Note: It appears that some of the classifications have not yet been assigned to any monuments, so you may end up with zero results.)

Go down the subject tree by clicking on the Crosses. To move backwards up the subject tree, click on the minus symbol before the heading. To choose all the entries for all the subheadings of a subject, click on [all sub].
Some subject terms offer a pre-determined list of appropriate sub-terms in a pull down box, which you reach by beginning to type an appropriate term.

For example, to find all the monuments that have a small dog depicted on them:

- From the first tier of subjects, click on "Ikonographie: Figuren und Attribute"
- then "Gegenstande und Tiere"
-then "Tiere
- then "Hund"

Since "Spitz" is the most likely classification click on "all subs" after that word, and you will get 95 results. In this case the entries are almost useless, often saying only "Figur." To examine those monuments, you will need to click on each of these entries to yield a top window that will identify the monument.

To get to the full information about it and the possibility of getting an image, now click on the upward "hierarchy" arrow in the bar separating the top and bottom windows or select the appropriate category you wish to view from the drop down box (as described in the section above about Predefined searches.)

For other searches the list may be more helpful. For example, a search for monuments that are not of marble (Grabstelen: allgemeine Angaben / Material / Stein / Kalkstein) provides a list of 22 entries with their "Spitznamen"
identification and the images of those are displayed in the lower window.)

STRING SEARCHING (= precise string)

Choose "Exact string," "Ignore capitals" or "Ignore capitals & accent" (note: you can disregard case sensitivity) and then type in your string.  Anything related to the search word will come up. For example, you could have begun your search for Aristion here by just typing in Aristion.


Words from all parts of the database that includes: subject, places, inventory numbers, authors, collection names, monuments, etc. can be entered in the box, taking care to capitalize correctly.  Again, you easily could have begun your search here by typing in " Aristion", but you would have had to carefully typed capital A because this
search is case sensitive!


Select the result sets and the operator to combine from the pull down menu boxes.
Type in a name for the new result set and then click on "combine".  E.g. You could do a Subject Tree Search for dogs and another for birds and find those monuments, which have depictions of both.


Click on "Result Export Print" in the left bar. Select your result set from the pull down menu and click on "Export (print)." (Note: This function does not yet appear to be operational.) You can also print one record at a time by typing Control-P. (Click first on the window you want to print!)

Prepared by:
Marnie Leist and Jean Susorney Wellington
University of Cincinnati, Classics Library
July 2003

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 Last updated 03/30/05. Server manager: Contact