Attic Grave Reliefs of the Late 5th and 4th Centuries B.C. =
Attische Grabreliefs des späten 5. und des 4. Jhs. v. Chr.
This database analyzes a collection of 2700 Attic grave reliefs
late 5th and the 4th centuries B.C. A variety of data providing careful
analyses for each monument includes: epigraphical information,
analytical descriptions, where it was discovered, its current location
and inventory number, the type of material used in its construction and
its dimensions, images (3200 in total) and bibliography.
There are four ways to search the database. These choices appear in
the square boxes on the left side of the screen. Simply click on the
desired search method to begin. Predefined search
is the default search that opens automatically.
Tree of Subject Headings
String Global Search
Searches are easily performed with the PREDEFINED SEARCH and
In the drop down menu box the categories include a search by:
Rubriken der Datenbanken - Database headings/Subject headings
Grabstelen nach Inv.Nr. -
Funerary stele by inventory number
Grabstelen nach Spitznamen - Funerary stele by "nickname" (i.e.it's
most recognizable name
which could be the name of the
honored by the stele, it's
museum inventory number, or even it's IG inscription number)
Bildtypen:Figuren - Type of picture: figures Bildtypen:Komposition -
Picture type: composition
Fundorte (lateinische shrift) - Place of discovery (Latin form)
Fundorte (neugriechisch) - Place of discovery (Modern Greek form)
Grabbezirke: Bezeichnung- Funerary district or region: name of
Grabbezirke: laufende Nummer - -Funerary district or region: Burial
plot number: current number
Literatur: Corpora und Referenzwerke -
Literature: Corpora and reference works
Photos (Negative) -
The following example demonstrates the pattern for searching the
database. Although this search is representative of the
database's capabilities, it is in no way its limit.
1. To begin simply select a category in the drop down menu box
2. Enter a word to search in the small box on the right and click on
For example, if you want to find information and a picture of
cited by its standard CAT (Classical Attic Tombstones) number: CAT
1. Select "Literatur: Corpora
Referenzwerke" and type in "CAT" and click "start" (Note: This database
is extremely case sensitive; typing cat will not work!)
2. A list of possibilities appears; click on either "CAT" or
3. In the top window is the bibliographic description of that work and
the lower window breaks that data info fields.
4. Click on "Children" to see a list of the individual entries. You can
scroll down to 1.855 or simply type in "1.855" in the "Go to" box and
5. Double-click on CAT 1.855 in the lower window.
6. In the lower window of the next screen you will see what the
database uses as a key entry point, the stele's "Spitznamen": Aristion
7. Click on that link in the lower window and the full information will
(Note: If you had known the
Spitzname (its common or "nickname") you could have just chosen to
search for that in step 1 by choosing "Grabstelen nach Spitznamen" as
your search in step 1.)
The information that appears in the top window is as follows:
Naiskos: Aristion von Ephesos
Naiskos-the type of stele]
(Athen, Nat.Mus. Inv.Nr. 4487) [i.e. Current location and Inventory
Dat.: 360/30 (Feinchronologie) [i.e. Datum or date: 360-330BC]
FO: Athen: Kerameikos (Grabungsareal) Bereich zwischen Heiliger
Straße und Südlicher Gräberstraße
[i.e.= Fundorte = place of discovery: Athens in the Kerameikos,
(excavation site), Area between the Sacred Way and the Southern Grave
Bez.: Aristion [i.e. Bezeichnung = Subject description: Aristion]
Lit.: Conze, Nr. 1035[i.e. Literatur = Bibliography: A. Conze's Die
Grabreliefs, (1922), Nr. 1035] Conze, Taf. 207 [i.e Tafel=Plate #207 in
Conze's Attischen Grabreliefs]
CAT 1.855 [i.e. C. W. Clairmont's Classical Attic Tombstones (1993),
vol. 1 #855]
Demos und Thanatos, Naiskos Nr. 337 [i.e. J. Bergemann's Demos und
Thanatos, (1997), # 337]
IG II³ 8507 [i.e. Inscriptiones Graecae Vol. 2, 3rd ed, # 8507]
In the tab menu, there are several menu options:
Images = the default. Cf.
instructions later in this guide.
Naiskos = a type of tombstone
Inschrift = Inscription
Abbildungen = Pictures of the monument
Literatur = Bibliography on the monument
Bestimmungen = Description
Parents (hierarchy) = higher levels of the analysis of the item
Children (hierarchy) = lower levels of the analysis of the item
(Note: Menu choices do not
if there is no pertinent data for a
particular monument. On some Macs these choices only display as a dash.)
-Click on "Naiskos"
In the lower window appears some of the same information as above, but
there are also some additional information and/or links:
AO: Athens, Nat. Mus. [i.e.
location: Athens, National Museum]
Ivr.Nr.: 4487 [i.e. Inventory number: 4487]
Bezeichnung: Aristion von Ephesos [i.e. subject description: Aristion
FO: Athen, Kerameikos (Grabungsareal), Berich zwischen Heiliger Strasse
... [i.e. Fund Orte = location found: Athens, Kerameikos (excavation
area), area between Sacred Way ...]
Grabbezirk: A22: Aristion [i.e. Funerary district or family plot:
A22: Aristion. Numbering from J. Bergemann's Demos und Thanatos (1997)
as set up by R. Garland in The Annual of the British School at Athens
77(1982) pp.125-76 which has maps.]
Nekropole: Athen, Heilige Strasse [i.e. Cemetery: Athens. Sacred Way]
Stelen-Typ: Naiskoi über 1,5 m ursprüngliche Höhe [i.e.
Stele type: The naiskos was originally about 1.5 meters high]
Architektur: Horizontale Sima als Abschluß
Anten mit Profilkapitellen [i.e. Architectural description of the
monument: Horizontal sima; antae with
Fig. Beiwerk: Sirene Haar raufend, Brust schlagend [i.e. Figure
Details: Siren pulling Hair, hand on chest]
Material: Pentelisch [i.e. Material: Pentelic marble]
Höhe: 1,50 [i.e. Height: 1.50 meters]
Breite: 0,49-0,47 [i.e Width: .49-.47 meters]
Figurenzahl: Zwei Figuren [i.e. Number of Figures: Two Figures]
Komposition: Mann Stehend, Diener (pais) stehend [i.e. Composition: A
standing male and a standing
Generationen: Eine Generation [i.e. How many family generations are
included: One Generation]
-Next, click on Inschrift (Inscription) in the drop down menu
Information regarding the inscription is listed.
Text: AΡIΣTIΩN <αρι>ΣTΩNOΣ EΦEΣIOΣ [i.e.
from Ephesos son of (Ari)ston]
Anbringung: Epistyl [i.e.
inscription: on the Epistyle (architrave)]
Abfolge: Einzige Nameninscrift [i.e. Sequence: A single name
Generationen: Eine Generation [i.e. Generations: One generation]
Soziales: Metoken Ephesos [i.e. Social Group, ethnicity, class of
citizenship: Metoi, Sklaven,
-In the tab menu click on "Abildungen"
In the lower window appears a list (links) of the type of images
available and their sources. As you mouse over each entry the picture
appears in a pop-up window (if you have a pop-up block enabled,
this will not happen).
Gesamtansicht: Fittsch.-B. 1991
58, 2 [i.e. Complete view: photographed by G. Fittschen-Badura in
1991, Film #58, frame 2]
Kopf, Profil: Fittsch.-B. 1991 Film 3, 2 [i.e. Profile view of
head: photographed by G. Fittschen-
Badura in 1991, Film #3, frame
Inschrift, gesamt: Fittsch.-B. 1991 Film 3, 5 [i.e. Complete
the inscription: photographed by G.
Fittschen-Badura in 1991, Film
- Click on "Literatur" in the tab menu
In the lower window appears the
bibliography for the monument as explained previously, but now broken
down into Arch. Lit. (i.e. archaeological citations) and Epigr. Lit.
- Click on "Bestimmungen" in the tab menu
In the lower window appears
miscellaneous information about the monument.
- Click on "Parents" in the tab menu
In the lower window appear the
in the hierarchical structure of the database "above" this entry,
i.e. The entire Datenbank der
Grabreliefs... and then: The types of grave stele and then:
The specific type of stele, a naiskos
- Click on "Children" in the tab menu
In the lower window appear the
in the hierarchical structure of the database "below" this entry, i.e.
the figures on this particular Naiskos, in this case the figure of
Aristion and a figure of a Diener (i.e. a servant)
There are also clickable links available in the entries that
the lower window.
Go back to the drop down menu box and select "Naiskos" again.
-In the lower window, go to Nekropole, and click on "Athen, Heilige
Strasse" (note that it is in blue, which indicates that it is a
clickable link. This brings up a list of the other stele in the
database that were found
near the Sacred Way.
To return to the other possible clickable links in the Naiskos
you will need to click on the phrase "Aristion von Ephesos" in
Navigation (History), choose "Naiskos", then "Athen, Heilige
Strasse". For example, another clickable link is under
"Komposition: Mann stehend, Diener (pais) stehend" which then leads you
to a clickable list of other stele in the databases which depict a
standing man and a servant/slave."
(Note: Unfortunately in this database there is no "back button;"
users may be able to force a back and forward browser button by
clicking on "View" on the upper tool bar and then
"Buttons.") You'll need to click on the "Zuruck zu ..."
phrase or click on the appropriate heading that appears in the
"Navigation (History)" window to the center right of the screen.
This database has a wealth of images. There are two places
appear: in the lower data sheet window and in pop up boxes that appear
as your cursor moves over appropriate entries. You can click on and
enlarge the images in the lower data sheet windows, but not in the pop
up boxes. For most images, there is a 'store' button located below the
image. One can store images in the "Personal area" (window at the lower
right of the screen) for comparison or to print at a later time.
-Click "store" under the picture
-In the box that pops up, enter any file name to name your personal
area and "Start." (You only need to do this step once for each session)
[i.e. Name des privaten Verzeichnisses = name of the private file]
-A prompt appears:
[Ist der Verzeichnisname korrekt? (bitte notieren) = Is the name
correct? (please note)]
-If OK, click "start."
There is now an option to "only store" or "place in viewer." Place in
"only store" if you want to print the images at full size. You can also
compare the stored images from here.
-Click "only store"
-A new box pops up with a drop down menu that says "Neues Ergebnis"
[i.e new result name]
-Click "only store"
-Choose a name for your image, such as AristionHead in the box that
- Choose "Place in viewer" to compare images.
(Note: You cannot right click and print from this area, instead you
must Ctrl + P, but only the small image as appears will print.
- Click on a space in the Personal area to insert the image. That image
will remain open for viewing during your session.
To view stored images you can access them by clicking on the
your collection of images in the Personal area - or - by selecting
"Viewer for Image Databases" from the search method boxes on the far
left side. Once
you have stored an image, if you click on the search title in the
"lightbox" or "personal area" (as it is sometimes called) the image
appears or you can click on "Viewer" and then click on the search title.
TREE OF SUBJECT HEADINGS
A complete listing of these subject headings is attached. This
provides one with the ability to find all monuments depicting
particular iconography, or of a particular style, or type of material,
and many other
characteristics. (Note: It appears that some of the classifications
have not yet been assigned to any monuments, so you may end up with
Go down the subject tree by clicking on the Crosses. To move
up the subject tree, click on the minus symbol before the heading. To
choose all the entries for all the subheadings of a subject, click on
Some subject terms offer a pre-determined list of appropriate sub-terms
in a pull down box, which you reach by beginning to type an appropriate
For example, to find all the monuments that have a small dog
- From the first tier of subjects, click on "Ikonographie:
- then "Gegenstande und Tiere"
- then "Hund"
Since "Spitz" is the most likely classification click on "all
after that word, and you will get 95 results. In this case the entries
are almost useless, often saying only "Figur." To examine those
monuments, you will need to click on each of these entries to yield a
top window that will identify the monument.
To get to the full information about it and the possibility of
an image, now click on the upward "hierarchy" arrow in the bar
separating the top and bottom windows or select the appropriate
category you wish to view from the drop down box (as described in the
section above about Predefined searches.)
For other searches the list may be more helpful. For example, a
for monuments that are not of marble (Grabstelen: allgemeine Angaben /
Material / Stein / Kalkstein) provides a list of 22 entries with their
identification and the images of those are displayed in the lower
STRING SEARCHING (= precise string)
Choose "Exact string," "Ignore capitals" or "Ignore capitals
accent" (note: you can disregard case sensitivity) and then type in
your string. Anything related to the search word will come up.
For example, you could have begun your search for Aristion here by just
typing in Aristion.
UNSPECIFIED SUBJECT SEARCHING
Words from all parts of the database that includes: subject,
inventory numbers, authors, collection names, monuments, etc. can be
entered in the box, taking care to capitalize correctly. Again,
you easily could have begun your search here by typing in " Aristion",
but you would have had to carefully typed capital A because this
search is case sensitive!
Select the result sets and the operator to combine from the pull
Type in a name for the new result set and then click on
"combine". E.g. You could do a Subject Tree Search for dogs and
another for birds and find those monuments, which have depictions of
PRINT / EXPORT
Click on "Result Export Print" in the left bar. Select your
from the pull down menu and click on "Export (print)." (Note: This
function does not yet appear to be operational.) You can also print one
record at a time by typing Control-P. (Click first on the window you
want to print!)
Marnie Leist and Jean Susorney Wellington
University of Cincinnati, Classics Library
© 2005 The Regents of the University of California. All
Last updated 03/30/05.
Server manager: Contact